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Efate, New Hebrides. 





2,6 Ml 


The following work gives, in the first place, a Dictionary of the 
language of Efate, New Hebrides, as accurate as I can make it 
after upwards of twenty-one years' constant study and use of the 
language in the performance of my duty as a missionary stationed 
on the island of Efate. But, as is noted in the introduction, a vast 
number of derivative words have, for the sake of brevity, not been 
inserted. In the second place, the dialectical variations of Efatese 
words are given in a considerable number of instances ; the cognate 
words in other languages of the Oceanic family are usually put 
within brackets, and are chosen purposely from its four great 
branches — the Papuan (or " Melanesian "), the Maori- Hawaiian (or 
" Polynesian "), the Malayan, and the Malagasy (or " Tagalan. "). 
These, which embrace the fundamental elements of Oceanic speech, 
have been found of great use in determining the radical meaning 
and original forms of words, and also, it may be remarked, in 
illustrating the homogeneity of the great insular family, properly 
called Oceanic, since it extends from Madagascar in the Indian 

Ocean to Easter Island in the Pacific, from the Hawaiian Islands 


11983' 2 


in the North Pacific to New Zealand in the South, and from 
Sumatra through the Eastern Archipelago and New Guinea to the 
New Hebrides and Fiji. In the third place, and usually after the 
bracket, are placed the Asiatic — i.e., the Semitic — words to which all 
the preceding Oceanic words are traced. Arabia, which borders on 
Oceania, has always been, and is to this day, the principal home of 
this, the most important family of Asiatic languages. 

For a short Efatese grammar the reader is referred to the work 
entitled " Three New Hebrides Languages: Efate, Eromanga, Santo ;" 
for short grammars of other New Hebrides languages, to that 
entitled " South Sea Studies ; " and for some general outline of 
Oceanic grammar, to that entitled " Oceania: Linguistic and Anthro- 
pological." Any remark on a particular point in the present work 
which differs from any similar remark that I had made in the 
works just named is to be regarded as correcting it. Even in the 
present work, as, e.g., in treating of the formative particles, many 
of the main elements of Oceanic grammar are dealt with ; in a work 
treating of the whole material of a language of a family so extremely 
analytic as the Oceanic, it could not well be otherwise. While fully 
convinced of the importance of grammar in comparative philology, 
I have for many years been equally convinced that, to establish the 
Asiatic origin of the Oceanic languages, the whole material of one 
Oceanic language must be dealt with, as in the present work. 

The work of Gibbon has been described as the splendid bridge 
from the old world to the new. The work presented to the public 
in this little volume is a bridge of an immensely wider span than 
Gibbon's, connecting two worlds less known than his, and throwing 


light, as I believe not otherwise obtainable, on both, especially on 
the newer — the world, so interesting to modern science, of the 
existing savage, which can be thoroughly known only through his 
language. This bridge, indeed, makes no pretension to " splendour," 
but, while perhaps more deeply sensible of its imperfections in 
details than anyone else can be, I trust it will be found to be in all 
substantial respects well and faithfully built, and durable even to 
indestructibility. However that may be, it is certain that the 
building of it has taken more than the twenty yeai-s which the build- 
ing of Gibbon's took. 

I may here explain that, as no Arabic or Ethiopic type are in the 
establishment where this work is printed, I have been reluctantly 
obliged to re-write all the Arabic and other Semitic words in Roman 
characters. For this reason I have not printed at all, as I originally 
intended, the second part of the Dictionary, or Asiatic-Oceanic. 
Whether the complete work, with proper type, will appear here- 
after will largely depend on the reception accorded to the present 


a., adjective, 
ad., adverb, 
art., article. 
c, with. 

c. art., with the article, 
eg., egg., cognate, cog- 

conj., conjunction. 

cf., compare. 

d., dd., dialect, dialects. 

d. syn. c. , dialect syn- 
onymous with. 

den., denominative. 
dcin.. demonstrative. 
der., derivation, 
i.q., the same as. 
inf., infinitive, 
inter., interrogative. 
inter j., interjection, 
imp., imperative, 
mid., middle voice, 
n. a., nomen actionis (in- 

n. ag., nomen agentis 
(active participle). 

n. p., nomen patientis 
(passive participle). 

nom. suf ., nominal suffix. 

num., numeral. 

opp., opposite, opposed. 

part., participle. 

pers. pron. , personal pro- 

pi., plural. 

pref. , preformative. 

pre]). , preposition. 

pro) i. , probably. 

pron., pronoun. 

ps. , passive. 

(j. v., which see. 
redup. , reduplicate. 
s., substantive. 
s.v., under the word 

(sub voce), 
sing., singular, 
syn. , synonymous, 
syn. c.. synonymous with, 
t. , transitive, 
v., verb. 

v. c.verb causative form, 
v. i. , verb intransitive, 
v. r., verb reflexive, or 

v. t. , verb transitive, 
verb, suf., verbal suffix, 
voc. , vocative. 

A., Arabic. 
Ainh. , Amharic. 
Am., Ambrym. 
An., Aneityum. 
Arm., Aramaic. 
Assy., Assyrian. 
Bu., Bugis. 
Ch., Chaldee. 
E., Ethiopic. 
E. Mai, East Mai. 
Ef., Efate. 
Er., Eromanga. 
Fi., Fiji. 
Fut., Futuna. 
H. , Hebrew. 
Ha., Hawaiian. 
Ja., Java. 
Ma., Maori. 
Mg. , Malagasy. 

Ml., Malekula. 
Ml. A., Malekula Aulua. 
Ml. P., Malekula Pang- 
Is umu. 
M 1. U.. Malekula Uripiv. 
Mod. A.. Modern Arabic. 
Mod. S. . Modern Syriac. 
My., Malay. 
Pa., Paama. 
S., Syriac. 
Sa. , Samoan. 
Soc. , Socotra. 
T., Tigre. 
Ta., Tanna. 
TaSa., Tangoan Santo. 
Tah., Tahiti. 
To., Tonga. 

Ct. , Catafago's Dic- 
tionary of Mod. A. 

Freytag, Freytag's Ara- 
bic Lexicon. 

Ges. , Gesenius's Dic- 
tionary of Hebrew. 

Nni., Newman's Dic- 
tionary of Mod. A. 

St. , Stoddart's Grammar 
of Mod. S. 

After an Arabic verb 1, 
2, 3, 4, 5, &c. , denote 
its different forms, and 
1), 2), 3), &c, its dif- 
ferent meanings. 

After a Hebrew verb 
Pi. denotes Piel, Pu. 
Pual, Hi. Hiphil, Ni. 


The Alphabet. — The Ef. alphabet used in this work differs from 
that used in the Ef. version of the New Testament only in the use 
of b instead of p. The letters are a, b (and b), e, f, g, i, k, 1, m, n, o, 
r, s, t, and u. The vowels a, e, i, o, u have the Italian sounds : i 
and u are also used sometimes for y and w, thus uo is pronounced 
wo, but i is very rarely used for y. B stands for both b and p, f 
for f and v, g for ng in sing, and k, 1, m, n, r, s, t are sounded as in 
English. In one dialect of Efatese h represents the s of the other 
dialects. In My. d* is nearly the same as d, ch is like ch in church, 
a like short e, and g is hard, as in give. In the New Hebrides 
languages, Fiji, and Samoan, g represents ng as in Ef. In Fi. 
c represents th, and in Malagasy o stands for u. The Samoan ' is a 
click, or half-expressed k, and the Hawaiian k stands for the t of 
the cognate dialects. Ef. au sounds like ow in now, and ai, or ei, 
like i in sigh, or ei in height. Ef. b is sometimes like b\v, some- 
times like kb: a more rare variation of m is m, or m, like mw, or 
gm. The alphabet of the Asiatic group of languages to which the 
Island group of languages is traced in this work is represented 
thus :— ' (Elif ), b, g, d, A. d, h, w (u, o), z, ]i, A. h', t, A. t', y (i), k, 1, 
m, n, s, ' ('ain), A. " («ain), p (f), s, A. s , li, r, s', th (t), A. t. Of 
these the ' represents a quiescent consonant, or spiritus lenis, like 
the h in hour ; b, b and sometimes bh or v ; g, g and gh ; d, d and 
dh ; w (u, o), w and v ; h, a guttural h, like hh ; t, a guttural t ; 
* is related to ' and to h; S represents ts ; k, a guttural k, some 


times confounded with ' ; s', sh. Of the Arabic letters d, h', f, ", 
and s', d is sounded like th in that, with ; s', somewhat like th in 
this ; and t' (an aspirated t, or th) is sometimes like a strongly- 
articulated palatal z (somewhat like s), sometimes like s' ; while h', 
and " are stronger guttural sounds than h and ', the former like ch 
in Scotch loch. The Arabic t is a grammatical ending, and is 
represented in Arabic by an h with two dots over it. In Mod. A. 
only when it is followed by another word is it pronounced t, other- 
wise it is a quiescent h. It should be noted that ' in the middle or 
at the end of words represents also an omitted letter or vowel 

Letter Changes. — The Ef. vowels u and o are frequently 
interchanged : in many words — as kori (kuri), bonoti (bunuti), loko 
(loku, luku) — it is equally correct to use either u or o. The vowel 
a is very often pronounced and written e, as in set, bet, the My. a. 
The short sounds of i and e are practically identical. The diph- 
thongs ai, or ei, and au, are sometimes contracted to e, or i, and o, 
or u. Generally when w (u) and y (i) come between two vowels 
they may be omitted in writing and pronunciation, thus mauora 
(mawora) or maora, uui (uwi) or ui, noai (na-uai, na-wai), and nai, 
ia (iya). The labials b, f, m, are thus often elided, being first 
changed into u (w), as in the examples given mauora is for mabora, 
noai for na-fai (d. ni fai), and uui for ufi or ubi. 

The labials are very frequently interchanged, as m to b or f, 
and vice vertsd, as munuti, bunuti ; mago, bago ; mai, bai, or bei, 
and be. B and f are constantly interchanged, especially when 
occurring at the beginning of verbs, thus ba fano go thou, i bano 
he went, bare, redup. barefare ; and bano to go, nafanoen the 
going. As already noted, m, b, and f are often changed to w (u), 
and then elided : at the end of a word preceded by the vowel a, 
they readily become w or u, thus baram, barab, baraf, barau are all 
Ef. forms of the same word ; and in the same position, preceded by 
the vowel u, they are apt to be simply elided, thus num, nuf, nubu, 


nu are all Ef. forms of the same word. B and b are interchanged, 
and also m and m : b (like 1>) readily changes into w (u, o), as 6ota 
ia, redup. botauota, and uotauota (vvotawota), mitotan, or nauotan, 
mauota (mawota) or nniota. 

G (ng). This sound in Ef. usually stands for k (see generally 
words beginning with g in the Dictionary) ; more rarely it stands 
for n, as in finaga and rag (ran), and still more rarely for m, as in 
sugi (sumi). G (ng) is not one of the original stock of Oceanic 

K. The Ef. k is sometimes elided, as in alia for kali a, usi for 
kusi, nosoafa and soafa for nakosoafa, nara for nakoro, buti for 
bakauti ; sometimes changed to g (ng), and sometimes interchanged 
with b, as bui na and kui na, bisi na and kihi na, makus and maris 
(cf. My. bawa and gawa, etc.) 

N. This letter is sometimes elided, as a for ani or an, ma for 
man, sometimes interchanged with g (ng) q.v., t, as ni ki, ti ki ; s, 
inuma, isuma ; 1 and r, nag, lag, rag, and nagusu, lausu. 

R. This letter is interchanged with 1, as rag and lag ; with t, as 
bald ta for bakira to them, and very commonly ta for ra in both the 
nom. and verb suf. 3 pi ; with s, as busi for muri, gusu na for gore 
na, and, s to r, muri na for mesau na. It is also sometimes elided, as 
eu for 6ru, u for ru. In one d. r is often pronounced tr, which in 
others is nr, t, and nd. 

L. See r and n. L and r in some Oceanic dialects are identical, 
and 1 is sometimes pronounced somewhat like d. 

T. See r and 1. This letter is sometimes in Ef. pronounced ts, 
as tsi ka for tika (also rika and nika), and is found changed to s, as 
sa for ta. 

S. See t, r, n. In one Ef. d. it is changed to h, as lateha 
for latesa, &c. 

Note. — The gutturals kh, hh, gh, in some of the New Hebrides 
sister dialects, have been lost from the Ef. The Oceanic inter- 
dialectical letter changes are in general so self-explaining and well 


known (My. and Ef. k, Mg. h; Fi. c (i.e., th), Ef. s, Ac.) as to 
require no treatment here. 

Letter Changes in the Asiatic Languages of which the 
Alphabet is Given Above. — The sounds represented by ', h, li, h', ' , 
and " , may have been all distinct from each other in the Semitic 
mother tongue, but the uniform tendency of the Semitic languages is, 
as they become developed analytically, to confound them all into one 
or two. Thus in Assy. ', h, li, ', and ", all became like ' (i.e., spiritus 
lenis), and even li' became either a mere spiritus lenis or k. So in 
Ef. these are all a mere ', or spmtus lenis, except h, and h', which 
are sometimes k. 

G, k, and k were not only sometimes interchanged with each 
other, but also with ', h ; and, as above remarked, k is sometimes 
treated in pronunciation as a mere ', or spiritus lenis. In Ef. they 
are usually represented by k, and sometimes elided (i.e., spiritus lenis). 

The labials b, w, m, p. These were interchanged with each 
other : b (or v) in Mod. S. has sometimes a sound varying fx*om w 
to v; in Assy, m and v are interchanged, in Himyaritic m and b 
(or v) ; in Assy, m was also sometimes changed to n and ng ; p is 
either p or f in H., in A. it is f ; b following a in Mod. S. is 
pronounced o, and f (or p) following a is pronounced au (i.e., ab or 
av becomes o, af or ap au). Compare the remarks on the Ef. labials 

N. This letter, especially when the first consonant of a verb, 
was often dropped. Accordingly in Ef., &c, such verbs are often 
without the initial n. It was also interchanged with 1, m, and y. 

R, 1. These are interchanged with each other, and with n : 
they are also sometimes elided ; 1 is interchanged with d, and r with 
the sibilants, as with z and s. Compare the Ef. above. 

Sibilants and Dkntals. — These were sometimes intei'changed 
with each other ; and see r, 1. They were also sometimes elided. 
See Ef. r, 1, t, s, above. 

See concluding remarks, injra. 


The Article. — The forms of the article illustrate some of the 
foregoing remarks on letter changes. Its common form in Ef. is na, 
ni, n', in Mg. ny, Sa. le, E. Mai. re, Meli and Ma. te. But in 
Ef. it not only occurs in some words with its consonant elided (A. 
al, hal, 1', H. ha) as a, 8, or 1, but also as la or 1' (or ra), as in lausu, 
lag (also rag, ran, nag), and Lifaru (also rafalu, libuis), lobu, laso na, 
lima, and rakum, rarua ; as ta, as in tanekabu (and nanekabu, see 
ate, infra), taliga ; and as s, as in suma (My. rumah). In such 
words the article has been prefixed in very early times (in lifaru 
certainly before the word left Arabia), and has come by later 
generations to be regarded as a part of the word. By looking up 
these words in the Dictionary it will be seen that they illustrate 
more than one of the above noted letter changes. The article is 
regularly prefixed to the abstract substantive that may be formed 
from every verb or adjective in the language by the ending an (ana, 
usually written en, ena) as nakasuana the being strong, strength, 
from kasua strong, nafamiena the act of eating, food, from bami to 
eat : in My. the article (or dem. particle) ka is thus used (Mg. ha). 
This ka or k' occurs in Ef. only as an " unconscious " article, and 
the former, F, r', or n', occurs in My. only as an unconscious article. 
Both of these articles were also prefixed to verbal nouns (substan- 
tives or adjectives) without the formative ending an, as in kalu;?a 
spider, lit. the sweller, or that which swells, kalau spider's web, lit. 
the woven, or that which is woven, kolofa bent (Fi. kalove), lit. the 
bent, that which is bent. To a word of this kind — with the 
unconscious article ka — the causative preformative was attached, 
and hence baka (see ba, c. pref., and baka, Mg. maha, infra). In 
■the same way — to words with the unconscious article iv (ng) — was 
prefixed the same c. pref. ma (in My. and Mg.), forming man, mana, 
mang, ic. Thus Mg. be is "great," habe greatness, lit. that which 
is great, mahabe to make great, but also manabe to make great (na, 
modern form ny, the article, and also used in the sense of a relative 
= ha = that which, &c. ) The r in My. bar (ber, be), the reflexive 


p reformative, is a form of the same article (Fi. ra, forming so called 
passives like ka) which in Ef. occurs as 1', n', and r', &c, and the 
prefixed ba or be, Mg. mi, Ef. bi, Sa. fe, is the real r. pref. : hence 
My. bar is equivalent to Mg. miha, the difference being that the 
former has the art. r, the latter the article ha. The fact that in 
Mg. maha is the causative and miha the reflexive preformative 
shows that there is nothing either reflexive or causative in the ha. 
But of course baka, man, «fcc, came to be regarded, when their origin 
was no longer remembered, as simple formatives. 

The Personal Pronouns and Numerals. — For these see two 
papers in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, on " The Asiatic 
Origin of the Oceanic Personal Pronouns" and "Oceanic Numerals" 

The Verb. — The Semitic verb had two bases, the one that of 
the perfect, being the " concrete " or participial, the other that of 
the imperfect (or " future "), with which was connected the im- 
perative and infinitive, being the " abstract " or verbal substantive. 
In the Oceanic languages the ancient inflexion of the perfect and 
imperfect has disappeared, its place being supplied by analytic 
substitutes. The Oceanic verb is really a participle, or verbal 
substantive used as a participle, and represents, or is, either the 
ancient participial base, as afa ia, afa ki, ba, laba or leba, and 
(passive) bura, tuk or toko, or the ancient infinitive base, as tao, 
taru (or toro), soko, saki, or a derived participle or infinitive of the 
ancient verb. The ancient participle (or verbal adjective) had two 
forms, the active and passive, and was sometimes used as a substan- 
tive; the ancient infinitive had numerous forms, each of which could be 
used either in an active or a passive sense, and was sometimes used 
as a participle or verbal adjective. Every adjective in Efatese is a 
verb when used with the verbal pronoun (the analytic substitute for 
the ancient inflexion of the perfect and imperfect), and every verb 
is an adjective when used without the verbal pronoun. The follow- 
ing are examples of verbs representing ancient participles and 


infinitives: — Active participle, mita; passive participle, mitela, barua, 
bau ; infinitive, roko (loku, luku), borau, mauri (moli). It will be 
observed that these examples involve both the Semitic modes of 
inflexion, by internal vowel change and by external addition. 

In the Semitic languages the simple verb usually had three 
radical letters, but a very large number of these were, or (became, 
always pronounced as having only two, and a good many were some- 
limes so pronounced, as those one of whose three letters was ', ', ", 
h, ll, h', k, w, y, and (initial) n. Generally, but not always, it is 
the briefest form of the ancient word that is found represented in 
Efatese. In some instances the three strong radicals of an ancient 
\ erb are still found in its Efatese representative, as in salube, sekof, 
serab, surut, sumat. The final n of an ancient verb is sometimes 
found elided in Efatese, as in asua, and m, b, or p (f) vocalized or 
elided, as already pointed out, as in nu (num), nu e a, ra (or ta), 
barau (barab), bolau (uolauj, sau, galau, balu-sa (and balu-saki). 

The " forms " of the Efatese verb, or derivative verb forms, are 
the causative, having the formative prefixes ba (or ma), and baka 
and sa ; the reflexive or reciprocal, having bi or fi ; the reflexive 
passive, having ta; the passive, having ma (mi, tfec): see the Diction- 
ary for these particles and words beginning with them. Among 
" forms " of the verb may also be placed the reduplicate forms, as 
when the whole verb is doubled, as magamaga ; when the initial 
syllable is doubled, as sasaio ; and when the final is doubled, as 
tafagka or tafakaka (or tafak'ka). Reduplication modifies the 
meaning of the verb in various ways, expressing intensity or repeti- 
tion of the act, and sometimes giving a diminutive sense. 

The Substantive. — From every verb, whether simple or deriva- 
tive, is or may be formed a verbal substantive by adding to it the 
formative suffix ana, or an (usually pronounced ena, or en), and 
prefixing the article na (ni, &c.) This formative suffix is common 
generally to all the Semitic and to all the Oceanic languages, form- 
ing infinitives or abstract verbal substantives denoting the action or 


state and various related ideas. In Efatese, when used without the 
article, this verbal substantive is used in a passive sense as a verbal 
adjective, thus barni to eat, nafamiena the eating, the act of eating, 
eating, food, and fainiena to be eaten, eatable, for eating, as nafinaga 
faniiena food to be eaten, eatable, or for eating. These, to save 
space, are not given, except in a few instances, in the Dictionary. 

A number of Efatese substantives analytically represent the n. 
ag., or active participle, of the simple form of the Semitic verb, as 
kali, from kili a, lita, or tlla, from tila ia, so sar', let, lofa, laga, 
luma, nife, ori, seru, slko, sll, tunu, soro, &,c. A number of Efatese 
verbs become substantives by prefixing the article, as mitela broken, 
i mitela it is broken, namitela that which is broken, a fragment, 
manaki to remain as a guest, namanaki a guest : see above on the 
article. In the same way, as already observed, some nouns were 
formed by prefixing ka, k' ; but no new substantives can thus 
be formed. On the other hand, a new substantive phrase can 
be similarly formed from every verb in the language by prefixing 
the particle te (for which see the Dictionary), as te fami what eats, 
■eater, te kili what digs, a digging thing or person. A number of 
Efatese substantives simply represent, or are, the ancient Semitic 
substantives, whether primitive, as fai or ai (water), afa or ab' 
(father), or derivative, as ate (liver), tua (leg), kuli (skin). A few 
Efatese verbs become substantives by suffixing a, as namisakia 
sickness, namatakua fear, namitiria a writing, namaietoa anger : this 
a represents the ancient abstract ending H. ah (for ath), A. a.t, Mod. 
A. a (or ah). 

The Adjective Endings. — The first of these to be noticed is a, 
as in sama, koa, sulia, lebaleba, lasoa, fitia, bulia, buna, oroa. This 
in Assy, is a (originally ai), Mod. S. a, E. i, awi, ai, A. iyy'. It was 
originally pronounced iya, or aya (Dillmann). Sometimes in Ef. it is 
i, as in tuai. Another a. ending is na, or 'na, as in barbarutena, 
bi&ilena, telatelana, sasana, rana, rarana, oraorana. This in Assy. 
is an', or en', Arm. ana, an, na, A. an'. These are found in the 


Oceanic languages generally. The former, a, is exceedingly common 
in the Maori-Hawaiian languages, and the latter in Malagasy. The 
so-called passives in Samoan, &c, formed by the ending a, are not 
passives but adjectives : sometimes in Samoan they are actives, and 
they always seem to be so in Futuna, and they sometimes turn a 
substantive into an adjective. The Efatese adjective tunitunia is 
formed from tuni (i.e., tu ni, tu, v., and ni, t. prep.) exactly after the 
manner of the so-called Maori-Hawaiian passives, which in a vast 
number of instances suffix the ending a to a verb having a transitive 
preposition. A third a. ending is ak, k, or ka, as in katak, kanoka 
(also syn. kanoa), sikai (and sikatika), Malagasy isaka, iraika. This 
in Assy, is ak', which may be the same as the Mahri ending k, which 
forms adjectives, as safaik healed, taimak thirsty, sebak full, hark 
hot, heberrek cold : this ending in Mahri formed also in earlier times 
verbal substantives. 

Other Endings. — The ending t (or th) in the Semitic languages 
is very common in Malagasy, and pronounced tra, which is often 
changed to ra. This occurs in all the Oceanic languages generally 
as in bate, 4, My. ampat, Mg. efatra, Sa. (elided) fa, and also in Sa. 
titu, Mg. fito, 7 ; and in Ef. fuata, barbaruta, lebalebara, fuluara, 
bulora, sikara, and (elided) in bau head, for batu (as the neighbour- 
ing dialects prove), also in batu, bate, buta. Sometimes the t. 
prepositions are found suffixed to the verb, as if they were a part of 
it, and have to be carefully distinguished from the formative endings 
above treated of. In bau, fitu, Hfaru, &c, we have also the ancient 
Semitic ending u. 

The Transitive Prepositions. — These are simply the preposi- 
tions coming immediately after, or suffixed to, the verb, connecting 
it with its object. The construction is exactly the same as in the 
Semitic languages, and the prepositions are identical, and occur in all 
the Oceanic languages, forming a marked feature of them. The verb 
with its t. prep, is construed as one word, and to it is or may be 
suffixed the substantive formative ending an, or ana, or the adiective 


ending a, or na. The three most frequently used preps, are bi, or fi, 
or mi (also ba, fa, ma), li, or ni, or ri (also la, na, ra), and ki (also 
ka). The two former are the most frequently used in all Semitic 
languages, and the latter very frequently used in Himyaritic (or 
Sabaean) and Amharic. The double t. preps, usually have the 
latter, as maki, faki, raki, naki, &c, but not always, for there occur 
also nusi, nus (as in bunusi and banus, My. panas), bisi (as in libisi ), 
noti or nuti (as in bonoti, munuti). In the Dictionary the t. prep, 
(or preps.) is usually given with the verb, see, e.g., under the words 
sili, v. t., and alialia, and the a which is often suffixed to the prep, is 
the verbal suffix pronoun, 3 person, see, e.g., under bamau ria (d. 
bamau sa). The na after many substantives in the Dictionary, see, 
e.g., under balu, is the nominal suffix pronoun, 3 person. Thus balu 
na denotes his brother, bamau ria to find him, her, or it, le-ka see 
him, le-baia see him, le k'baia see him, li-bisia see him ; these are all 
practically synonymous, but le-ka is lit. look to him, le-baia look 
upon him, le-k'baia look to — upon him, and li-bisia look upon him 
(the transitive prep, si being in this case without definite meaning 
and merely directing more emphatically to the object). 

Concluding R,emarks. — Taking the letters of the above-given 
Asiatic alphabet in their order, and, for the sake of brevity, taking 
them here only as they occur as the initial letters of the words 
compared in the Dictionary, we may observe the changes these letters 
have undergone from the time they left South-Western Asia till the 
present time when they are found in Oceania : — 

'. Always found as spiritus lenis, generally dropped, sometimes 
retained (i.e., its accompanying vowel retained). Number of words 

b. Nearly always b, rarely m. Number of words large. 

g. Nearly always k (or its variant g, i.e., ng), rarely elided. A 
good number of words. 

d. Nearly always t, very rarely r, rarely s, and still more 
rarely elided. A good many words. 


(I. Always t, except in one instance s (d. h). Very few words, 
h. Always spiritus lenis, and sometimes its accompanying 
■vowel elided. A good many words. 

w (u, o). Always retained only in its accompanying vowel (as 
•a for wa), and sometimes that vowel elided. A good many words. 

/.. Always s. A good many words. 

II. Nearly always spiritus lenis, but in a considerable pro- 
portion of instances k (or g), and rarely its accompanying vowel 
elided. Number of words large. 

ll'. Generally k (or g), sometimes spiritus lenis, very rarely its 
accompanying vowel elided. Not very many words. 

t. Generally t, rarely r, 1, or n. A good many words. 

t'. Always t. Words very few. 

y (i). Always l'etained only in its accompanying vowel, and 
that usually is elided. Not many words. 

k. Generally k (or g), rarely elided. Number of words large. 

1. Nearly always 1, rarely r, t, and (see the prep, ni) rarely n 
or elided. A good many words. 

m. Usually m, often b (or f), very rarely (through w, u) only 
its accompanying vowel retained. A very large number of words. 

n. Usually elided, n when retained as it sometimes is. Number 
of words large. 

s. Nearly always s, in one instance t, and in one instance n. 
Not many words. 

'. Always spiritus lenis, and retained only in its accompanying 
vowel, which is sometimes elided. Number of words large. 

". Always spiritus lenis, and as preceding letter. A good 
many words. 

p (f). Generally b, or f, rarely m, m, sometimes b. Number 
of words large. 

S. Generally t, or s, oftener the former, sometimes (rarely) r, 
or 1. See futum, busuf, and tiu, riu, tutu, lulu, luma, luba. 
Number of words larcje. 


S'. Generally t, sometimes 1, in one instance s, and very rarely 
r. A good many words. 

k. Nearly always k (or g), rarely spiritus lenis. Number of 
words large. 

r. Generally r, very often 1. Number of words large. 

s'. Nearly always s, rarely t, and more rarely 1, in one instance 
n. Number of words large. 

th, t. Usually t, sometimes n, rarely r, 1, or s. A good many 

Certain words and particles, owing to their very frequent use, 
undergo greater changes, as the pronouns, numerals, formative 
particles, and prepositions ; thus the Ancient Semitic interrogative 
and indefinite pron. ma (Sabaean ba) in Ef. occurs as ma, fa, and a, 
and the same word, m', used as a preformative in participles and 
infinitives in the Ancient Semitic, in Ef. occurs as m', b', and f, 
Mg. m', f, mp', My. m', b', and p' ; and see the preps, li (original 
form), ni, ri, i, &c, and with a, ani, an, a, and bi, fi, or mi, with 
dem. suffixed bai or bei. See also, above, the article, and the 
negative adverb in the Dictionary. 








l, verbal pron., I : d. ni, q.v. 
A, v., contraction of ani, q.v., to 

be, or dwell in. 
A, prep., contraction of ani, an, 
q.v. : sometimes e, or i, in, at, 
to, of. Used prefixed to nouns, 
as ataku, etaku, or itaku, at 
the back, behind ; and to the 
suffixed pronoun of the posses- 
sive, as agu my, ana his, dialect 
enea, or inea his, inu my. 
[The same contraction is found 
in Mg. ahy my, azy his, and in 
Sa. ana his. The Mg. a is 
contracted for any, an, and the 
Sa. is probably the same par- 
A, art., or dem., prefixed to cer- 
tain words, as to some nouns, 
pronouns, akamus ye, and pre- 
positions, ani of, aki or agi of ; 
and to verbs, nikam, d. agau, 
that which nips, or grasps. 
[Fi. a, an article, prefixed also 
to prepositions, as a nei, a kei, 
denoting the possessive case as 
in Efatese. The Fi. a is a 
form of the article na, and the 
Efate a, being the same as the 
Fi., must in that case be a 
form of the common article na 
(ni, ne, &c), q.v. Agi (a gi) 

of, in Efate in one dialect is 
nag or nagi (na gi) of, and 
akam, ye, in another dialect is 
nikam ye. The same article is 
found in Ma. and To. as a. In 
Fi. and Ef., prefixed to posses- 
sive prepositions, it has some- 
what of the force of a relative 
pronoun.] H. ha for hal ; A. 
al, sometimes hal, dem. art., 
used also sometimes as a rela- 
tive pronoun prefixed to verbs 
and prepositions: compare ha, 
according to F. Muller iden- 
tical with hal for al, the article, 
Arm. ha this, as an interjec- 
tion, lo ! H. he. 
A, interj., ! lo ! [Ha. a, Tah. 
a, lo ! o !] See under preced- 
ing word. 
Ab, s., d. voc, father. [Ma. pa, 
My. pa, pak, Mg. aba.] A. 
ab, H. ab, Ch. aba, father. 
Aba, v. See ofa. 
Abab, s., father. [Ma. papa, 
My. bapa, bapak, Mg. baba.J 
See ab. 
Abu, v., to heal, get well (a sore), 
d. au, id., d. mau, to get well, 
recover from sickness. [Sa. 
mafu, to heal up, Mg. miafa, 
to recover from sickness.] A. 
afa, 3, 4, restore to health. 


Abu, s., ashes, also afu, au. See 
following word. 

Abuobu, v. redupl., to be dusty, 
to fly in the air (dust), also 
afuafu, id.; naob dust, ashes, 
lime (ashes of coral), na, art., 
and ob, noba (nobwa), s., id., 
nobanoba, v., to be dusty, be- 
come dust, fly in the air (dust), 
tano afu, tano abu, tano au 
ashes; libu, v., to be ashy, 
ash-coloured, dirty, or covered 
with ashes, as in mourning for 
the dead, hence malibu, v., to 
be a mourner thus, especially 
for a deceased husband or wife, 
and hence malibu, s., a widow 
or widower, that is, one so 
mourning : libu, v., is also 
found (Bau d.) as lifu, lifu- 
lifu ; mafu, s., a thick vapour 
like dust; uncleanness (ritual). 
[Sa. efu, s., efuefu, s., dust, 
efu, v., to become dust, efu, 
a., reddish-brown, To. efoo, s., 
dust, ashes, efooia, a., dusty, 
covered with ashes, Sa. lefu, 
a., s., lefulefu, s., ashes, Ma. 
nehu, s., dust, nehunehu, a., 
dusky, whakanehu, v., reduce 
to powder, My. abu, s., Ja. 
awu, s., dust, ashes, My. dabu, 
labu, id., kalabu, v., a., ashy, 
ash-coloured, also klabu, Ja. 
kluwu, Mg. vovoka, s., dust, 
ashes, mamavoka, v., to dust, 
sprinkle with dust, mavo, a., 
brown, manavo, v., despise, 
blacken, sully, mavoana, a., 
unadhesive (applied to mortar), 
Fi. dravu, s., ashes, dravu- 
dravua, a., ashy, of the colour of 
asnes, poor, hence vakadravu- 
dravua-taka, v., to make poor.] 

[a FA I A 

A. haba (habu), v., rise, float- 
in the air (dust), become like 
dust, de carbone igne extincto, 
die, 4, raise or excite dust, 
habwa£ dust, colour of dust, 
Ct. habut dust, dust mixed 
with ashes, a thick vapour 
like dust, Nm. hebwa fine 
dust, powder, mutahabbi weak 
in sight. 

Abuera, and abura, s., d. for 

kabuer, q.v. 
Afa (ava), s., father, an afa his 

father. See ab, d. voc. afa. 

Afa, v., swim (man, or animal), 
d. of a. 

Afa ia, v. t., carry (him, or it), 
d. ofea. The flrst meaning 
seems not connected with the 
second, to a European, but a 
native connects them thus : a 
man afa natas swims or floats 
on the sea, the sea afa nata- 
mole bears or carries the man ; 
so a man afa ki nakasu swims 
holding a floating stick, but if 
he gets on to the stick and lets 
it float him ashore the stick is 
said to afa ia carry him. The 
sea or the stick carry him thus, 
hence afa, v. t., denotes carry a 
man on one's back, then to carry 
anything on the back : and as 
a man so carried clasps with 
his arms the carrier round the 
chest the head of an axe is 
said to afa its handle, and as 
one carrying a basket on his 
back holds the string of it 
over his shoulder, so a man 
drawing a log by a string 
thus over his shoulder is said 
to afa it, and a tug steamer is 


.said to afa or tow a ship. A 
dog afa a piece of meat, carry- 
ing it oft' firmly held by its 
teeth, and a man afa a pipe 
or a twig, i.e., carries it held 
by his teeth. A messenger 
afa, carries, his message, a 
horse its rider, and a warrior 
afa, carries, i.e., leads his 
troop ; also a person afa naro- 
gitesan bears a disease or in- 
firmity or trouble. (See bafa.) 

.Afafa, v. redupl., dd. ofaofa, 
ofafa. [My. apung, s., a float, 
ampung, a., buoyant, kambang, 
v., to float. Sa. opeope, to 
float, Epi mava, d. mia, to 
swim ; Sa. fafa, v., carry a 
person on the back, faafafa, s., 
a burden carried on the back, 
Mg. baby, a., carried on the 
back, niibaby, v., to carry on 
theback(as children and others 
are carried), Fi. vava, v., to 
carry on the back, va-ya, to 
make a bundle, as of sticks, to 
carry on the back, ps. vai, 
cf. bai a, fai a, infra.] A. 
'ama, swim (man), go (camel), 
2, dispose in sheaves or 
bundles : Nm. float, swim. 
'Ama< a bundle, a float, or raft, 
for carrying things across 
water. In this A. word there 
is the idea of connecting to- 
gether (as things in a bundle, 
ifcc.) Cf. the cognates under 
bau, mau, 4c, iv/ra, viz., 
'amma, &c. In afaia, carry 
him, as a floating stick carries 
a man in the water, or a horse 
carries him on land, the transi- 
tive preposition = bi (afai = 
'ama bi) gives the verb its 

[afis ia 

transitive force, make to swim, 
to go, i.e., carry. 

Afa ki, v. t., and ofa ki, to bury, 
Maka tafaki, pr. n., name <>f 
the person who buried the first 
men who died in the beginning 
of the world, according to 
native story. [Sa. ufi, v., cover, 
conceal, ps. ufitia, with instru- 
mental particle ufita'i, ufi, s., 
a cover, ufi, s., the yam, Efate 
ui, or uui (pronounced uwi), 
the yam, Mg. afina, vo'atina is 
concealed, miafina to conceal 
oneself, manafina to conceal, 
to bury, My. buni to conceal, 
concealed, mambuni to conceal, 
tarbuni, sambuni, &c. See bei, 
iv/ra.] A. "aba be concealed, 
2 to conceal, to bury, 5 be 
absent. See egg. s. v. bei, 
iv/ra. ' Ayab' roots (so called 
because buried in the ground 
or covered with earth), Sa. ufi, 
Ef. uwi, Ja., My. uwi, ubi, 
Mg. ovy (uvi) yams. 

Afaru na, s.,d. ofari, wing, wings. 
[Ero. evlok, Tidore filafila, 
Torres Islands perperi, wing, 
My. mibar, mabur, to fly with 
wings.] H. 'abar, Hi. to soar, 
mount upwards in flight, 'eber 
and 'evrah wing feather (with 
which birds soar). 

Af ia, v. t., to be near to, d. of 
ia, A. wahafa to approach, 
draw near to. 

Afin ia, v. t., afan ia, afen ia, 
also dd. 

Afis ia, and afit ia, to put or 
carry under the arm or arms, 
held between the arm and the 
side; to cover with its wings, 
as a bird its young, clasping 


between the wing and the side, 
and atini na, s., armpit, axilla, 
and d. afili na, id., also the 
groin. [My. kapet, mangapet, 
carry under the arm, Sa. afisi, 
carry under the arm.] A. 'Ibit', 
pi., abat' armpit, axilla, abt, 5, 
place, or carry under the arm, 
'ibat' what is put under the 
arm, anything put or clasped 
to the side. 

Afiti, s., a slave. This word oc- 
curs with the article as nafiti. 
[My. beta, Ja. patik, a slave.] 
H. 'ebed, Ch. 'abaci, a slave. 
See bati, v. 

Afo, s. See foga. 

Afuafu. See abuobu. 

Agau, d. nikam, s., a, or ni, 
art., and kam, or gau, nippers, 
tongs : from the verb kamu, 
q.v. [Fi. ai qamu, id., My. 
angkub forceps, nippers, pin- 
cers.] See kamu, kamut. 

Aga (anga), for anka, art., a., 
and prep, ka, literally that 
or the to, or that which to ; 
a particle prefixed to the nom. 
suf. pron., forming a poss. 
pron. Without the art. it 
is pronounced ka, q.v. See 
kagu, &c, for meaning. 

Agana, poss. pron., 3 sing.; aga, 
na. See kana, kakana, kan- 
ana, and for meaning and use 
see under kiana. 

Agama, poss. pron., 2 sing.; aga, 
ma. See kama. 

Agagu, poss. pron., 1 sing ; aga, 
gu. See kagu. 

Ag'gami, poss. pron., 1 pi., excl.; 
aga, gami. Kagaml. 

Agagita, poss. pron., 1 pi., incl. ; 
aga, gita. Kagita. 


Agamu, poss pron., 2 pi.; ag*, 
mu. Kamu. 

Agara, poss. pron , 3 pi. ; aga, 
ra. Kara. 

Agam, pron., 2 pi., you, ye ; dd. 
igam, nigami, nigkam (gk for 
g). akam, egii, art., a, or i, e, 
or ni, and the pers. pron. 2 
pers. pi. kam, gam, eami, 
which in one dialect, without 
the art., is kumu, in another 
is kami, q.v. 

Ag, pron., 2 sing., you, thou ; 
dd. nago, nlgo, nego; a, or na, 
ni, ne, art., and g, go (for k, 
ko). See k, ko, ku, ki. 

Agi, or aki, particle consisting of 
the art. a, and prep, gi (for ki, 
q.v.) to, of ; dd. nig', nag', 
nigi or nigki (ng for g), in 
which the art. is na or ni. Agi 
is often equivalent to ani, q.v., 
but not always : ani or ini 
sometimes means "of" nearly 
in the sense of " from," as 
rarua ini se 1 a canoe of (from) 
what place 1 which cannot be 
expressed by rarua agi so ? 
See the preps, ki and ni. Agi 
is often equivalent to the 
simple prep, gi, or ki, but 
sometimes it means the, the 
(thing), that which of, the 
art. having the force of a rela- 
tive pronoun. 

Agiegi, s., c. art. nagiegi, the 
air, breeze : lagi. 

Aginago, poss. pron., 2 sing., thy, 
of thee ; agi, nago. 

Aginai, poss. pron., 3 sing., his, 
her, of him ; agi, nai. 

Aginami, poss. pron., 1 pi. excl., 
our and theirs, of us aud them ; 
agi, nami. 


Aginara, poss. pron., 3 pi., their, 
of them ; agi, nara. 

Aginau, poss. pron., 1 sing., my, 

■ of me ; agi, nau. 

Agita, poss pron., a, prep., and 
nom. suf. gita ; a, gita. [Sa. 
a tatou, Mg. antsika.l 

Ago, pron., 2 sing, you, thou ; 
ag, nago. 

Agu, poss. pron., 1 sing., my ; 
a, gu. [Sa. a'u, Ma. aku, 
Mg. ahy, my.] 

Agumu, poss. pron., 2 pi., your; 
agi, kumu. 

Aheka, d., tasila, d. tasiga ; sila 

Ais, or eis, ad., here, d. ieta ; a, 
or e, or i, prep., and is, see sa, 
se, s, this, here ; d. esas, q.v. 
[Mg. aty, ety, ato eto, Ta. 
yesa. My., without prep., 
sini, sika, and with preps, 
di and ka, disini, kasini.] 
H. zeh, without prep., here, 
properly this, Ef. se, this, 
here, E. zeya here. Also H. 
bazeh, E. bazya, c. prep, ba, 
with which is to be compared 
Ha. ma in manei here, and 
also generally. The prep, a, 
e, or i was also similarly used. 
See examples of this under the 
word igin, infra. 

Ai, s., c. art. nai, water, d. for 
nifai, q.v. 

Aime, s., c. art. naime, a stream: 
preceding word, and me, q.v. 

Aka, a., d. koa, and koakoa, a., 
stringy, fibrous, as a yam 
when cooked (bad to eat) ; 
akoa na, or ako ana, root, its 
root, lit. and fig. ; aka, a rela- 
tive, family connection (con- 
sidered as root or off-shoot 


from), aka na, d. ek, ekana; 
in one place ek or eka denotes 
great grandfather, and great 
grandmother (which in another 
place is denoted by tai la, or 
tai, q.v.), in another place aka 
denotes mother (used by a 
child addressing its mother), 
d. iak (i, art.), mama; aka na, 
or uaka na (waka na) fissure, 
inside of fissure, as of the 
mouth, of a canoe (hold), of a 
bag or basket, or of anything ; 
kaka naniu the fibrous sub- 
stance like coarse cloth that 
grows round the top of the 
stem of the cocoanut tree 
(naniu) ; makaka, to be ragged 
or fissured, as cloth ; mako, or 
maka, offspring, in pr. nn. as 
mako naru, &c; taumako, the 
wild yam growing on the hills, 
so called becausekoa or fibrous. 
Koa has the a. ending a. [To. 
aca, Fi. waka, My. akar, Mg. 
faka, root, Ma. long and thin 
roots, akaaka fibrous roots, 
kaka a fibre or hair, a garment, 
a kind of net, Ha. aa niu = Ef. 
kaka naniu, also roots (small), 
offspring, a pocket, a bag, a 
coarse kind of cloth, Sa. aa 
fibres of a root, family connec- 
tion. Mg. kaky, ikaky (i art., 
cf. Ef. aka, iak) father, papa, 
Tab. aa root, sieve, &c, aaa the 
stringy substance in any kind 
of food or vegetable, native 
cloth that is not well worked.] 
A. ' alika, n.a. ' akak, to be 
split, fissured, ' akko, a fissure, 
' akika^' a bag (pera viatoi ia, 
Ha. aa), also like 'akiko and 
'ikka?', hairs of a foetus ; 


[A LI 

'awako, small shoots sprouting 
from the upper part of a palm, 
'ilvkano. shoots sprouting from 
the roots of palms and vines, 
'akka, 4, to send forth such 
shoots from the roots (palms 
or vines), cf. Mg. faka root, 
caus. verb mamaka to send 
forth roots, and My. akar roots 
of a plant, scandent plant, parts 
of a plant that climb. 

Akam, d. ; a, art., and kam, you ; 
pers. pron., 2 pi. See kumu. 

Akamus, preceding word, with 
dem. s suffixed, as it is in E. 
to pers. prons. 

Ake, interj. See ako, ako ri. 
[Mg. akay !] A, interj., and 
ke, q.v. 

Ake ri, interj., ake or aki and ri, 
as in ako ri. 

Aki, prep., i.q., agi, q.v. 

Akit, d., pron., 1 pi., inch, we 
and you. [My. kita, Tag. 
kita, Fut. akitea, An. akaija.] 
See nininta. 

Akoa na, or ako ana, s., root. 
See aka. 

Ako, interj. For ri, dem. par- 
ticle, used also as an expletive, 
and la, ad., see these words. 

Ako ri la, interj. 

Ako ri, interj. Ako expresses 
surprise, wonder, admiration, 
also mourning, commiseration. 
A, interj., and ko, q.v. 

Al, d., syn. with clo, d. ali, the 
sun. See ali. 

Alat ia, v. t. (and let, q.v.) to 
press together, nip as with 
scissors, or with the teeth, press 
between two ihings drawn to- 
gether, to press, urge, persist, 
be importunate with, to grasp. 

The final consonant is often 
dropped ; 

Ala, s., c. art. nala, a basket or 
purse the edges of whose 
mouth can be closed by being 
drawn or pressed together, 
women's carrying basket ; 

Alati, s., scissors, nippers, clip- 

Alaterabati, also alati bati ore, 
to gnash the teeth, lit., press 
the teeth together creaking. 
See bati and ore ; 

Ala goro ki, v. t., press, urge. 
See goro ; 

Alala, a., compressing. [Mg. 
lasitra, mandasitra to pinch.] 
H. Lalias to press, squeeze, 
'alas to urge, S. 'elas coegit, 
arctavit, A. laliis' angustus, 
arctus (drawn, pressed to- 

Alalu, i.q. elalo, q.v. See alo 

Alau, s. ; a, prep., and lau, sea ; 
also elau, d. ela, the sea, on 
the sea, seawards. [Malo a 
lau, Epi lau, My. laut, Ja. 
lahut, lot, Tag. dagat, Mar- 
shall Islands lojet, the sea, 
My. lauti, v., and malaut, v., 
to put to sea, be at sea in a 
boat or ship.] A. logg', and 
logga/!', or lojja^', middle and 
depth of the sea, ocean, lajja, 
or lagga, 8, the sea was wide 
and deep, or such a sea was 
sailed over, 2, he entered the 
vast and deep sea. 

Alekabu, c. art , talekabu, d. for 

Ali, s., c. art., nali, leaf, leaves : 

Ali, s., day (d. ali sun, d. ali 


light, see linaj. Sera ali, 
every day, toko ali, stay at 
home during the day, not going 
to work. Usually this word 
is doubled, as 

Aliati, s., day (for aliali). [An. 
adiatj. And 

Aliati, v., to day, to dawn, to 
lighten as the dawn. See al, 
alo, elo, the sun, also meta ni 
al, meta ni elo, the sun, lit., 
eye, i.e., source of day or light. 
[Mg. andro, Malo alo, My. 
ari, hari, Sa. la, Ma. ra, day ; 
Sa. la, Ma. ra, My. mata-ari, 
Mg. maso-andro, the sun.] A. 
nahar', daylight, day (from 
sunrise to sunset), H. nharah, 
light, daylight, S. nhar, A. 
niira, to shine, be light, 2, to 
dawn, lighten as the dawn. 

Al ia, v. t., for gal ia, or kal ia, 

Ali, and alia, s., place, part, alian, 
its place or part, d. male n, or 
mile n; luan, that place, there, 
for alia uan, li ban, d. lo bon, 
there (li for alia) ; mala, and 
malo, a place, a part, malo, 
time, i.e., a part of time, as 
malo ni aliati a part of the 
day, malo uan, that time, or 
that place, malo, trunk of the 
body, or of a tree, mala 
malala, an open place or plain, 
also the village dancing and 
public worship ground, mal- 
mal, redup., a small place or 
part ; malu, malumalu, to be 
bare, clear, as a piece of 
ground, to be bare, devoid of 
hair, as the face, malamala 
naked. [Fi. mala a part, Sa. 
malae the open space where 


public meetings are held, Tah. 
marae the sacred place formerly 
used for worship, marae, a., 
cleared, as a garden, or a place 
of worship, Ma. marae enclosed 
space in front of a house, a 
yard, maramara, a small 
piece.] A. 'ariya to be naked, 
'ara', 'ara', 'ara£', an open place, 
tract, part, mo'rai, and mo'ra//, 
naked part of the body not 
covered with clothing, H. 
•arah to be naked, 'arah a 
naked or bare place, ma'ar 
a naked space, void space, 
ma'arah a naked place, i.e., a 
plain or field devoid of trees, 
'A. mo'arrai, naked, bare. 

Aliali, v. i. (doubled), to delay, 
be slow, and taliali, id., in- 
tensive. [Of. Ha. alia, v., to 
wait.] A. ala (alu), and, 2, 
alia', and, 5, to delay, be slow. 

Alialia, v. i., or a., insane, to be 
insane ; connected with this is 
ululia inspired, possessed, or 
entered by a deity (natemate) 
or demon, and, therefore, as a 
matter of course, out of one's 
senses. Alialia is not used in 
some places where ululia (for 
uluuluia) is used in both 
senses ; this latter word is also 
pronounced luluia, and lulia. 
It is a reduplicate and has the 
a. ending ia, and literally 
means entered (i.e., by a 
spirit), possessed. [Sa. ului- 
tino enter the body, possess 
(as by an aitu), ulu to enter, 
and tino body, Ha. uluia and 
uluhia to be inspired, pos- 
sessed by a spirit,' ulu to 
have spiritual possession, 


good or bad, ulala insane, out 
of one's senses, Tab. uru to 
be inspired, uruhia inspired. 
This last word corresponds to 
Sa. ulufia, which simply means 
entered, being the passive of 
ulu to enter. Tah. taura a 
pretended prophet or some- 
one inspired by some god or 
goddess. Corresponding to Sa. 
ulu to enter is Mg. idi^ra to 
enter, and with this latter is 
connected the reduplicate ad- 
ala insane, senseless, a lunatic, 
a fool (cf. Ha. ulala). Ef. 
lala an idiot, senseless person, 
fool, may belong here also, and 
cf. Fi. lialia foolish, crazy, an 
idiot.] Ch. 'alal to enter, S., 
id., 'al he entered, imp., 'ul 
enter, A. "alia he entered. 
Note. — The A. is followed 
by prep, fi, the S. by b and also 1 
(A. li) : the first of these preps, 
is used in Mg. (amy), as in 
Jno. xiii. 27, Satan niditra 
ami?M/, entered into him ; and 
the second (any, sometimes 
contracted to an and a), as in 
Lu. xxii. 3, and often : in Sa. 
we have the first in the fi of 
ulufia, hi of Ha. uluhia, and 
the second in the i of ulu-i-tino 
and of Ha. uluia. This is 
the verb constantly used in S., 
Mg., and Sa., to denote the 
entering into a man of a spirit. 
The Ef. and Fi. use another 
and synonymous verb, Ef. sili 
to enter, Ei. curu, id., which is 
used also in A. to express this 
idea, and the first of the above 
preps, is sometimes used in all 
three languages, as in Lu. xxii. 

[alo n 

3, Ef . sili-ti, Ei. curu-mi, A. fi : 
for the A. verb corresponding 
to sili, curu, see sili, infra. 
In the three languages both 
verb and prep, exactly cor- 
respond, and express (that 
Satan) entered into (Judas). 

Alo, s., d., the sun. See ali. 

Alo-fi a, v., wave (with a circular 
and rolling motion) to him, 
beckon to by so waving the 
hand, or a branch of a tree ; 
alo, and prep, fi : bialo, v. r., 
wave often, or wave to each 
other, alo-alo wave repeatedly, 
talo go round, avoid, turn 
round, taloalo keep going round 
(as on a zigzag or crooked 
path), turn round. See next 

Alo n, or alu n, s., belly, abdo- 
men, the front, before, d. aP 
naru na, belly, i.e., palm (or 
front) of his hand ; reduplicate 
lalo n, or lalu n, id., elalo, be- 
fore (e prep., and lalo front), 
d. elol, in the belly, inside, 
an enclosure, d. loga. [Fi. 
yalova, Ml. P. oruvi, Ml. U. 
oluve, TaSa. lobe or love, Malo 
alovi, to beckon, To. taloo to 
beckon, Sa. alo to fan, talo to 
fan, to beckon, to wave a 
piece of tutuga over the dead, 
begging him to take calamities 
and diseases with him, alofi to 
sit in a circle, alofilima palm 
of hand [i.e., front or belly of 
hand), Sa. alo belly, under 
side, Ma. aro face, front, Ha. 
alo belly, face, Ma. arohi to 
look for, arohirohi to turn 
round and round, Ha. aloalo 
to turn this way and that, alo 


to elude, to oppose (face, 
front), to swim (wave hands), 
double (as a cape, i.e., go 
round).] H.'ul belly, abdomen, 
so called from its roundness, 
A. alo : the root is 'ul, and 'il, 
not used as a verb in H., and 
its primary notion is to roll, 
turn round, as is seen in its 
(derivatives and) cognates, as 
H. hul, gil, galal, 'agal, &c, 
and A. alia (awl, &c.) The 
meaning of Ef. elalo in front, 
before (e = in) is secondary, 
the radical meaning being in 
the belly, inside, and it is as 
opposed to etaku (e taku) 
behind, at the back (taku 
radically denoting back, as na 
taku natamole a man's back), 
that it has the former meaning. 
It should be noted that 
Gesenius points out that a 
secondary meaning of the root 
'ul is to be strong, powerful, 
whence, el, strong, God ; and 
that thence arises a third 
notion, that of pre-eminence (A. 
awila to go before, precede), 
whence H. 'ulam prop, front, 
then vestibule. 
Al' (naru) (for alo naru), d., 
palm (belly) of the hand. 
[Ml. P. aro, Malo lolo.] 

Alo ana, or aloa na, s., maternal 
uncle ; vocative (reduplicate) 
lolo (cf. abab, mama). [In Ef. 
dd. syn. auaua, bau. Malo 
taura (ta art.), maternal 
uncle.] A. h'alo maternal 
uncle. See next word. 

Aloara, a. ; alo, and a. ending 
ara or ra ; and 

Aloaloara, a., redupl., spotted, 

9 [amo-rua 

marked. [Sa. ilaila, a., 
spotted, marked, ila, s., a 
mother's mark, a mark in the 
skin, To. ila a mole or mark 
in the skin.] A. h'alo, pi. 
h'ilan, mole or mark in the 
skin, ah'yalo, a., having such 
marks in the skin, spotted, 

Alo-ti a, v., rub on (to) it ; alo, 
v., and prep. fi. See loa, and 
lo-h' a. A. hala, lialu, or halo,. 
rub, smear. 

Alikas, s., c. art. nfilikas, for na 
uli na kasu, leaf or leaves of 
trees. See uli, and kasu. 

Alser, s., c. art. nalser, dried or 
withered cocoanut leaves, so 
called because jagged : from 
nal for na uli, leaves, and sere, 

Alu na, s., for alo na, q.v. 

Ama, poss. pron., 2 sing., thy : a 
prep., and nom. suf. ma. [Sa. 
au, Mg. anao, thy.] 

Amau, a., true : in loamau, q.v.,. 
lo a thing, and amau, also 
mau, mori, mauri, true. H. 
amau. See mau. 

Amos ia, v., to carry on the 
shoulder, to bear, to carry. 
Often the final s is dropped ; 

Amo, v., to carry, to put a load 
on the shoulder ; and 

Amo-taki, d., id. ; and 

Amo-rua, am'rua (rua two), to 
carry two (burdens), one on 
each end of a stick (as a China- 
man carries two baskets) ; the 
word also occurs in tak'amo, 
d. takiamo to carry a burden 
on only one end of such a. 
stick ; and 


Amoarno, c. art. namoarao, s., 
a burden, lit., that which is 
carried. [Sa. amo, v., to carry 
on the shoulders, amoga, s., a 
burden, Ha. amo, to carry a 
burden on the shoulder, to 
carry.] H. 'amas, bear, carry, 
especially lift up a load and 
put it on a beast. 

.Amo, s., c. art. namo na, the 
lungs, but also 

Am' kanoa, the heart, and 

Am' insat, the lungs (see kanoa, 
in sat) ; and 

Am' molu, the spleen. [Fut. 
ama, Sa. mama, the lungs, To. 
mama, id., Ha. akemama, the 
lungs, from ake liver, and 
mama. In To., Sa., Fut., and 
Ha., mama (a reduplicate) 
means light, to be light (opp. 
of heavy), but this is not the 
stem to which the word mama 
denoting the lungs belongs, and 
does not occur at all in Ef., 
though the Ef. amo is mani- 
festly the same as Fut. ama, 
and Sa. (reduplicate) mama, 
the lungs. For analogues 
of akemama see under the 
word ate, the liver. In Ef. 
uateam', q.v., the kidneys, is 
ua ate am', lit., fruit of the 
liver (or inside) of the belly 
(am', the belly) : uateau (d. ua- 
teaf) is d. for uateam', and 
balau, q.v. (for balam'), the 
common Ef. for inside, is lit. 
the hollow of the am' (amo), 
i.e., belly. See following — 

Amo, s., c. art. namo, the soft 
forming kernel of a young 
cocoanut : so called like the 
internal parts of man or ani- 

10 [ana 

mal from the softness and 
smoothness : 

Amoamo, v. i., a., reduplicate, to 
be soft and smooth, as the 
forming kernel of a young 
cocoanut, or the intestines or 
viscera, or any smooth or pol- 
ished surface : d. momoa. [Sa. 
mania, a., clean (i.e., smooth), 
Tah. clean, not soiled or pol- 
luted, To. and Ma. ma clean, 
white.] A. ma'y', pi. am 'a' 
intestinum ; also, a level place 
between two rugged places 
(Ef. na momo, or na amo'mo, 
a smooth and level place 
between the rocks in a reef), 
ma'a, 4, to have dates ripe or 
ripening (a palm), ma'w' dates 
on the tree, ripe or growing 
ripe, ma'i soft, smooth {of food), 
ma"y' softness of skin, H. 
me'eh only in pi. me'im or 
m'ey intestines, the belly, then 
the bosom, heart : eg. is A. 
maha to gleam with whiteness, 
to gild, whence mahw' new 
soft dates. Gesenius gives the 
radical meaning as " flowing 
down, softness," see H. ma'ah. 

Amo'mo, or am'mo, c. art. nam- 
omo, or nam'mo ; see s. pre- 
ceding word : d. momo. 

Amorl. See mori. 

Amos ia, v. t., to rub, to rub in 
order to make smooth : mos ia, 
mus ia. A. wamasa to rub (a 
thing), to rub (a thing) that it 
may be smooth. 

Amu, poss. pron., 2 pi., your : 
a, prep., and nom. suf. mu. 

Ana, form of pers. pron., 3 sing., he, 
she, preserved in aneana: other 
forms nai, enea (inia), ga (nga). 


Ana, poss. pron., 3 sing., )u.s, her, 
its : a, prep., and na, nom. 
suf. [Sa una, id., Mg. azy, 
has the same prep, a, hut pre- 
fixed to the separate pron. like 
Ef. anai, d. inea, liis, her, its.] 

Anagagu, anagama, anagana, 
anagagita, anagami, anaganiu, 
anagara (or anagata), poss. 
prons., syn. c. agagu, agama, 
tfcc, q.v. 

Anaga, in these words, is the 
same as aga, in agagu, and 
anaga is related to aga as 
nagi or nig to agi, that is, the 
prefix to the prep, ga (or gi) is 
the art. with or without its n. 

Anai, poss. pron., 3 sing., his, 
her, its : a, prep., and nai. 

Anana, poss. pron., 3 sing., his, 
her, its, d. for aneana, q.v. 

AnSana, poss. pron., 3 sing., of 
him, his, her, its : ane or am, 
q.v., prep., and ana, a form of 
the pers. pron., 3 sing. 

Anekabu, c. art. nanekabu, d. 
for arekabu. 

Anekama, c. art. nanekama, d. 
for arekabu. 

Anekabu, c. art. tanekabu, d. 
for arekabu. 

Anena, d. for aneana. 

Anera, for aneara, often pro- 
nounced aneta, aneata, d. are- 
ara, poss. pron., 3 pi., of them, 
their; prep, ani, and ara, pers. 
pron., 3 pi. 

Aneta, d. for anera. 

Ani, prep., particle consisting of 
the art. a and prep, ni, q.v., 
and often used for the simple 
prep, ni, of, belonging to (geni- 
tive prep.), for (dative, rare, 
this is usually expressed by 

1 1 [ani 

magi, nag', or nig', q.v.) : 
generally synonymous with 
agi, q.v. for a difference. Some- 
times pronounced ini (eni), and 
contracted to a, in, i, or e, and 
having among other meanings 
that of "in"(cf. the contraction 
in English of i' for in, as " i' 
the forest," for "in the forest"), 
or "at," or " on," as etaku or 
itaku behind (at the back), 
elau or alau on the sea, also 
to the sea, seawards, as ba ki 
elau, go seawards, or to the 
sea, ki e being two preps, 
of similar meaning, the one 
strengthening the other (cf. 
My. akan, Mg. ho any, ho a). 

Anigami; d. syn. c. aginami ; 
poss. pron. 1 pi. excl., of us — 
them (of us and them) : ani, 
prep., and garni (for nami), 
pers. pron. 1 pi. excl. See 
nami, kinami. 

Anigita ; d. aninita, q.v. ; poss. 
pron. 1 pi. inch, of us — you 
(of us and you) : ani prep., 
and gita (for nlta). See 
ninita, nita. 

Animu ; d., syn. c. agumu ; 
poss. pron. 2 pi., of you, your : 
a, prep., and nimu (for 
nikamu), d. nikam, pers. pron. 
2 pi. 

Aninita, d. obsolete, syn. c. 
anigita : ani prep., and nita, 
pers. pron. 1 pi. incl. See 
ninita, nita. 

Ani, v., usually pronounced em, 
d. oni, contracted to an, en, a, 
o ; c. preformative m' or ma, 
it is man, ma, ban (and mban), 
ba, dd. bon, ben, bao, baon, 
maon ; to abide, to be, as i 




ani or i an sunia he abides or 
is at home (in the house), i 
man or i ma tafa he is on the 
hill, i man or i ma rarua it is 
in the ship or canoe, i ma or i 
an til ia, bat ia, he abides 
(continues) or is telling it, 
doing it. 

Note 1. — The verb an 
may be thus used before 
any verb, like toko (contracted 
to) to sit, dwell, be, with 
which it is nearly synonymous. 
But an tano lies or is on the 
ground, toko tano, or to atano 
sits on the ground, tu tano 
stands on the ground. Both 
tu and toko are used before 
other verbs like an, and toko 
til ia, tu til ia, like an til ia, 
denote to abide, continue, or 
be telling it. Another verb, 
tau, q.v., is used in the same 
way before other verbs, as i 
tau til ia, bat ia, he abides, or 
is constantly, habitually, or 
nddictedly, or repeatedly, tell- 
ing, doing it. These verbs 
thus used before other verbs 
are auxiliaries, not of tense, 
but of " form," expressing 
continuance, intensity, repeti- 
tion ; and as in the English 
phrases "I do say it," " I 
must say it" (where say is the 
simple infinitive after the 
auxiliaries do and must), the 
verb immediately following 
them is the infinitive. 

Note 2. — The preformative 
in', ma' (me, mi) is used with 
toko, tu, and tau, as well as with 
ani, an, as matoko(or mato), dd. 
batoko, fatoko (vatoko), matu, 

batu, fatu (vatu), mitau or 
metau : with this preformative 
these verbs have much the 
same meaning as without it ; 
they have the same meaning 
with the added idea of con- 
tinuance or intensity. [Mg. 
monina dwell, reside, inhabit, 
onenana, fonenana (a dwelling), 
mponina (dweller).] A., 4) 
"aniya, to dwell, abide, 8) to 
be, ma"na' dwelling, cf. H. 'un 
to rest, to dwell, ma'on a dwell- 
Ani na, c. art. nani na, s., child, 
son or daughter, dd. ati, atu. 
[My. anak, Mg. anaka, id., 
My. kanak (see kanao, kano, 
infra), Mg.zanaka, id., c. arts, 
k' and z'.] A. wald', walad', 
walid', E. walde, Amh. wande, 
T. wade, H. yalid, one born, 
child, son, from the verb H. 
yalad, A. walada, to bring 
forth, bear (a mother), to beget 
(a father), A. walid', parent, 
genitor, father, walida^' mother, 
genitrix (Nm. welid, welida, 
Ct. walid ah). My. baranak 
(Makassar, ma-ana), to bear a 
child, bring forth any offspring, 
have children, be a parent, Sa. 
fanau (cf. A., A) to bring forth, 
fananau, fanafanau, fanaua 
(ps.), fanau, s., offspring, chil- 
dren, fanauga, s., offspring, 

Note. — The word ani, or ati, 
atu, son or daughter, probably 
represents an original mascu 
line (and so that denoting 
father, A. walid, Ml. and Santo 
tata, voc, reduplicate, Santo d. 
tai, Mg. ray), but the word 


belonging to this stem do- 
noting mother, the ancient 
feminine (welida, walidah). 
This is in Ef. d. raite na, or 
reita na mother, d. ere na (for 
erana), Ta.iti, d. rih, Am. rahi, 
An. risi, Ml. risi, d. are, Epi d. 
la, Pa. lati, Fila leta, Celebes 
ley to: Ef. voc. tete (cf. abab, or 
mama) a reduplicate ; also be- 
long here Ef. atene na grand- 
mother, and cl. atia na, id., 
the vocative of which, a redu- 
plicate, is tata. In one dialect 
atia means also grandfather. 
In Epi mother, in one d. la, in 
another is kaine, i.e., ka art., 
and ine (for ina) mother, and 
this latter is the prevailing 
form of this word in the Malay 
Archipelago (see Wallace's list), 
Amboyna, Ceram, &c, ina, Mg. 
reny and ineny (reduplicate, 
voc. Ta. d. nana), Sa. tina ; the 
Sa. tina is t' art., and ina, 
Put. jina, Aniwa nana, Epi d., 
without art. ani, Mg. r-eny 
Celebes undo, Bu. indok, ina, 
My. ind-u, J. id-ung ; also 
Ysabel ido, San Cristoval ina, 
Motu tina. Mare nene, Duke of 
York na. 

Anoi, or anui, s., c. art. nanoi, 
or nanui, vir, husband, male : 
m has been elided from the 
beginning of this word as in 
noai, d. nai, d. nifai (nivai), 
q.v., water ; d. inane (mwane), 
ma'an (mo'an), male. See 

Anu, d., pers. pron. 1 sing., I- 
See kinau. 

Anu na, s. c. art., nanu na, his, 

13 [ao 

her, its shadow, i bi an' fur 
it is an empty appearance, 
mere shadow (worthless). 
[Epi ununo, Malo unu, Ml. d. 
nunu, id.] And 
An', s., a rope, c. art. nan'. 
These two meanings are also 
found in the A. A. 'anna, n. 
a. 'annu, 'ananu, 'ununu to 
present itself, to appear, 2, to 
hold with a rein ; 'anu a long 
rope, 'ananu and 'inanu ad- 
paritio rei, 'ananu clouds, H. 
'anan a cloud. 

Note. — The radical mean- 
ing of H. anan is to cover, 
and cognate are kanan and 
ganan ; A. j anna, or ganna, to 
cover, to be dark (of the 
night), to be possessed by a 
demon and insane, jinnu, or 
ginnu, darkness of night, also 
demons, spirits, or every kind 
of them (this is the jin of the 
"Arabian Nights "), bin a kind 
of demons, ginniyyu a demon 
or spirit, ganunu genii. In 
Ef., d., unu ghost, d. inini 
spirit, soul, Ml. P. oni, noni 
n, his soul, or his shadow, Epi 
d. anunu soul or spirit, Epi 
(Baki) unu, c. art. niunu soul 
or spirit, ununo shadow ; and 
Ml. oni, Malo unu, one's like- 
ness in water or in a looking 
glass. Ef. ate, q.v., denotes 
the soul, a spirit, one's 
shadow, and one's likeness in 
water or in a looking-glass. 
Ao (or au), v., d., to bark (as a 
dog). See bakau. [Sa. ou, 

Ao, ad., yes. [Ma. au.] See au. 


Ara, form of pers. pron. 3 pi., 
preserved in areara : other 
forms nara, nigara (gaia), 
enera, kiniara. 

Ara, s., a fence : c. art. nara, d. 
nar : see koro, c. art. nakoro, 
id. (ara has the initial k elided), 
Nar fat, d. for nakoro fatu, a 
stone fence. 

Ara ia, v. t., seek, ara ika search, 
look for fish, come seeking, 
ba ara go or come seeking, 
ti ara press after seeking. 
[Fi. qara, v. t., seek, qaqara, 
qaraqara, vakasaqara.] A. 
liala, 3, n. a. liawal', v. t., 

Araara, or arara, v., reduplicate 
of ara, to join to, join together, 
connect with, arara naui, 
attach the yam vines to stakes, 
arara nia connect it, arara ni 
ora naui ki nakau connect or 
attach the yam vine to the 
stake : arara ki nalo na agree 
to his voice (judgment, opinion, 
<fec), lit. join on to it, syn. 
sokari nalona : oraorana, q.v., 
variegated, belongs to this 
stem. H. habar, S. hbar, E. 
liabara, to join together, con- 
nect with; then, to agree with 
someone; then, to be banded, 
striped, variegated, A. liabara, 
ps. liubira to be striped, E. 
liubur coloured, variegated, 
adorned with various colours, 
Ch. habarbar spotted. Pri- 
mary meaning, bind together. 

Arara, s., heat, arara ni elo heat 
of the sun : see next word. 

Aran, or oran, d. arain, d. on, 
d. uen, s., c. art. naran, &c, 
sand. In on and uen (wen), 

U [ A ru 

the r is elided, the n of on, 
like that of mane (male), q.v., 
is non-radical. [Sa., Ma., 
Tah., To., Ha., one, and one- 
one sand ; oneonea (a, a. end- 
ing) sandy.] A. horr', or 
llorron, sand, from liarra to be 
hot, whence liarai'a£ heat, Ef. 
arara heat. 

Arai, d., dem. pron , this, that. 
For the final ai, see uai. [Ha- 
la, Ma. ra there, Fut. ra that, 
Mg. iroa that, there, ery, ary, 
there.] 8. hal, H. halah there, 
connected with the dem. H. 
hal, A. al, the art., Ch. alu, 
aru, Ch. and Talmud hare, 
are, dem., lo ! there ! Of 
this dem. syllable al, hal,. 
ar, har, Gesenius remarks — 
" It is hard to say which 
form is the more ancient and 
primitive;" it is seen also- 
in Arm. harka, halkah, here, 
H. elleh, &c., these, those, and 
in Ef. arog (d.), eri, erik, eru, 

Areara, d., for aneara, anera, q.v.* 
the prep, am, or ane, is are in 
this word. 

Arekabu na, s., c. art. narekabu,. 
the liver. See ate. 

Arifon, s., c. art. narifon, diviner, 
magician, A. 'arrafon a di- 
viner, from 'arafa to know, 
divine, 2, make known. 

Ari(a), v. t., to plane, scrape off, 
rub off. [Sa. oro, id.] S. gra' 
to scrape off, shave, H. gara'. 

Arog (arong), d., dem. pron., this. 
See arai and erik. The final 
g as in nag, naga, dem. 

Aru na, s., c. art. nam na, 
hand, arm ; fore-foot of a 


quadruped : nam arms, i.e., 
weapons of war, war ; i bi aru 
uia he is industrious, lit. a 
good hand, i bi aru sa he 
is handles?, lazy, lit. a bad 
hand. [New Guinea dd. 
uadu, dei, Ml. P. fera, Ml. A. 
verua, Samang tong, Nias 
tanga, Borneo dd. tongan, 
lungan, rongo, tangan, My. 
tangan, Mg. tan ana, d. tan- 
gana, Madura Bali tanang.] 
H. yad hand, S. id., A. yadu 
(and yaddu), dualyadan ; also, 
adu, dual adan, hand, arm; 
fore-foot of a quadruped. The 
Mg. tana-na, compares with the 
A. adan. 

Asa, ad., the day after to-morrow. 
See uasa. 

Aseli na, s., a friend. [Ml. U. 
selen, Bu. sblao, id.] A. 
wasll', intimate friend, from 
wasala to join, be joined. 

As ia, d. uas ia, v. t., cut, cut 
out, as asi naniu cut out the 
kernel of a cocoanut (to make 
a water vessel of it), asi 
(lua namena na) cut (out his 
tongue), asi intale cut the 
roots of taro (while it is in 
the water, to pull it out of 
the ground) : hence maseasi, 
q.v. S. hsa, v.t., cut out (as 
the eye). 

Asi na, s., c. art. nasi na, the 
part of the face bearded, jaw, 
jawbone, chin. [Malo ase 
TaSa. ese chin, Ml. P. fese 
chin, ese cheek.] The radical 
idea is that of cutting, sharp, 
tearing. A. ll'add' mala, gena. 

Asi ta bunu, jaw cutting dead ; 

As! tageli, crooked jaw : these 

15 [a sua 

expressions denote, the latter 
crooked talk, the former talk 
calculated for and resulting in 
the death of one hated. 

Aso, v.i., to burn, he burning (a 
fire), be kindled, to be burnt 
or scorched (as one's skin, or 
food in being cooked). [Fi. 
qesa, qesaqesa, a, burnt or 
scorched, as in cooking, An. 
ecescas, a., burned, acas, or 
cas, to burn ; hot, burning.] 
A. waliada, n. a. wakdo, H. 
yakad, 8. ikad, to burn, be 
burning, be kindled. 

Aso, s., a kind of crab, the 
robber crab. 

Aso, or asu, s., c. art. naso, or 
nasu, a bow (for shooting 
arrows). [Aurora usu, Paama 
hisu, Ml. P. vus, Ml. U. vis, 
Amblaw busu, My. busor, 
Saparua husu, id.] A. kawsu, 
or kasu, id. So called from 
being curved. 

Asoara, s., the rainbow. Cloth 
brilliantly variegated with 
different coloured bands or 
stripes is called na kalu aso- 
ara, a phrase in which the word 
is an adjective. Also a stone 
fence constructed of three rows 
or bands of stone is described 
as asoara. See infra, soara 
(or souara). 

Asolat, see soli. 

Asua, v. i., to smoke, c. t. prep , 
asuenia to smoke on to it, or 
him : c. art. it is s., naasua na 
the smoke of it, its smoke. 
[Mg. etona, s., smoke, mane- 
tona, v., to smoke, My. asap 
(probably this word lit. means 
smoke of fire, api), barasap to 


smoke, Malo asu, s., mo asu- 
asu, v., TaSa. asu, s., m'asu, 
v., Ml. P. ese, s., mi es, v., Ml. 
A. nahamp basua, s., lit. the 
fh*e smokes, basua, v., Sa. asu, 
s., asua, and asuina, v. ps.] 
H. 'as'en, to smoke, 'as'an 
smoke, A. 'athana, 1, 2, 4, to 

At, or ats, c. art. nat, q.v., 

Ata (or nata), s., c. art. nata, d. 
na eta for na ata, a man, a 
person ; one, someone ; nata 
nata, every one. See atamole, 
atemate, ata na, atamani. 
[Motlav et, Ureparapara at, 
man. See below, Note 2.] 
A. nat', for lias', which is 
the commonly used plural 
(" pluralis fractus," a col- 
lective or abstract, or singular 
with a collective meaning), 
of 'insan', man, male or 
female, a human being, also 
umbra hominis (the older 
plural is 'unas', with which 
corresponds H. 'enos', Arm. 
'anas'a, a man, men), and de- 
notes men, also genii, demons. 
Note 1. — A. 'insan, for 
which there is also 'Isan, 
corresponds to H. 'Is'on, which 
is formed from 'is' by the 
ending on, and denotes, when 
followed by the word eye, 
" little man of the eye, i.e., 
pupil in which as in a glass a 
little image of a man is seen" 
(Ges.) ; the A. denotes in 
addition to the meanings given 
above " the little image appear- 
ing in the pupil of the eye : " 
A. 'insan is from the root 'ans 

10 [ata na 

and H. 'is' vir, 'is'ah woman, 
from 'ins', 'ins'ah, hence the pi. 
of 'is'ah is nas'im, corresponding 
to A. nisa, niswa£, and niswan, 
women. The words 'is' vir, is'ah 
woman (and their equivalents 
in the cognate languages) must 
be carefully distinguished from 
that given above under ata (or 
nata) denoting " a human 
being " whether male or female, 
though they all belong to the 
same root or stem. 

Note 2. — According to the 
above, the t in ata, like that in 
A. nat', represents an original 
s as in nas'. In Ef. dd. this 
t is sometimes pronounced 
nearly as r, and ts. In 
other New Hebrides dia- 
lects this consonant is found 
as t, s, r, 1 ; thus correspond- 
ing to Efate ata-niani male 
(vir) are An. ata-maig, Fut. 
ta-ne (for ta-ane), Ta. yeru- 
man, Epi dd. ata-mani, su- 
mano, Ml. U. oro-man, TaSa. 
la-mani. My orang, Mg. olona 
belong here. 
Ata na, s., c. art. nata na (or 
nate na) his spirit, his soul ; 
his shadow : his image (in 
water or a glass). This is the 
same word as the preceding, 
but in this use has the nom. 
suf . [Sa. ata a spirit, a shadow, 
Fut. ata a ghost, shadow, 
image (as in water), picture or 
likeness, Fila tano ata, his 
soul, Ma. ata reflected image, 
shadow, ata po early morning, 
ata marama moonlight, whaka- 
ata mirror, Sa. ataga (from ata 
a shadow) the mere appearance 


of a thing, atagia to glisten 
(as from a reflected light), 
ataata the red sky after sun- 
set, Ha. iika the shadow of a 
person, figure, outline, or like- 
ness, aka to light up, as the 
moon before rising, akalani a 
heavenly shadow, a splendid 
light, Ef. atalagi, q.v., the 
moon.] See preceding word. 

Ata ia. or atai a, v. t., to know, d. 
tai, q.v. 

Atakasua, a., jealous ; sus- 
picious : from ata (soul), and 
kasua q.v. 

Atalagi, s., usually written 
atelagi, the moon : from ata 
(see ata na), and lagi the 
sky, heaven. [Ha. akalani 
(a heavenly shadow, a splen- 
did light) is composed of the 
same two words.] 

Atamauri, or atemauri, s., the 
spirit of a living man that has 
gone out of him during sleep 
and been seen by someone. 
This word occurs in one dia- 
lect and is composed of ata 
the soul, and mauri, q.v., to 

Atamate, or atemate, s., c. art. 
natemate, spirit of one dead, 
ghost, spirits of the dead, 
demons, good or bad spirits, 
supernatural beings, objects of 
worship, gods (gen. name). 
The word is composed of ata 
(above), and mate, q.v., to 
die, be dead, a. dead. [Ml. P. 
demej, Epi dd. atamate, si- 
maro, Ta. yeramis, Ml. A. 
temes, An. natmas, id.] The 
primary meaning of natemate 
seems to be dead man : thus 


a corpse may be called nate- 
mate, and natemate sometimes 
denotes "the dead" in a col- 
lective sense. 

Atamole, s., c. art. natamolp, 
man, male or female, a human 
being, same as ata, or nata, 
with the addition of mole, 
q.v., to live, a. living. Nata- 
mole lit. denotes living man. 
[Mg. olombelona, id. The 
Mg. is composed of the same 
two words as the Ef. ; for olo- 
na see ata (above), and for 
velona to live see mole (be- 
low) ; and the meaning of the 
compound word is the same in 
each case. At least the 
initial ta in Fi. tamata, Sa. 
tangata, Tah. taata, id., be- 
longs here.] 

Ataniani, s., c. art. nataniani, 
male, lit. a male human 
being, from ata (above), and 
mani, q.v., male. [For New 
Hebrides forms of this com- 
pound word, see ata (above). 
Fi. tangane, Sa. tane, id.] 

Atatabu, or at'tab, s., c. art. 
natatabu, or nat'tab, lit. 
sacred spirits, sacred stones 
identified with such spirits, 
and objects of pagan worship : 
from ata (above), and tabu, 

Atama s., d. syn. c. ore, the 
pointed rubbing stick for pro- 
ducing fire by its friction with 
another stick : a, art., and 
tama ia, q.v. 

Atara, aturiei. See natara, 

Atata, v. i., or a., a reduplicate, to 
have white spots or marks 

atata] 1 1 

such as show where sores have 
healed. See next word. 

Atata, s., an albino. The 
radical meaning would there- 
fore seem to be white. [Cf. 
Mg. hatsatra white, pale, 
wan, sickly.] A. was'ali' 
white spot appearing on the 
head or feet of a horse, 
was'ali' whitening spots of 
leprosy, was'ill' very white; 
from was'alia to be manifest, 
white (as milk), &c. 

Ate, c. art. nat6 na (d. nante na), 
the liver (of a shark), the 
spleen ; in arekabu (for ate- 
kabu) it signifies the liver or 
principal viscus of the kabu 
(or kobu, q.v.), inside, and in 
uateam, q.v., the proper mean- 
ing seems to be the middle, the 
middle and more important 
part. [My. ati the liver, then 
the mind, heart or inside, 
Mg. aty the liver, the inside, 
Sa. ate the liver.] A. kabd', 
kabid'. H. kabecl, E. kabd6, 
the liver, Amh. hode, the 
belly. A. kabid' also denotes 
the belly with its parts, the 
middle and more important 
part (of a thing), the middle 
(of a thing). E. kabde viscus 
(nom. gen.), stomach, belly, in- 
side, and particularly the 
liver, as the heaviest of the 
viscera. (See Ludolf's E. 
Lex.) H. kabad, E. kabda, to 
be heavy (primary meaning). 

Note 1. — Arekabu, q.v., c. 
art. narekabu, dd. talekabu, 
nanekabu, tanekabu, and 
nanekama, the liver, is com- 
posed of are (for ate) the 


liver or principal viscus, and 
kabu (for which see kobu the 
belly, the inside), and lit. 
denotes the viscus (or liver) of 
the inside ; with are (for ate) 
corresponds Ml. U. ere, and 
New Guinea, Maclay Kiiste 
arre, the liver. 

Note 2.— With Ludolf's 
statement (above) compare 
that in the Ha. Diet., 
where ake (for ate) is de- 
fined as " the liver," and also 
" a general name for several 
internal organs, qualified by 
different terms " : thus akeloa 
spleen (loa long), and also 
akeniau ; akepaa the liver, as 
well as the simple ake ; ake- 
mama the lungs (see above, 
s.v. amo). In Sa. atepili the 
spleen, atevae the calf of the 
leg, Tah. aterima the thick 
part of the arm. In Ef. 
uateam' (d. uateau) the kid- 
neys (see above, s.v. amo) 
ua-nate-natuo, or ua-nate-tuo, 
the calf of the leg, in one 
dialect is denoted by uateau 
natore, lit. kidneys of the 
shin (i.e., the leg from the. 
knee to the foot, see tore), 
and uateau laso denotes 
kidneys of the scrotum. 
Ua-nate has exactly the same 
meaning as uate (i.e., ua-ate) 
the only difference being that 
in the former ate c. art. is 
nate ; ua, fruit, is used be- 
cause the parts spoken of are 
round or fruit-shaped. In 
Ef. dd. the calf of the leg is 
uateau natore, ua-nate tuo (or 
natuo), and na&ela natore, of 


which the last lit. denotes 
the belly of the leg (below 
the knee). 

Atelaki na, or atelakia na, s., 
the owner of it, owner : from 
a, art., and telaki or telakia, 

Atena na (d. atia na), s., maternal 
grandmother ; voc. tata. See 
ani na. 

Ati na, s., c. art. nati na, child, 
d. ani na, q.v. [Ma., Tah., 
ati offspring.] 

Atia na, s., paternal grandfather 
or grandmother : voc. tia. See 
atena na, tata, tematete ta, 
tia, tematia ta. 

Ati(a). d. uati(a), v. t., d. for 
ari a, q.v. 

Atoara, see natoara. 

Atu na, s., c. art. natu na, d. 
ati na, his, her child, off- 
spring. See ani na. 

Atu, c. suf. atu-gia (d. uatu) beat, 
smite, break off or divide off 
(as a piece of a plantation) ; 
atu (namauri) utter (an in- 
cantation), at' usi utter re- 
hearsing (see us ia), atu saki 
plop up (of a turtle, also of 
the sound of the breath in the 
throat of a man recovering 
from a faint or dying) ; and 
atu taku turn the back (to 
anyone on being addressed, as 
if not aware of it), atu taluko 
turn oneself (from someone) ; 
atu tuai break in pieces (a 
plantation) giving him (a por- 
tion) ; fiatu, v. r., to be fight- 
ing, to be smiting each other : 
nalagi atu the wind beating, 
a hurricane ; atu nabau kill 
(by smiting the head) ; atu 

19 [atu A 

ualubota rout the enemy 
(smite, break the enemy). 
With the ending maki the 
word, atu-makl, means jerk, 
snap, as atu-maki jerk (as the 
branch of a tree), balusa atu- 
maki to paddle jerking (with 
a jerking motion of the 
paddle), atu-maki nalo ra jerk 
their voices, or snap their 
voices. A. hata beat, smite, 
hatia be bent, stoop (a man), 
Nm. heti declaim : cf. hatta 
to break, to beat off (as leaves 
from trees), to utter (words). 

Atuta (see ta atuta ki), s., set 
time, or place, as i ta atuta 
ki nia, he declares a set time to 
(one), i.e., to meet him on a 
certain day, or at a certain 
time (to do something), ru tu 
natuta they kept the set time, 
i risugi natuta he changed the 
set time. See ta atuta. 

Atu-maki, v. See atu. 

Atu saki, at 'saki, v. See atu 
and saki. 

Atu taku, at' taku, v. See atu 
and taku. 

Atu taluko, at' taluko, v. See 
atu and taluko. 

Atua, s., God. Introduced word. 
In Meli. c. art. the word 
tetua (East Mai retua, To. 
hotooa, he otua) denotes 
among the heathen the same 
as atamate, that is, any 
spiritual being regarded as 
having supernatural qualities 
or powers, as a demon, good 
or bad, a ghost, a god : it is 
a general name. A human 
being on dying immediately 
becomes a tetua or natamate — 


that is, not only a spirit, but, 
among the heathen, an object 
of superstitious regard. In 
Sa. aitu a spirit, a god, seems 
to belong to the same stem, 
whence, with a. ending a, 
aitua haunted. Probably both 
aitu and atua belong to the 
same stem as ata, q.v. The 
word in Ha. (akua), To. (otua), 
Ma. and Sa. (atua) now de- 
notes God in the Christian 
sense, and it has been intro- 
duced with this meaning into 
Aneityum, Tanna, Efate, Epi, 

Atum-kol, s., echo, lit. offspring 
of the call or shout, and 

Atuma, in pr. nn. atuma-neru 
offspring of war, &c. See 
kola, and for atuma offspring, 
see futum. 

Atuta. See p. 19. 

Au, verb. pron. 1 pi. excl., we, 
they, d. pu (for mu) : separate 
pron. kinami we — they ; kinau 
I, verb. pron. a I, d. ni. 

Au, ad., yes, d. ao. A, dera. 
prefix, and u, or o, for which 
see o. H. hahu' that (is it). 

Au, v. i., to heal, get well, d. for 
abu, id., q.v. 

Au, s., a kind of lizard, d. for 
kiiu, id. 

Au, v. i., to bark. See ao. 

Aua (awa), v. i., or a., fatigued, 

c. art. naiia, one fatigued. H. 
ya'af, to be fatigued, ya'ef, 

Alia (awa), ad., no, it is not : d. 

eiio, q.v. 
Auaua, s. (awawa, a reduplicate), 

d. bau, q.v., maternal uncle. 

20 [ba 

[My. uwa, wa, uwak, an uncle 
or aunt], cf. A. 'amm', an 
uncle. See bau na. 

Aue, interj., surprise, commisera- 
tion. [Sa. aue, alas ! oh ! of 
wonder.] A. awwi (&c.\ alas! 
ah ! oh ! 

Aui, interj., surprise, commisera- 
tion ; a, dem., and ui, q.v. 

Auis, interj., surprise, commisera- 
tion ; a, dem., and uis, q.v. 

Aul ia, v. t., dd. ul ia, ol ia, uil 
ia. See ul ia. 

Aum, s., c. art. naum, d. for 
aime, q.v. 

Aure, s., a singer, bard, a, art., 
and ure or ore (see ore). [Fut. 
goro, Ma. whakaoriori, Ha. 
olo, My. uraura, Mg. hira, to 
sing, &c.] E. halaya, to sing. 

Aiita, s., or ad., auta, ashore, on 
land, d. euta, q.v., a, prep., and 
uta, q.v. 


a-, or fa-, caus. prefix, origin- 
ally ma. [Mg. ma-, fa-, mpa-.] 
S. ma- (Maphel conj.), Mod. 
S. ma-, caus. prefix (St., 
pp. 110, 111) : the Mafel or 
Maphel is simply the participle 
of the ancient Aphel (H. 
hiphil, A. 4). 

Ba. (bwa), and ua (wa), v. i., to 
rain = d. boua (bowa). [Epi 
mboba, mbobo, Ta. ufu, id.] 
A. ba'a to rain continuously, 
ba'a'a rain, rain water. 

Ba, or fa (va), v., to go, enter (a 
ship, &,c), tread (go upon), with 
si suffixed, ba-si to tread, tread 
upon (go upon). [Fi. va-ca, 

to tread upon, hence va na, 
and probably yava na, the feet, 
Mysol bo, to go. This verb 
in Ef., &c, is often followed 
by a " directive," or adverb, 
which sometimes is suffixed to 
it, and the expression thus 
formed may signify either to 
go or to come, thus, An. apan, 
go there, apam, come here, 
Ef. ban, or bano, go there, 
ba be (d.) come here, (d.) 
umai (in which the ba is 
corrupted to u), Sa. o mai, 
Amboyna uimai, oimai, omai, 
Mysol bo inun, to come here ; 
My. pargi, pai, to go, is perhaps 
this pa and rgi or i, pargi-mari 
to come, like Ef. d. bano 
to go (ba and no), bano mai 
to come here. The mai in 
such phrases as the above, Ef. 
dd. mai, be, has sometimes, 
from being an abverb or 
directive so used after ba, ' 
come to be used alone, the 
ba being understood, signi- 
fying to come : thus in one Ef. 
d. mai, in another d. be (mai 
and be are forms of the same 
particle) are now verbs used 
alone denoting to come here. 
My. mari hither, here, in like 
manner used alone signifies to 
come. See under banotu, notu.] 
H. bo', ba, to enter, come, go 
(egg. E. bawi', A. ba, to return, 
5a, v., to come from (from a 
place), as Ku ba se 1 you 
come from where 1 i ba nalia 
uan he comes from that place, 
dd. bai, be, baki (where the 
prep, ki = from). [Mg. avy 

21 [baba 

aiza 1 = ha se *? = come from 
where 1 come whence 1 avy to 
come.] See under banotu. 

Ba ki, v., c. prep., to go to (a 
place) : ba, and the prep, ki 
to: ki, to, sometimes denotes 
from see preceding word. 

Bai, v., d., ba, q.v., to come from, 
as bai se 1 come from where ? 
See under banotu. 

Bai, v., to be, d. for bi, q.v. 

Bai a, v. t., to gather together in 
order to carry home, as fire- 
wood, or fruit, &c. [Fi. va-ya, 
})S. vai, to make a bundle, as 
of sticks, to carry on the back.] 
See afaia. 

Ba, d. mba, final conj., that : 
used in the conjugation of the 
future and imperative and in- 
finitive of verbs. 

Ba, that thou, sign of 2 pers. sing, 
imperative ; includes pron. 2 
pers. sing. [Motu ba, used in 
the same way in fut., inf., and 
imp., Fi. me, in imp. and inf., 
Ma. me, forming a kind of im- 
perative future, Mg. mba that, 
Ml. P. ba, b' that, used in con- 
jugation of imp., inf., and 
future.] A. fa that (final 
conj. ), Ac. 

Ba, v., d. for ma. See ani, v. 

Bai), s., d., voc, father = ab, 
babu, abab, id. 

Ba, na (kba na), s., c. art. na ba, 
na, and reduplicated 

7>a6a na, s., hollows, or channels ; 

Baba,, s., c. art. na&a&a, a hollow, 
channel, or bed of a stream, 
dry except after heavy rains : 

Baba,, s., c. art. naftaia, a board : 
[Sa., Tah.papa, My. papan, id.] 


£&bu na (d. bamu na), s., c. art. 
na&a&u na, the cheek : (My. 
pipi, Tah. papa — uru, id.] H. 
gabab to be curved, hollow ; 
to cut, dig. Hence gab the 
back (see below, bamu), geb a 
board : egg. having the sense 
of hollow, curved, are numer- 
ous, as gavah, gafaf, guf, or 
gup (infra kobu, kubu, kabu), 
kafaf (infra kau, kai, kaf), 
naliab (infra na6ea, i.e., nak- 
bea, d. nakima, fafine), bub, 
'abab, nabab, &c, and the eg. 
words in A., 6zc. Mg. ho- 
boka hollow, concave, pepo 
hollow, concave, My. ampa 
hollow, To. papa the hollow 
piece of wood on which 
gnatoo is imprinted, lowpapa 
a board, &c. 

Babatrega, v. L, or a., variegated, 
versicoloured, as cloth : the 
formative prefix ba doubled ; 
said to be denominative from 
troga (toga), q.v., a versi- 
coloured woven basket. 

Babu, s., d., voc, father : dd. 
afa, ab, abab, bab'. 

2?afa, s., a small separate house 
used only by women dwelling 
apart from men during men- 
struation, and also at the time 
of parturition. From afa to 
bear, carry, c. pref. 6a (for 
ma). See baofa (d.), which is 
from ofa, d. for afa, bear, 
carry : baofa, though etymo- 
logically the same as iafa, has 
a different meaning, no such 
custom as is implied by the 
6afa obtaining among the 
speakers who say " baofa." 
It denotes the act of men- 



struating, not the house for 
those menstruating. 

Note. — In Ha. the house 
for menstruating women was 
called hale pea. 

Bafanau, same as fanau, q.v. 

Bafano, or fafano, v., to wash 
the hands. See bano lia. 
[Sa. fafano wash the hands 
and mouth, Fi. vuluvulu wash 
the hands. See bulu nia, 
bano lia, balo nia, ifcc, ivfra.~\ 

Bafatu, or fafatu, v. t., to trust 
in, confide in, rely upon. See 

Baga, v. c. See bagan ia, to feed, 
charge, fill ; 

Bagan ia, v. c, to feed, lit. make 
to eat, bagan ia sa, lit. make 
him eat it ; caus. prefix ba, 
and kan to eat. With the 
n elided baga, as baga nata 
feed anyone, baga sisi load a 
gun ; baga, absolute, as i baga 
(of a pig or a fish) to wander 
about in search of food ; faga 
(of fire), nakabu faga a burn- 
ing or devouring fire, i faga it 
burns, devours, or eats (of fire, 
and of an ulcer) ; nafaga a 
bribe, nafagafaga a bait. [Fi. 
vakani-a, Sa. fafaga, feed, 
cause to eat, Mg. mamahana 
to feed, also load (a gun), 
caus. pref. ma, and fahana.] 
See kan ia. 

Bagau-nabau, pr. n., c. art. 
nabagau-nabau : the feeder of 
the oven with the slain ; baga, 
ua, nabau. 

Baga, s. See bago, a hill, d. 
mago, d. bega. 

Baga, s., d. for maga, the banyan 



Bagabaga, v. i. See bagobago. 

Bagarai a, v. c., to dry, lit. make 
dry : from gara, kara, dry. 
[My. mangaiing kan, id.] See 
gara, kara. 

Bagaranu a i, den. v. c. ; from 
ran, c. art. niran, fresh water; 
to wash with fresh water after 
bathing in the sea : d. baka- 
naru mia, id. (naru, transposed I 
for ranu). [Sa. faalanu to ', 
wash off salt water, ps. faa- 
lanumia; with 'i faalanuma-'i.] 
See ran, s. 

Bagi, v., to mount, climb, ascend 
(a hill, ladder, tree, ship, &c); ' 
may also have the prep, ki 
before the object, as bagi 
nakasu or bagi ki nakasu 
climb the tree, bagi to go up, | 
ascend, bagi ki go up on. [Mg. 
akatra, miakatra, id., My. 
minggah, id., Ma. piki to 
climb, pikitia.J A. 'aka', 4), to 

Bagobago, v. i., or a., to be 
crooked. [Sa. pi'o, pi'opi'o, 
id., Ma. piko, bent, Mg. 
vokoka crooked, My. bengkok, 
Ja. bengkong crooked.] H. 
hafak, S. hpak, A. 'apaka 
to turn, ifcc, H. hapakpak 
crooked, twisted. Hence 

Bagobagoa, a., crooked, twisted : 
-a, a. ending ; and 

Bagobagora, a., id.: a. ending -ra. 

/?ago, v., to be behind, i bago 
asa he is behind it, as i feago 
nakoro he is behind the fence 
(of a man behind a fence put 
up about his house to shut 
out the public view), i 6ago 
nafanua it is behind the land 
(of a ship taking shelter under 


the lee side of an island in a 
hurricane). The word iago 
na, s., denotes the heel ; the 
lower part of the back (syn. 
bisi na) ; 6ago nafanua west 
end of an island, is the opp. 
of meta nafanua east end of 
an island (fore-end and heei- 
end) ; bugo na kelu, or baga. 
na kelu is the after part of an 
army that (kelu) gor-s in a 
circuitous course to surprise 
the enemy — and in all these 
senses the word in one dialect 
is pronounced mago na, which 
is the more original form. 
The hills behind the villages, 
or not far back from the shore, 
on which there is no jungle, 
are called bega, baga, d. 
mago. This word is much 
used in names of places, points 
or heels of the land : thus 
Pagona is the name of west end 
of Deception Island, Havan- 
nah Harbour, and Pago of the 
long point of land on the 
south of Fila harbour ; Selim- 
baga a place on Tongoa, &c. 
The end of anything, as the 
land, a stick, &c, is called 
meta-frago na, lit. the eye or 
point of its end. [TaSa. 
pigo na, end or extremity.] 
H. 'akab, A. 'akaba to be be- 
hind, to come from behind : 
the form (in Ef.) resembles 
A. ma'kob, mago, ba,go : H. 
'akeb the heel, A. 'akib' id., 
and the end of a thing : H. 
'akeb also denotes the ex- 
treme rear of an army, and 
'akob a hill, acclivity (A., E., 


Ba.go na, s., d. for mago na, heel 
of foot ; back part of body ; 
binder end (of an island) in 
opp. to meta na fore end (i.e., 
east) ; hinder part of an army ; 
an end (of anything) ; end of 
a house (the Efatese house has 
two ends), hence, inside of a 
house at the far ends, and 
then generally in one d. in- 
side (of a house) ; end, i.e. 
bottom, of a hole or deep pit. 
See preceding word and mago. 

Bagote fia, v.c, to buy it, pur- 
chase it, lit. to break, separate 
(from its former owner) a 
thing, d. bakotufia. See koto. 

Bagokot, or bagkot, v., redupli- 
cate of foregoing. 

Bfi gote fia, v., to break a thing 
(as a stick) by treading (see ba) 
on it. 

Bai, v., d. ba, to go or come from 
(a place) : ba v., and prep L, 
d. ba ki, id., has prep. ki. 

Bai, or bei, v., dd. bi, mi, to be, 
as, i bai fatu it is a stone ; also 
prep, before the object of 
many verbs, see bei. See bi ; 
and bei (or bai). 

Baibai, or baibaia, v. i., or a., to 
be large, wide ; said to be d. 
for bebea, q.v. 

Bai na, s., d. for bau na, the 
head. See bau na. 

Bai, s., d., c. art. nabai na, 
feathers or covering of a bird : 
d. for mau na, q.v. [Ma. hou, 

Bai ! baibai ! interj., surprise and 
pleasure. [Mg. baba, id.] A. 
bali'i bah'i id. 

Baina, v., to go there (away from 
speaker), ba go, i to, na there : 

24 [baka 

d. binen' : d. syn. banotu, 

Baka, d. sometimes for baki, v., 
used also as a prep.: ba to go, 
and ki (rai-ely ka) to, as v., i 
baki nalia uane he goes to that 
place ; as prep., i bisa baki 
John he speaks to (or unto) 
John. [Epi beki ; and Epi d., 
with prep, ni (instead of ki and 
equivalent to it) bani, Florida 
vani.] See preps, ki, ni. 

Baka, or faka, caus. prefix. This 
consists of the caus. prefix ba 
(or fa), q.v., and the deni. 
particle ka, q v. [Fi. vaka, 
Sa. faa, Ma. whaka, Mg. malia, 
faha, mpaha.] 

Note. — As this particle ka 
(Mg. ha) has various uses in 
Oceanic, and as in baka it is 
manifestly used in a manner 
not of local or recent origin, 
the question arises as to what 
its exact force in this con- 
nection is. In My. ka is 
prefixed to the verbal noun 
formed by the suffix an 
exactly as in Ef. na (the 
common art.) is to the same 
verbal noun, and in that case 
it has the force of an article. 
In Ja. ka is used in the same 
way, and in addition prefixed 
to a verb forms a passive 
verbal adjective, as suduk to 
stab, kasuduk stabbed, or 
passive verb (as it is called) 
to be stabbed. (So in Fi., as, 
e.g., voro-ta to break, kavoro 
broken.) And it is thus that, 
in the case of the numerals, ka 
prefixed to the cardinals makes 
them ordinals in Ja., My., Fi., 


and Ef. These ordinals 
having been formed as katolu 
third (that which or he who 
is three, that (or what) is 
three) the causative prefix ba 
added formed bakatolu make 
third, cause to be third ; this 
word in Mg., fahatelo (verbal 
adjective), is " third," in Ef. 
i bakatolu is (verb) he made 
the third (time) at it, and the 
verbal noun from this verb, 
formed in the usual way, is 
nafakatoluan the being or 
doing the third time. Compare 
in H. the den. verb formed 
from the numeral three, Piel 
•(causative) "to do anything the 
third time," &c, and Pual 
part, (verbal adjective) "three- 
fold," &c. In Ef. bakatolu, 
though really a verb, is trans- 
lated into English as an ad- 
verb of times — thus i bakatolu 
bat ia he did it three times, 
but lit. he made the third 
time doing it. 

Baka roa, v. i., to jerk over to 
the other side (a canoe sail) : 
boka tia to strike, and roa to 
turn round. 

Z?aka, s., a fence, a fence of stone 
or wood made for protection 
or fortification in war. [Ha. 
pa a fence, Ma. pa a stockade, 
fortified place, pa to block 
up, obstruct.] H. ma'akeh a 
parapet (surrounding a flat 
roof) to hinder one from fall- 
ing off, from 'akah, A. 'aka' 
to hold back (and l aka), 
hinder, impede. 

Baka sia, d. transposed for kaba 
sia, koba sia, to follow. 

25 [bakalarua 

Bakabasea, v. c, d. syn. c. suer 
ia, to scold, vituperate : from 
base a, id. 

Bakabftte, or bakafate, v. c, make 
the fourth time : from bate, 4. 
[Mg. fahefatra the fourth.] 

Bakabulu tia, v. c, nearly the 
same as the simple verb bulu 
tia, q.v. 

Bakabunuti, bakamanu, &c. See 

Bakafakal ia, v., to console, com- 
fort : reduplicate from bakal 
ia, id., q.v. 

Bakafia, d. bakafisa, v., make 
how many times 1 make how 
often 1 See bisa. 

I. Bakal ia, v. c, to soothe, com- 
fort, take tender care of (as of 
a child, or one in sorrow) : see 
kal. A. 'agila to soothe, com- 
fort ; E. 'egal, a child, Ef. 
kal, fakal, and d. kekel, id., 
usually vocative, and much 
used in proper names of chil- 
dren, as kal nagusu child of 
the point (promontory), kal 
or fakal tamate child of 
peace, &c. 

ii. Bakal ia, v. c, to sharpen (as 
a knife, axe, &c.) H. kalal, 
Pilpel, to sharpen; to move to 
and fro, A., E., id. See 
makal sharpened, sharp, kala 
little, &c. H. kalal to be light, 
to be swift, fleet, to be dimin- 
ished, little, so A. kalla to be 
despised, H. kalon, shame, 
pudenda, Ef. makal. 

Bakalailai, v. c, nearly same as 
simple verb lailai, q.v., to be 

Bakalarua, v. c, make the 
seventh time, or seven times. 


See larua, kalarua. [Mg. 
fahafito the seventh.] 

Bakalatesa, v. c, make the sixth 
time, or six times. See latesa, 
kalatesa. [Epi vaari.] 

Bakalatolu, v. c, make the 
eighth time. [Epi vaarolu.] 
See latolu. 

Bakalititi, v. c, make the ninth 
time. [Epi vakoveri.] See 

Bakaleba, v. c, make (himself) 
great, be proud : leba, laba. 

Bakalima, v. e, make the fifth 
time, or five times. [Mg. 
fahading, the fifth.] See lima. 

Bakamataku ki, v. c, to make 
afraid, to threaten, frighten : 
from mataku to be afraid. 
[Mg. mahatahotra, My. mana 
kuti, manakut kan, Sa. 

Bakamaturu ki, v. c, make to 
sleep, put to sleep : from 
maturu to be asleep, to sleep. 
[My. manidor kan.] 

Bakamauri a, v. c, to make 
alive, save : from mauri to be 
alive, live. [Sa. faaola, My. 
mangidupi, Mg. mamelona.] 

Bakameta sa, v. c, to direct the 
eyes to, look at : a bakameta 
gu is, i bakameta na sa, &c, 
seems to mean lit. I direct my 
eyes, make my eyes upon it, 
&c. : meta, or mita, q.v., v., 
and s. Bakamita, id. 

Bakamirara. See mirara. 

Bakanaru mia, v. c, naru, trans- 
posed for ranu : d. for baga- 
ranu a i, in the one case m' is 
the t. prep., in the other a. 

Bakarairai, v. c. Nearly the same 
as the simple v. rairai, q.v. 

26 [bakas 

Bakarau sa, v. c, divide it 
(among a number of persons), 
distribute it : from rau, q.v. 

Bakarogo, v. c, make (him- 
self) hear or obey, be humble, 
quiet, meek ; from rogo, q.v. 

Bakaru. See bukaru. 

Bakarua, v. c, make the second 
time, or two times. See rua, 
karua. [Mg. faharoa, the 

Bakaralima, or bakarualima, 
v. c, make the tenth time, or 
ten times. [Epi vaduiilimo.] 
See rualima, or ralima, kara- 

Note. — The caus. prefix 
baka may be attached to the 
word or words denoting any 
number, as bakabunuti (bun- 
uti, 100), bakamanu (manu, 
1000), make the hundredth, 
thousandth time, or one 
hundred, one thousand times, 
bakaralima lima (ralima lima, 
50), bakamanu ralima (manu 
ralima, 10,000), make the 
fiftieth, ten thousandth time, or 
fifty or ten thousand times, &c. 

Bukas, or iokas, s., c. art. 
na&akas, flesh ; then, a pig 
(not a sow or a boar) specially 
reared and esteemed for its 
flesh ; then, Hades, because 
of the numbers of such pigs 
killed on occasion of deaths, 
especially of chief's, whose 
flesh was not only much en- 
joyed at repeated feasts among 
the living, but supposed in 
some way to accompany or 
follow the souls of the de- 
ceased to Hades, and give 
corresponding gratification to 


the shades of the departed 
assembled there : with the 
prep, a, abakas, or abokas, in 
Hades. [Epi bukahi a pig 
(not boar or sow), Fut. pakasi 
a pig (gen. name), Ero. mpokas 
a pig (gen. name), An. picad, 
i.e., picath, a pig (gen. name).] 
A. manhus' having much 
flesh, fleshy, from nalias'a to 
denude a bone of flesh, to take 
the flesh from off a bone. 

Bakasa, v. c., bakasa ki, or 
bakasa ia, to paint (as the 
face), hence na fakasa, s., a 
festival (adornment); to clean, 
make clean (as a place), to 
clear, make clear. [Fi. ai 
qisa paint for the face.] A. 
nakas'a to paint, to colour ; 
to clear, make clear (as a 
place) : bakasa, dd. (trspd.) 
bisaki, biski. 

Bakasau, v. c, dd. bisakau ia, 
bisaui, bisaku tia, to make or 
build up a fire, lit., make to 
join on to, i.e., one stick to 
another, to make a bigger 
fire. (By joining together the 
smouldering ends of two fire 
sticks and then joining on to 
them the ends of other sticks 
a tire is built up.) The in- 
itial bi or ba in this word is 
the causative prefix : the 
simple verb is siku tia, q.v. 

Bakaser ia, v. c, to loosen or 
remove a tabu (as from a 
place), make common or non- 
tabu. See ser ia. 

Bakasere a, v. c, to treat kindly 
carefully providing for, to en- 
tertain hospitably. See sere 
a, ps. masere. 

27 [bakau 

Bakasikai (d. fakasikitika), v. c, 
make the first time, or one 
time. [Mg. faharaika the 
first.] See sikai (or isikai), 

Bakosoro fia, v. c, make to burn : 
from soro, v. c, to burn. 

Bakatabtabu ki, v. c, make 
tabu, or declare tabu. See 
tabu. [To. fakatabu to inter- 

Bakatar ia, v. c. Nearly the 
same as the simple verb tar 
ia, q.v. 

Bakatau, v. c. Nearly the same 
as the simple v. tau, q.v. 

Bakateba, v. c, caus. form, to 
watch, to look out or watch 
for, as bakateba na bai saki 
ni aliati watch or look out for 
the rising flush of dawn. [Sa. 
tepa, tetepa, to look towards.] 
H. sapah to look out, view, 
watch, look out for. 

Bakatilas ia, v. c, to suffice : 
from tilas ia, q.v., and see 
also the simple v. las ia. 

Bakatogo ia, v. c, d. for 

Bakatoko ia, v. c, to make a 
show or feint of striking or 
pushing. See the simple v. 
togo fia. 

Bakatolu, v. c, make the third 
time, or three times. [Mg. 
fahatelo the third.] 

Bakau, or bakaue, v. c, to say 
or shout aue ! au8 ! or au ! au ! 
to make a howling or barking 
noise in a well-known Efatese 
way expressive of joy, triumph, 
or derision : the howl or cooee 
repeated several times, ending 
in the loud jerking or barking 
utterance of au ! au ! au ! H. 


'avah to howl, cry out, A. 'aui to 
howl, as a dog, wolf, or jackal. 

Bakaul ia, v. c, to make like, 
imitate, to be like to, resemble: 
the simple v. is aul ia (dd. 
ui lia, ol ia) or ul ia, q.v. 

Bakauti a, v. c, d. buti a, q.v., 
make an end, finish. [Fi. 
vakaoti, To. vakaochi, Sa. 
faaoti, Ma. whakaoti.] H. 
kaseh an end, kasah, A. kas'a', 
2, to finish. 

Bake, d. baku, v., to search, to 
search for (as to search for 
insects in the head, or for 
fleas and such like in mats or 
cloth). S. bka', or bko', to 

Baki, v., to go to (a place), ba to 
go, and ki, prep. ,to : d. be' 
(nearly beh), id. 

Baki, prep., to, unto. This is 
preceding word used as a prep. 

Baki, v., d., to go or come from 
(a place), dd. ba, bai : ba to 
go or come, and prep, ki (to), 
from. For ba see bai. 

Bake, d. for baki se, go where ? 
bake is for baki e, go to where : 
se, d. e, where ? se is e c. 
art. s'. 

Bakilina, v., to go or come into 
the light, i.e., into view, to 
appear : baki go or come to, 
and lina light. See lina, d. ali. 

Bakitakita d. for makitakita, q.v. 

Bako, s., shark, d. bake. [Malo 
bacio, Epi bekeu.] Der. un- 

Bakor, v., d., to go or come in 
front of, to appear : ba to go 
or come, and koro, q.v. 

Bakotu fia, v. t., d. for bagote 
fia, q.v. 

28 [bala 

Baku, v., d. for bake, q.v. 

Baku, v. t., to pluck out, baku 
sa pluck it out, ps. mafaku 
plucked out, tafakaka, d. ta- 
fagka (i.e., tafak'ka), v. i., to 
burst, explode. [Sa. fa'i pluck, 
extract, mafa'ifa'i extracted, 
Ma. whakiwhaki, and kow- 
haki, to pluck, My. kopak to 
burst, break out, Mg. vaky 
burst out, mitifaka to burst, 
mitefoka to sound (as the ex- 
plosion of a gun.] A. faka' to 
burst, to pluck out, tafakka', 
5, to be burst. 

I. jBala, v. i., to be smooth. 
[Sa. molemole, lamolemole, 
id., Tah. moremore smooth, 
without branches, as a tree ; 
even, without protuberances ; 
also, hairless, more, v. i., to 
drop or fall, as pia leaves 
when ripe, Ma. moremore, 
v. t., to make bald or bare ; 
strip of branches, <fcc.] A. 
mara, n. a. maur' to fall off 
(as wool or hair from the 
body, feathers from an arrow) ; 
to pluck out or off (as hair, 

2>ala, i bi 6ala, it is smooth, 
level. See preceding word. 

Z»ala-gara, v. i., d., to be poor, 
lit. smooth (or bare) dry, 
bare and dry : gara or kara 
dry, q.v. 

II. Z>'ala, v. i., often pronounced 
tela, d. bola, to incline to ; be 
close to : i 6ala nakasu in- 
clines and keeps close to a 
tree (hiding), balk sa inclines 
and keeps close to it, 6ala-afi 
nafanua hugs the land (a 
ship), (see af ia) ; 6ala is close 


to (as a man to a tree, or one 
board to another), hence to be 
stuck and inclining from side 
to side to get through (as a 
man in the vines of the 
jungle, or in any confined 
place, as a narrow door ; a 
bone in the throat, or the 
branches of a fallen tree in 
those of another) ; ftala-tagoto, 
or iala-goto incline across, 
hence cross, a., as nakasu 6ala- 
tagoto (see goto) a cross beam, 
or cross stick, hence fala a 
ship's yards (because they are 
fixed across or on the mast), 
and sticks fastened across or 
on a tree for a ladder to climb 
it are called fala, or balafala, 
and iala-galu (see galu) is the 
upper cross board at the 
end of a canoe ; fala also 
denotes a litter, so called be- 
cause the sticks forming it are 
fastened across or upon each 
other. [Sa. pilia to be en- 
tangled (as one tree falling 
against another, <fec), pilipili 
be near, pipili a cripple, Ma. 
piri, to stick, come close, keep 
close, skulk, hide oneself, 
pipiri come to close quarters, 
join battle, Ha. pili to cleave 
to (as to a friend).] A. mala, 
n. a. mayl' to incline, incline 
to, bend or lean to (some- 
thing) ; to be close or near 
to ; to have a part of the 
body (vitio naturae) inclined 
or bent to one side (used also 
of a building leaning to one 
side) ; 3, make a hostile 
incursion. Nm. miel, v. i., 
slant, deviate, incline (to- 

29 [bala 

wards;, mail (gerund) slope, 
inclination, propensity. 
ill. /?ala, s., the belly, usually 
pronounced be\e, q.v. ; 6alau, 
for 6ala am' (like uateau for 
d. uateam'), the inside of a 
man, or of anything (hollow or 
womb of the am', abdomen), 
ialoa (ending a) a hollow, a 
valley, 6alua a hollow or hole 
in a rock, falea a cave, 6ala- 
kutu na the hollow at the 
back of the head (lit. the 
hollow of his kutu, q.v.), bsdo- 
leba the stomach (lit. the big 
hollow), 6ile na, or bele na his 
mother (lit. his womb, the 
womb that bore him), na felak 
a family, tribe, bela-ki, to 
gird (oneself), to tie or fasten 
under one's girdle or belly, to 
take with one, to conceive 
(« woman), bela, source. [Ma. 
wharua, a., concave, s., valley, 
whawharua, s., mother, whare 
a house, people of a house, 
wharetangata connection by 
marriage, Tah. fare a house, 
farefare, a., hollow, as the 
stomach for want of food.] 
H. beten the belly, the womb, 
the inside, the womb, mother, 
batan properly to be empty, 
hollow, vain, i.q. batal (see 
ba\o infra), A. batn' belly, in- 
side or middle of anything, pi. 
connections by marriage, a 
tribe (small), batana to have 
the belly distended with food, 
to be intimate and familiar, 
to be hid, 4, to fasten the 
girth under the belly (of a 
beast of burden), to cover, 
hide, 5, to put a thing under 


one's belly, S. btan to con- 
ceive, have in the womb, A. 
batuna to have a great belly. 

jBalaf ia, v. t., incline to keeping 
near to : ala n., and af ia. 

J5alagote fia, v. t., incline (or 
bend) across it : bala. n., and 
goto, or koto. 

Z?alafis ia, v. t., hug (as a ship 
hugging the coast) : 6ala n., 
and afis ia. 

Balaga tia, v. c, to lift up (as 
the cover from anything) : 
laga tia. 

Balaga-saki nia, v. c, lift up, 
stripping off (as the husk of 
reeds) : preceding word, and t. 
ending saki. Hence 

i?alaga na, s., husk, scale, or 
similar thing that is or may 
be lifted up from what it 
covers or encloses : syn. laga- 
laga na. 

Balafala sa, v., to be entangled 
(as one tree falling against 
another). [Sa. pilia, id.] 
The radical idea is seen in 
6ala to be entangled or stuck 
in the throat (a bone) ; the 
bone inclines to one side and 
so sticks. See frala II. 

Balafala, s. See fala, s. 

J5alas, c. art. na&alas, i.e., na'ia 
las big hollow ; nabua naialas 
the road of the big hollow or 
gorge behind Utaon. 

i?alau na, s., the belly, inside ; 
inside, middle of anything : 
feala in., and au for amo : 
6alau is, lit., the hollow or 
middle or inside of the belly. 

2?alaus ia, v. t., to go through or 
along a thing lengthwise, not 
to go across it (ialagote fia) : 

30 [balo 

6ala ii., and us ia to follow, 
go through or along (as a 
road, &c.) 

Z?alea, s., d. for 6aloa, valley : 
ftala in., and a. ending a. 

i?ale6alea, and 6ele6elea, full of 
hollows, bellied, large : 6ala 
in., and a. ending a. [Ha. 
pele, to have a large belly ; to 
be large.] 

Bale sia, v. t., d., to husk, strip 
off (as the envelope of sugar 
cane) ; and 

Bala-saki, v. t., id. A. wafala 
to decorticate. 

Bali, v. i., to fast ; 

Bali ki, v. t., to fast from (a 
thing) ; 

Balifali, v. i., to fast (many 
people). [Mg. fady, id.] A. 
'abala, or 'abila, to abstain ; 
to be devoted to the worship of 
God, 2, to mourn (the dead). 

Balikau ia, v. t., to go or step 
over : ba to go, and likau or 
lakau, q.v. 

2?alo, v. i., a., ad., to be empty, 
vain, null and void, to no 
purpose or effect : i 6alo it is 
empty, nasuma 6alo an empty 
house, lo or te balo an empty, 
i.e., a worthless thing, a trifle, 
nothing, i toko balo he remains 
in vain, to no purpose, for 
nothing, idle ; d. mole ; hence 
sera te balo, or sera te mole, 
to deem worthless, vain, to 
despise. [Fi. wale uselessly, 
for nothing, idly, Ha. wale, 
Sa. vale.] A. batala, n. a. 
bufl', or botl' to be vain, 
nothing, to no end or purpose, 
in vain, for nothing, idle, H. 
batal to. be empty, vacant, 

julo] 31 

iclie (cognate bat an, 6ala ill.), 
E. batala to be empty, vain. 

Balo, prep, or ad., d., above, up : 
see (b') bi, prep., and ulua, v. 
[Malo aulu (a, prep. " on "), 
Fut. weiluga (see elag, infra), 
Ha. maluna above, up (ma, 
prep., and luna).] Arab. 
balai above, and exactly as 
Ef. balo ki (above to), balai 
ka, as above his house, or 
above anything : the prep, ba, 
E. ba, on, and lai the upper 
part, high, A. 'alu, 'alo, upper 

Note. — Compound preps, or 
ads. of this kind consist of a 
preposition prefixed to another 
word, which may be an ad. , s., or 
a. used substantively (as Eng- 
lish above, aboard, around, i.e., 
on-bove. on-board, on-round) : 
thus Ef. elag, d. balo, Sa. 
iluga, Ha. maluna, Malo aulu, 
Amharic balai, above, on high, 
on the uppersideorpart, all con- 
sist of the preps, e, i, or a, q.v., 
or bi, b' or ma, mi, q.v., and a 
word signifying high, up, or 
the upper part and side, for 
which see ulua, elag, lua, laga, 

Balo nia, v. t., dd. balo sia, or 
bilo sia, bulo sia, bulu gia, 
bunu lia bulu nia, bano lia, to 
wash (anything) to wash (by 
rubbing) : fafano, or bafano, 
q.v., to wash the hands. [Sa. 
fufulu to rub, to wash, My. 
basuh to wash.] A. masa n. a. 
maus' to wash ; to rub with 
the hand. 

Z?aloa, s., c. art. na^aloa, a 
valley, lit. what is hollow or 


concave, -a being the a. ending. 
[Ma. wharua, a., concave, s. 
valley.] See 6ala ill. 

Z/aloleba, s., the stomach : 6alo 
cavity. See 6ala in., and 
leba, laba, big. 

Balntu, v. i., d., to go there, 
or thither (away from the 
speaker), dd. banutu, binotC, 
binats, net, to set out, go 
away (from the speaker), hence 
a common word of farewell to 
one departing is Ku balotu 
you are going away, to which 
the one departing replies Ku 
mato you remain. See banotu. 

Z?alua, s., a hole or hollow in a 
rock : see 6ala in. 

Balu-saki, v. t., to paddle (a 
canoe), row (a boat) ; 

Balu-sa, v., to paddle, row, balu- 
sa sa paddle or row with it (a 
paddle or oar). [Epi dd. 
mbeluo ka, mbahua kin, v. t., 
An. aheled (aheleth) to paddle, 
to row, to sail, Am. fuloh to 
paddle, Fi. ai voce an oar, voce 
to paddle, to row, voce-taka, 
v. t. (= balu-saki), Pa. palusa, 
Ml. d. masu, Ml. A. sua, Malo 
mo sua, Ta. asua, Fut. sua, 
Mg. voy, act of rowing, mivoy 
to row, voizina rowed, fivoy 
an oar, My. dayung an oar, 
d - ayung, bard'ayung to row.] 

Note. — Balu-saki is the 
same as voce-taka (pronounced 
vothe-taka) the saki or taka 
being the transitive termina- 
tion, i.e., the prep, connecting 
the verb with its object, and 
consisting of two preps, com- 
bined, sa or ta and ki or ka. 
The first of these preps, is seen 


in the d (th) of aheled, and in 
the z or zi of voizina, and sa 
of palusa. The verb " to 
row" is balu, voce (vothe), 
(m)beluo, (m)bahua, voy, niasu, 
and without the preformative 
b' (v', m',) asua, sua, cbayung, 
and the 1 in balu, c (th) in 
voce, h in mbahua, s in sua, 
d in dayung, all are varia- 
tions of the same original 
consonant which is elided in 
voy. The word for "oar," ai 
voce, fivoy, is in Ef. uose, d. 
uohe (wose, wohe), Fut. foi. 
In Fut. the connection be- 
tween sua to paddle and foi 
an oar or paddle is not so 
apparent as that between Ml. 
P. su to paddle, and bos a 
paddle, because in foi, as in 
voy (= Fi. voce) the s has 
been elided ; and the con- 
nection between Ef. balu to 
paddle and uose a paddle is 
not so apparent as that be- 
ween Epi mbahua to paddle, 
and voho a paddle, Epi d. 
bahua to paddle, bono a 
paddle. See uose, infra. A. 
jadafa, or gadafa, kadafa (or 
'athafa), Amharic kazaf (or 
'azaf), to propel with oars, 
to row, Mod. A. kaddaf, or 
'addaf, part, mo'addif (anc. 
mo'addif, or mo'azzif, cf. voce 
(vothe), bose, uose, voy, foi). 
Sua is without the preforma- 
tive, cf. 'azaf a, 'addaf : balu 
seems to have the same prefix 
as Sa. pale to row, without 
which is Sa. alo (ps. alofia), 
and alofa'i to paddle, row, and 
with another vei'b, Sa. taualo, 

32 [bax 

to row, to keep on rowing. 
As to the prefix in balu com- 
pare that in batok, batu, q.v. 

Balu na, or fralu na, s., relative, 
friend ; a brother's brother, 
or sister's sister. A. ma'lai 
helper, relative, friend, asso- 
ciate, walai to be closely re- 
lated, to be a friend, helper. 

Z?alu-naki, v. t., to be a balu to 
a brother or to a sister. 

Z>alu gor ia, v. t., help, befriend, 
take the part of. See gor ia. 

J5aluk, s., c. art. na&aluk, an in- 
let or small bay, a cul de sac : 
6a, and luku. 

Bamasok6 sa, v. t., come upon, 
find : ba go, and masoko, q.v. 

Baraau ria, v. t., d. baraau sa, 
come upon, find it; ba go, and 
mau (sa), q. v. 

Bamau, v., to reach to, or term- 
inate at, as i bamau nalia uane 
it reaches to, or stops or term- 
inates at, that place ; hence, 
absolute, i bamau it terminates, 
stops, or ceases : ba go, and 
mau, q. v. 

Bamu na, s., the shoulder blade, 
shoulder, d. bau na. [Tali. 
papa the shoulder blade]. See 
6a6a a board. 

Bamu na, s., d. for babu na, q. v. 

Ban, v., d. for man ; anl, q. v., 
c. preformative m. 

Ban, v. i., for bano. 

Ban, s., and baniben, s., armlet, 
worn between the elbow and 
the shoulder, and woven so 
that the outer surface consists 
of different coloured beads 
(carved out of shells) arranged 
in regular figures. [Malo ban, 
Epi beni]. Der. uncertain. 


Bani, v., to act violently, to 
oppress, as ru bani kiena tliey 
violently destroy or take away 
;i man's property (at his house 
or plantation), as in time of 
war, or as ;i punishment for 
crime; baniban us ia follow 
him, acting oppressively, per- 
secute him. H. yanah to act 
violently, to oppress: bani has 
the preformative as in batoko, 
balu, &c. 
Banako, v. t., dd. binako, bunak, 
to steal, banako sa, and banak 
la, (I. Imnako n', steal it. [Ma. 
whanako, whenako, Fi. butako, 
Ero. prok, Ml. fenake, My. 
cholong, Ja. nolong, Mg. 
halatra c. pref. mangalatra, 
id.] A. saraka, n. a. sark', 
Mahri heriq, heliq, and desoq, 
to steal. Ef., Fi., and Er., 
&c, have the pref. 
Zianaga, s., mats, d. banu ; so 
called because they are plaited, 
see bau. [Fi. ibi, Epiyembi.] 
Banei, v.i., to come here (to the 
speaker) ; same meaning as 
banimai, or banu-mai. [Ml. 
P. vine, id.] 
Banei, s., d. bane, volcano : see 

bani a, v. t. [Pa. banei id.] 
Bani a, or ban ia, v. t., to burn ; 
to roast, to cook by roasting 
on the fire; ben or fen cooked 
or roasted. The n is not 
radical : dd. beni a, banu sa, 
whence banus. See banei ; 
and dd. ubu, upu, of (ov), um, 
iia (uwai, oven (cooking), fire- 
place. [Sa. faafana, to warm 
up food, mafanafana, to be 
warm, To. mafana, heat, 
warmth, Ma. mahana, warm, 

33 [banomai 

Ta. mahana, warm, the sun, a 
day, Fi. vavi-a to bake, My. 
bu to roast, grill, broil, Ja. 
panas hot, warm, panaskan 
to heat, Mg. fana, voafana, 
warm (applied to food cooked 
and warmed the second time), 
mafana, mafanafana, warm, 
hafanana, s., heat, manafana 
and mahafanafana, v. t., to 
heat, mihafana, v. i., to be hot, 
grow hot ; and Mg. memy, 
Sa. umu, oven.] H. afah, to 
cook, to bake, specially bread 
or cake in an oven (Ch , S. 
id.), A. wafa', whence mifa', an 
oven, Mod. S. yafyana, a baker. 

Banimai, v. i., to come here (to 
the speaker), opp. to banotu 
go there (away from the 
speaker) : see banomai. [Epi 

Bano lia, d. balo sia, v. t., d. for 
balo nia. 

Bano, v. i., to go, go off, or 
away. [Malo vano, Epi mbano, 
mbene, Meli fano, Fut. fano, 
Ta. uven, An. apan.] The 
verb ban or bano is composed 
of ba to go, and an adverbial 
suftix or directive, for which 
see under banotu. 

Banomai, banamai, or banimai, 
v. i., to come here or hither, 
dd. ba be, umai, mai, be : bano 
mai, or without the suffix no, 
ni, ba, be ; with ba corrupted 
to u, umai ; and, without bano 
(or ba), mai, d., or be, d., as 
a verb in the sense of the full 
expression, bano-mai, or ba-be. 
See ba, bano, supra ; and 
under the following word. 
[Meli fano mai.] 



Banotu, sometimes pronounced 
balotu, v. i., to go away (in a 
direction from the speaker), to 
go there or thither, dd. binoti, 
banats, binats, and ndtu, net : 
ba to go, and ndtu there 
or thither. Notu, or net, 
originally an ad. has come to 
be used in some dialects for 
the full expression, as a verb. 
See the similar remark as to 
mai, or be, under the preceding 

Note on the particles mai, 
d. be (in banomai, babe), 
notu (in banotu), and 'no (in 
bano) : — 

1. Mai, or be, coming 
after a verb is an ad. or 
" directive " signifying here, 
hither. [So in Fi., Sa., Ha., 
Tah., To., Ma. (My. mari).] 
Coming before a verb in 
Fi. it signifies to come, as 
an sa mai kauta I have 
come to take ; so in Ef. a 
mai buati I have come to 
take, i.e., 1 (am) here to take: 
in two Ef. dd. a m;d, a be, I 
have come, or I (am) here ; as 
" to come " is always expressed 
in other Ef. dd. by banomai, 
or babe, mai or be in those 
two dd. may be regarded as a 
mere abbreviation of bano- 
mai, babe. So Mg. avy and 
My. mari are also used as 
verbs signifying to come. 
Before a noun or the ad. 
" where " mai signifies from in 
Fi., Sa., Ha.. To. (mei, or me), 
Ef. (bai, ba, be), and Mg. 
(avy), thus Fi. maivei ? Sa. 
maifea 1 Tah. mai hea 1 To. 


meife 1 or mefe ? Ef. ba se ? 
bai se 1 or be sabe ? Mg. avy 
aiza 1 from where 1 whence % 
The Mg and Ef. are verbs — iba 
se ? avy aiza izy? he comes 
from where 1 In the other 
cases the mai, as in mai hea 1 
is called a prep. Ef. i ba, or 
bai se 1 is, literally, he (is) 
hither (from) where 1 and in 
one dialect the prep, ki = from 
is expressed as i ba ki e 1 
he (is) here (or hither) from 
where 1 In Fi. mai is also a 
prep, signifying in, at. The 
radical meaning of this par- 
ticle is here or hither, and it 
is an ad. consisting of the 
prep, ma or ba (Ha. ma in, 
at, to, kc. ) in, to, and the 
dem. i or 'i, this (place), here, 
hence mai, bai in or to this 
(place), here or hither. See 
Ef. d. i this, here ; and the 
prep., in Ha. and Ma. ma, Fi. 
vei, Mg. amy, under the word 
bi (d. mi) infra. H. bazeh 
in this (place), here, Amh. 
bazih, and with the z elided 
(bayh, or baih), here, lit. in 
this (place), and with the 
pron. 3 sing, instead of zch. 
Mahri boh here, H. poh here, 
lit., in this place. 

'2. Notu, or lotu (nats, nat, 
net) like mai in two dialects 
has come to be used as a verb 
(notu, net) with the same 
meaning as banotu for which 
it is used, as mai and be for 
banomai, babe, for the sake 
of brevity ; and like mai it is 
a compound ad., consisting of 
the prep, ni, or n' to (or ani, 


q.v.), as to which seem, infra, 
and a dem., that, yon (place), 
there, yonder, and signifying 
to that i»r yon (place), thither. 
3. The no, or 'no, in bano, 
is the same as the no in notu, 
but without the tu, i.e., it is the 
prep, n', and o, dem. The dif- 
ference between notu and no, 
or rather between banotu and 
bano, is slight, banotu being 
simply a strengthened bano. 
The difference between bano 
or bani in banomai, or bani- 
mai, and bano in banotu seems 
to be that in the former bano 
or bani or banc the dem. after 
the prep, n' is wanting, thus 
banimai go to here, banotu go 
to there. T. nyo to there, 
thither, Matt. ii. 22, nye, id., 
Matt. xvii. 20, xxiv. 28, xxvi. 
36. Amh. with the prep, 
wada, to, instead of ne (i.e., 
originally E. la, A. Ii, to, 
cf. balotu), wadaziya, and 
(z elided) wadiya to there, 
thither. The tu in banotu is 
dem., as in My. itu, that, situ, 
there, TaSa. natu and atu, 
that, E. uetu, that, H. zektu, 

Banu, s., d. 6anaga, q.v. 

Banu sa, and banus. See bani a 
to roast. 

Biio, v. i., d. for ma, man, ba, ban, 
bon. See am, v. i. 

Baofa, s., d., menstruation, i 
su baofa meamea (said of a 
woman menstruating while 
still suckling a child) : 6afa. 

Bara, v. i., to be burned (as food 
in cooking) : see buria, d. 
bouria, or bauria, ta&ara. [Ma. 

35 [bare 

wera burnt, hot, s., heat, pa- 
wera hot, Sa. vevela to be 
hot, ps. velasia, vela, done, 
well cooked, My. parik, marak, 
to kindle, set on fire.] H. 
ba'ar (Ch. br-'ar to burn, Pael 
to kindle), to burn up, to 
kindle, to be burned. 

Bara, v. i., or a., to be barren, 
d. oro. E. 'abara to be 
barren, 'ebur barren. 

Barab, v. i., or a., long, high (as 
a hill). [Malo barauo, Fi. 
balavu, Ml. U. periv, long, 
also wide.] Ef dd. baraf, 
baram, barau, birerife (see 
laba, leba), prop, extended, 
cf. Ml. U. 

Baraf, d. barab. 

Baragai, d., transposed for baga- 

Bara tia, v. t., to beat. [Fi. 
waro-ca, My. palu, Ja. pala, 
Mg. vely.] A. wabala to 

Bara tia, v. t., to bind together. 
My. barot to gird, to bind 
round.] H. hibar to connect, 
join together. See farati, in- 

Baram, d. barab. 

Bara- tuna, s.. d. for bura. 

Barau, d. barab. 

Barau, v. i., to reproach, speak 
loudly reproaching. See rau. 

Bare, v. i., to be moved, move 
about, bare ki, v. t., to move, 
agitate, barefare ki, id. A. 
farefara to move, agitate. 

Bare, or barea, v. i , or a., d. 
uorea, or orea, to be blind (a 
man), to have a white speck 
(of an eye whose sight is lost), 
to be dirty looking, like a 


sightless eye (of half-raw food). 
[Ml. A. bar, U. oror, Epi 
mbili.] H. 'avar, E. 'awir, to 
be blind. 

Baretau, a., black and white 
spotted (as a pig), also a yam 
that has been peeled, or a tree 
that has been barked, i bi 
baretau : tau white, and bare, 
for which see the following 

Barea, or borea, d., v. i., or a., 
black, dirty coloured. [My. 
biru blue, TaSa. berika black.] 
A. 'a'faru dust-coloured. 

Z?aro, v. i., or a., to be heed- 
less, taliga deaf, d. na 
ftaro one deaf, barobaro to be 
heedless, indifferent, ta6aro 
to be heedless, refractory, 
lawless, barua free from, as 
i tumana bisa barua ki nia 
he declares himself free from 
it (as a crime), mania to 
cease, leave off, lo barua kin ia 
see the nakedness of someone, 
literally, or as to his poverty 
or being devoid of food, &c. 
See baror, bura. H. para' to 
loose, let go, make naked, 
paru'a lawless, Unbridled, A. 
fara"a to empty, leave off, be 
free from (as free from cares 
or labour, careless, idle), 5, 
tafarra"a to be idle., c. art. na&aro, s., one deaf. 

Baro sia, or baru sia, v. t. This 
verb was used thus in the old 
days : to fell a big tree they 
burned round the base of it, 
then ru baru si. or baru hi 
namalitera, that is, smashed, 
broke, shaved, chipped, cut, or 
scraped off the charred wood ; 

36 [barua 

then burned the new exposed 
surface again, smashed or cut 
off (with the karau tare) the 
charred parts again, and so on 
till the tree fell. On E. Mai 
barusi naniu = Ef. koi naniu 
(see koi). Tea farofaro that 
which cuts, shaves, rasps off, 
barobaroa (a. ending -a) fit for 
rasping off (as sandpaper or a 
grindstone). [Fi. varo-ta to 
file, saw, or rasp, Sa. valu 
scrape out nuts (=Ef. koi), to 
scrape (as taro), ps. valua, Ma. 
waru to scrape, shave, cut (the 
hair), Ha. walu to scratch, 
rub, rasp, polish, Tab. varu to 
shave, to bark a tree, to scrape, 
My. paras to shave, to pare close 
to the surface, Mg. fara scrape, 
scratch, make smooth.] H. 
bara to cut out, carve out, &c, 
A. bara' to cut out, to cut or 
pare down, to plane and polish. 
(As to the notion of breaking, 
cutting, separating, which is 
inherent in the radical syllable 
H. par, see under H. parad 
(Ges. Diet. ) The same is 
found in the somewhat softened 
syllable bar, A. and H.) 

Baroaki, d. See boroaki. 

Barobaroa, a. See under baro 

Baror, s., one careless, heedless, 
lawless, wicked, foolish. See 

2?aro8aro, v. i., or a. See under 

Barua, v. i., or a., made naked, 
devoid of, clear or free from. 
See baro. 

Liarua, or uarua, v. i., or a., tat, 
big, large. [Mg. baribary, 




bary, large, full, well made, 
Fi. vora to grow fat or stout.] 
H. bara', to grow fat, bari' 
fat, A. wara' to be fat. 

Barubaruta, a., fat ; ending -ta : 

Barubarutena, a., fat ; ending 
-tena: barua. 

Ba-si a, v., go upon, tread upon, 
basi naniatuna tread upon 
something : ba to go, and 
t. ending si [Fi. va-ca.] 

Basa, to speak. See bisa. 

ifostf a, v. t., to break off (as a 
branch from a tree), to break 
off with a snap or jerk, fiasu, 
id., mafasu d. moas (mowas) 
broken off, 6ase-raki, takes a 
different object, as base nara 
nakasu break off the branch of 
a tree, base-raki na-usu break 
off from a reed (the husk or 
covering, so as to make it 
bare), raki nia, id., li a, t. ending li, to 
detach, break off, ta&asuli de- 
tached, broken off, separated. 
[Fi. basu-ka, or -raka, to 
break, also to open one's eyes 
or mouth, basi-a, nearly syn. 
c. basu-ka. Sa. fati to break 
off, ps. fatia.] A. fas's'a to 
break off, fassa detach, shiver 
off, H. pasah, q.v., to distend, 
open (the lips), A. fasa' to 
separate, detach (as flesh from 
a bone). 

Basea, v. t., c. verb, suf., scold, 
vituperate, rail at, d. syn. suer 
ia : bakahasea, id. A. nabaza 
to reproach, blame, rail at. 

Basin, s., a bone piercer. See siu. 

Baso ia, v. t., to pierce. See sui. 
[Fi. veso-ka and sua-ka.] 

Bastak, v., d. for bataka : basi, 


Bastufi, v. t., cl., to follow, to be 
like: basi, and tufi. A. tabi'a 
to follow. 

A'asu li. See 6ase a. 

Bataka na, v. t., to be like, 
equal to, sufficient for (bastuti 
and mautaka nearly syn.): ba 
to go, and taka like, similar 

/iatako na, or batoko na,, s., the 
body, d. mole na. [Ta. buti, 
My. batang, Mg. vatana.] A. 
badano the body. 

Bate, v.,' cl. for batu. 

Bate, num., four. [Mg. efatra, 
My. ampat, Sa. fa,] A. ar- 
ha'at', four. 

Bati na, s.. the teeth, a tooth, 
also a shoot (of banana or 
taro), a seed. [Fi. bati.] See 
nabati na. 

Bati-gat, and d. bati-gaut, s., a 
thorny plant, with crooknl, 
grasping thorns, like hooks : 
for gaut, see under gau, tagau. 

Bati-rik, s., mosquito : bati, and 
rik, q.v. 

Bat ia, or bati a, v. t., to do, 
make, work at. [My. buat, 
or buwat, to do.] S. 'bad, to 
do, to work, work at, make. 

7?atlk, d. uarik, v. i., or a., few, 
to be few. See tik or rik. 

Batira, s., precipice, rugged de- 
clivity : 

Batibatlra, a., rugged and pre- 
cipitous : bati teeth, and end- 
ing ra : nabatira, that which is 
rugged (as a precipice), syn. 
na tiroa. 

Batok. v. i., d., to remain : toko. 

Batu, v. i., d., to remain : tu. 


7?atu, s., na 6atu, an adult, 
young man. A. fatiy' adult, 
fata' young man. 

Batu, v., d. bate, to close up the 
roof at the ridge-pole with 
reeds : na fatu the ridge-pole. 
[Epi bofugo, v., id.] See fatu, 
s., and bau. A. "ama to cover 
a house, that is, its upper roof, 
as with reeds. 

Batua na, s., the knee : prob. 
bau (q. v.) the head, and tua 
leg. [Ml. A. lua leg, mbulua 
knee, Ml. P. and Malo bau 

Batua ki, v. t, to go from (any 
thing or person) : ba to go, 
and tua ki to place, lay down : 
lit. go laying down or leaving. 

Bau na, s., d. for bamu na, q.v. 

Bau, s., one slain. [Ha. po, 
slain, lost, hidden]. See s. bog. 

Bau na, s., the head : a head or 
chief, specially, d., maternal 
uncle, that is, head of the 
family. [Malo batu, San Cris- 
toval bau, head : Tah. fau a 
kind of head dress, a god, as 
being head or above, a king 
or principal chief, as being 
above others.] A. hamaiu the 
head : the head and chief of 
a tribe or family 
under bau sia and mau 

Bau lulu, s., a proud person, lit. 
high head : lu. 

Baua, or uaua (waua), s., a pillow: 
preceding word and ending -a : 
also, v., to pillow one's head. 

Bau-maso na, s., portion of the 
property of one deceased in- 
herited by a member of the 
family : bau, and maso, q.v. 
For bau see s. bau sia. 

38 [bau 

See egg. 

Bau, v. t., to be above, cover, 
surpass, i bau gor ia. See 
tabau : 

Bau sia, or fau sia, v. t., to 
fasten together ; to plait (a 
mat ) ; bau rarua fasten to- 
gether (the parts of) a canoe ; 
bau uago fasten a pig to the 
carrying pole : ora naui i bau 
the yam vine fastens on or 
round the stake ; redup. bau- 
fau; bau-maso (maso a portion) 
the portion collected or fastened 
or gathered together, bau-terag 
ia fasten — to dry it (as wet 
cloth), i.e., fasten it on some- 
thing in the sun or before a 
fire. [Sa. fau (Ma. hou) tie 
together, fasten by tying, ps. 
fausia, To. fau fillet round the 
head, turban, Fut. fausia to 
fasten, tie, Fi. vau-ca to bind 
together, Sa. fau-la'i to be 
heaped up, to abound, My. 
ubung to join, connect, &c.] 
See mau. H. 'amain to gather 
together, to collect, to join to- 
gether, A. 'amma to put on 
the head a fillet, to be a chief, 
to be an uncle, "amma to 
cover, to fasten (a camel), H. 
'amam to cover, hide, fig. to 
surpass, A. "amma, 4, to dip, 

Bau gor ia, v. t., to cover over : 
tabau sa to be above (as 
covering a thing), to be over, 
surpass him (in dignity or 
rank). See under preceding 
word for bau. 

Bau or fau, bao or fao, v. i., or 
a., new. [Malo baro, Ml. 
mermer, Motu matamata, My. 
baharu, Sa. fou, Fi. vovou, vou, 


Mg. vao (havaozana) new.] 
A. mahdutli, part, of liadatha 
to be new, new. H. hadas', 
S. lidath, id., E. hadas, to 

Bauli a, v. c., to buy by exchang- 
ing .; 

Baulu, or faulu, s., the thing 
given in exchange wherewith 
to purchase something, barter 
(wherewith to buy by ex- 
changing). See aul ia, ul ia. 

Bau-ragia, or bau-teragia. See 
bau sia. 

Baus ia, and bausus ia, v. t., to 
ask him (or her), bausus ia sa, 
ask him it (or about it) : 

Bausu ki, to inquire about (a 
thing), bausu baki to inquire 
at (a person), to ask, to ques- 
tion (a person). See us ia. 

Bauria, d. for buria, q.v. See 

Z>ea (kbe, or bwe), s. See nafiea. 

Be, d. mai, ad., here, hither ; d. 
to come here, like mai, q.v. ; 
also d. for ba, bai, to come or 
go from, as i be sab mai 1 he 
comes from where hither 1 

Be emia, v. t., to have it, i be 
nalo he has a thing, d. i 
bienia he has it: bienia, bi enia. 

Be, or bea, dd. bei, mia (tiamia), 
v. i., or a., to precede, go 
before, be first, first. [Sa. 
mua, and mua'i tirst, muamua 
to go before, first, Lakon mo, 
Volow mag, Arag moana first, 
Fi. mada to precede.] A. 
fuhal mouth, entrance (as of 
a river), hence the first or 
foremost part of anything, 
Amh. pat, or fat, fore-part, 
and c. a. ending fatanga first. 

39 [bei 

Be, d., a particle used after 
interrogatives, then, now, thus 
ua be 2 sa be (sab) ? where 
then 1 takani aga bat ia be ? 
how shall I do it then (or 
now). In other dialects it is 
not used. H. 'epo' then, now, 
as ayeh 'epo' where then 1 eg. 
'epoh (poh here) where? how 1 ? 

Be, fe, conj., if, should; ku f6 
bano i fe uia should you go it 
were well, i be fano i be uia 
should (or if) he go it were 
well. [Ta. ip, Fut. pe, if.] 
Amh. ba, be, if, should (re- 
peated in each clause as in 
Ef., Isenberg's Gr., pp. 158-9). 

Be a, or fe a, red up. befe, v. t , 
to read, also to count. E. 
nabab to speak, recite, read, 
eg. H. naba' to prophesy (A. 
naba' to declare), from naba', 
Hi. hibi'a to tell. 

Be, or bea, red up. bebea, v. i., 
or a., to be great, wide ex- 
tended. [Mg. be great, large, 
Mota poa, Gao bio.] E. 'abya, 
or 'abia to be great, wide, ex- 
tended, 'abiy great, large. 

Bega, d. baga, q.v., a hill. 

Bei ki, or bai ki, d. bi ki, v. t., to 
show : d. syn. bisai ki. A. 
balia to appear, be shown, 
manifest, show, divulge, in- 
dicate ; hence 

Beifei ki, make manifest, in- 

Bei, v., bei ki to watch for (as 
for an animal to take or kill 
it) ; d. bu to see, look at. A. 
ba"a (ba"ai) to watch, observe, 
look at, look out for, rush 
upon (the prey) from an am- 
bush, seek, &c. 


Bei, or 6ai, a thing hidden, con- 
cealed, i bi 6ei it is hidden. 
[Mg. anna, My. buni, To. 
fufu, Ma, Ha. huna, Fut. 
funa, Epi mbin, Fi. vuni, 
hidden.] See afa : eg. to the 
word there given are A. "abai, 
H. haba', A. li'aba', to hide. 

Bei, d. for be, or bea, v. i., or a.. 
to precede, first. . 

Bei or bai, d. ba, prep, (in this 
form as a prep., but see bai, 
v.), used mostly after verbs, 
connecting them with their 
object : lo to look, lo bei a 
look upon it, see it, d. lekba 
(the hnal a is made long by 
the absorption of the pron. of 
the third person ) ; taruba to 
fall, taruba bei a fall upon it, 
d. ro to fall, ro bei a to fall 
upon it ; an to be, to lie, an 
bei a lie upon it ; toko sit, 
toko bei a sit upon it ; ba to 
go, ba bei a go or tread upon 
it (for instance, upon tilth in 
the path, ba bai intai); le ba i 
look upon it, see it, d. libi sia 
or lebi sia (i.e., le bi sia look 
upon it): the final i in bei or 
bai helongs to the pronoun of 
the third person. [Fi. vei to, 
d. va.] E. ba, A. fi, bi, H. 

Bei, s., na bei saki ni aliati the 
ascending cloud of dawn, the 
dim cloudy or misty appear- 
ance preceding daylight at 
dawn: d. in tei saki the rising 
cloud. See tai ni lagi. A. 
"ainma (S. 'am) to be covered 
with clouds, as the sky, 
"ammai dust, darkness "am- 
ma.t' cloudy. 

40 [bele 

JJeie, or fefe, s., oven cover 
(made of leaves) ; a covering 
trap (for catching fowls). [Sa. 
veve oven cover of leaves.] 
See (6otia) bo. 

Beigo, or baigo, s , a trumpet 
(shell) ; d. a kind of flute 
(cocoanut shell). [Sa. fagu- 
fagu a flute, To. fagofago a flute 
blown by the nose.] A. baka 
to blow a trumpet, ba'ku, or 
ba'ko, a trumpet. 

Bela ki, v. t., to gird (oneself), 
bela ki na tali put on one's 
girdle or belt ; to tie or fasten 
anything or carry anything 
between one's girdle and the 
lower part of the belly : hence, 
to take with one, to have with 
one or attached to one. See 
6ala in. The s. is nafelaki, d. 
nabiilai, or 6alai, what is 
fastened or girded round the 
loins, girdle. 

Belaki, v. i., to be pregnant : 
bala, in. 

Belaki, s, c. art. nabelaki, d. 
syn. intamate, great heathen 
feast or series of feasts periodi- 
cally held at every village, at 
which there was abundance of 
food, singing, and dancing : 
prob. so called because of the 
abundance of food, and friendly 
feeling : ?;ala in. 

Bela, or fela, if perhaps, if in- 
deed, conj. be, and ad. la. 

Bela, v. i., to be smooth, level ; 
bala I. 

Ztela, d. for 6ala II., q.v. 

Bela-tagot. See 6ala II. 

Bela-galu. See frala II. 

B<Ae, s., the dead body of a pig : 
said to be so called because its 


belly swells. Zfala HI. [Ha. 
pele to swell out, have a large 

i?ele na, s., the belly (or ?/ala 
na); the womb; a mother (dd. 
syn. eri na, raite na, susu na); 
a source, as be\e ni torogo the 
source or master of the torogo 
(a species of divination), also 
6ele nai (naui) kanoa the be- 
ginning or feast of the first 
ripe yams : ftala III. 

Belbel, d. for bile, bilebile, q.v. 

Beles, s., c art. nebeles, a dance 
in which the two parties keep 
meeting each other. 8ee lasi, 

Ben, or fen, a., cooked, broiled, 
roasted : bani a. 

Beni a, d. for bani a. 

Ben, d. for ban. See am to be, 

.Ztelu ki (kwelu ki), v. t., to 
fold, to double, taAelii (tak- 
welii) fob led, doubled ; 

Zfclu to be doubled up, as it were 
folded together, hence to be 
hidden, to hide oneself, 6elu 
ki to be hidden from, also 
uelu ; 

Beluuelu, v. i , or a., folded, 
hence limp, doubled up, and 
beluueluki, a., doubled up, 
uneven, limp, limber, weak, 
flexible. [Ha. pelu to double 
over, bend, or flex, as a joint, 
to fold, doubled, folded over, 
pelupelu to double over and 
•over, doubled over, 8a. inapelu, 
mapelupelu- to bend, stoop, 
Fi. belu-ka to bend, curve, 
kabelu bent, Mg. valona 
folded, doubled.] H. kapal to 
fold together, to double, part. 

41 [bebd 

ps. doubled, Ch. kapel to 
double, roll up, S. Ethpe. 
'ethkfel, or etkfel, to be 
doubled, folded together. 

Bera, or fera, v. i., to crumble, 
fall to pieces, berafera, and 
taberafera to crumble, fall to 
pieces, be scattered about in 
fragments ; 

Bera ki, v. t., to scatter about, 
tabera ki to scatter about, 
make to fall to pieces, and 
beraferaki, v. t., and taferafera 
ki, v. t., na feroa, s., a crumb, 
sabera ki, v. t., to scatter, 
saberak, d. saberik, v. i., to 
fall to pieces. [Fi. vuru-taka 
to crumble, vuruvuru, v. i., to 
crumble, and S., a crumb, 
Mg. miveraberaka, v. i., to 
crumble, mahavera, v. t., My. 
ambor scattered, tabur to be 
scattered ; Ja. sabar to scatter, 
to strew, My. sibar to strew, 
scatter.] E. farfur a crumb, 
Talmud parpor from H. pur 
to break, Pilpel pirper to break 
in pieces : " this is the original 
power of the biliteral par," 
Ges., s. v. parad, then applied 
to scattering, &c. 

Bera gia, v. t., d. birigia, q.v. 

Bera kati a, d. bera tia, bera tiki 
nia, v. used as ad., fully, 
thoi'oughly, accurately ; also 
a., as tea berakati na a thing 
fully his, a thing his own. 
Probably connected with bura, 
d. biri, to be full, full. 

Beru, v. d., syn. uma, to clear 
for a plantation, to cut down 
trees, cut or clear the jungle. 
[Mg. firala (fira cut, ala wood, 
forest), miferala cut down 

bes] 42 

wood in order to make some 
use of the ground, clear the 
forest, Ja. tipar felling and 
burning the forest for culti- 
vation, Ma. para to cut down 
bush, clear.] H. bere', Piel of 
bara' to cut down — "go into 
the wood and cut out room 
for thee there " Josh. xvii. 15. 

Z»es, or iesu, s., dry wood, hard 
dry wood used for fencing. A. 
yabis' dry (wood), Nm. yabis 
dry (wood). 

J5es, d. besu, s., a young pig 
whose mother is dead and 
which is brought up as a pet 
and is therefore tame and 
gentle; also a motherless child, 
syn. mitabusa. So called from 
being deprived of the mother's 
milk, and, as it were, arid. 
See preceding word and busa : 
A. yabisa to be dry. 

Beta, or feta, s., a tribe, a crowd 
or lot of people, or of animals, 
accompanying each other, as 
nabeta Togoliu the tribe of 
Togolius, the Togoliu crowd, 
set, or lot ; a shoal, nabeta 
naika, a shoal of fish. See 
bita, bita-naki, ta. 

Beti, or bati, s., in p roper names, 
as Togoliu beti, Metanibeti, 
&c. : beti seems a form of the 
word bati (see nabati na) and 
prob. means chief, or head of 
the family. 

2>'eti, s., a kind of spear pronged 
with sharpened human bones, 
and feathered : prob. so called 
because pronged or toothed. 
See nabati na. 

]>i, v., d. for umba ki, q.v. 

Bi, or fi, dd. mi, bai, v., to be, 

[bi enia 

only used before substantives, 
or words used as substantives, 
as i bi natamole, fatu, nakasu, 
it is a man, stone, tree, ru hi 
natamole uia they are good 
men. [Epi nibe, ve, to be, 
Ml. P. fe, A. mbe, be, U. vi.] 
This is the prep, bi, fi (or bai) 
come to be used as the verb 
to be, somewhat similarly to 
E. bo, M. A. tih and fi. But 
the word is not used imper- 
sonally in Ef. as in E. and A. ; 
it is more used in Ef. and Epi 
than in Ml. Compare Ges. 
Diet., s. v. be (Beth essentiae). 
Bi enia (d. bi emia, or be emia), 
v. t., to have ; i be nalo, or i 
bieni nalo he has something : 
enia is the pronoun him, her, 
it, suffixed to eni (for ani, q. v.) 
the prep, or transitive particle, 
the verb being bi (or be), 
which (see preceding word) 
denotes also to be. In E. bo 
denotes to have, as well as to 
be, and governs the accusative. 
Dillmann, Gr., §176, h, §192, 
1, b. 

The Ef. i bi enia may be 
simply he is to it, i.e., he has 
it ; thus i ti-ka ki nia denotes 
either he is not to it, or he 
has it not = i ti bi enia he has 
it not ; so (d.) i be (be e) 
nalo he is to something, i.e., 
has something, i ti be nalo = 
i ti-ka ki nalo he has not 
anything. Note that ti-ka is 
written tika, q.v. It is equally 
correct to say namuruen i tika 
ki nia he has not laughing 
(lit. laughing is not to him), 
and i tika ki namuruen he 


has not laughing (lit. he is 
not to laughing) : the former 
is the order of words in ex- 
pressing the notion " to have " 
or "to have not" in H., A., 
and S., "is to him," or "is 
not to him." 

Bi ki, v. t., d. for bei ki, q.v., to 

Bi, s., only in meta-ni-bi small 
openings in the ends of a house 
through which light comes, 
and which are left uncovered 
in thatching. Of same stem 
as preceding word, whence is 
A. bullu a name of the sun, 
and huh' the uncovered part 
of a house or tent. 

Bia, or fia, d. blsa, or flsa [Malo, 
Santo, ifec, visaj, v. i., or a., 
how many 1 as ru bia 1 they 
are how many ? natamole bia 1 
how many men 'I And, not 
interrogatively, ru bia, they 
are so many, few, natamole bia 
so many men, i.e., a few men. 
[Sa. fia, ad., how many l Fi. 
vica, ad., how many 1 Ta. 
kuva, ad. , how many 1 My. 
barapa (apa) how much, or 
how many, much, many, some, 
Mg., ad., firy how many? mi- 
tiry, v. i., into how many parts 
does it divide 1 ?] The final 
part of bia or bisa, namely a 
or sa, is the interrogative pro- 
noun, as is apa in barapa. In 
sa the s is a dem. prefixed to 
the interrogative pronoun, and 
probably the r in Mg. ry is 
likewise a dem. The prefixed 
bi or fi is the reflexive verb 
preformative, Ef. hi or fi, Sa. 
i"e, My. bar, or ba (ber, be), 

43 [bi 

Mg. mi (fi), as the My. ba- 
rapa seems to indicate (and 
the r of barapa must in the 
absence of anything to the 
contrary be regarded as a 
dem. like the r in ry and the 
s in sa). On this reflexive 
verb preformative bi, My. ba 
(be), Sa. fe, Mg. mi (fi), see 
next word following. In sup- 
port of this view let it be 
observed that bia or bisa in 
Ef. is never an adverb and is 
a verb, being usable as an 
adjective only as every verb 
in the language is. In bakafia 
or bakafisa (q.v.) make how 
many times 1 (Fi. vakavica) 
the causative verb preforma- 
tive baka has the same effect 
as in bakarua, bakatolu, ifec. 
In A., S., and H., how many? 
how much 1 is expressed by 
ka, or ke, as, prefixed to the in- 
terrogative pronoun, the com- 
pound signifying literally " as 
what " ? H. kamah, S. kima', 
A. kam, and with a different 
interrogative, kay, kain' quot 
(how many % so many). Com- 
pare Tanna keva, d. kuva. 
Bi, or fi, reflexive verb preforma- 
tive (ba, or baka, fa, or faka, 
being the causative verb pre- 
formative), as ru atu gia, v. t., 
they smite him, ru fiatu, 
v. r., they smite each other, 
they fight, auli a, v. t. , 
exchange, replace, substitute 
for it, bauli a, or fauli a, 
v. c, nearly the same, make 
to take the place of, barter 
for it, ru biauli, v. r., they are 
bartering with each other, or 




they are replacing each other 
or taking each other's places 
(as men at the oar). [Sa. fe 
*' tlie reciprocal particle " pre- 
fixed to verbs, Fi. vei, My. 
bar (i.e., ber) and be, prefixed 
particle sign of the neuter or 
intransitive verb, Mg. mi 
reflexive verb preformative 
(Griffith's Mg. Gr., p. 112), 
and with ha (the ka in baka), 
miha : the r in My. bar or 
ber (see under preceding word) 
is held to be a dem. or pro- 
nominal particle like the ha 
in miha and maha (ka in 
baka), and n (or na) in Mg. 
man, mana, My. mang (the 
ba or ma in these being the 
causative verb preformative). 
See ba and baka.] H. 
mith-, mi- (as in middabber), 
for the A. it-, i-, see Wr., 
Gr. I., §111, participle, Anc. 
muta-, Mod. mut-, Ch. mit-, S. 
met-, or nieth-; the m- belongs 
to the participle, and without 
it the prefix is in H. hit or 
hith, Ch. it, S. et or eth, A. it 
■(for ta) ; and when the t of 
'this prefix was assimilated to 
the initial radical of the verb, as 
it often was, it became simply 
i- followed by a doubled con- 
sonant, as in H. hiddabber, 
A. issakata. Of this only the 
prefixed i could remain, and it 
has become the prevailing 
form in such languages as Sa., 
My., Mg., or Ef. It may be 
remarked that in Mg. in all 
verbs of this reflexive form 
this prefix occurs without the 
in, in the future and past 

tenses, as simply i. As to 
signification of verbs with tins 
prefix in A., H., and S., they 
are primarily reflexive, then 
reciprocal or passive (intransi- 
tive) or transitive, governing 
an accusative. In Ef. verbs 
of this form are reflexive, or 
recip., and intransitive, rarely 

Bia, bibia, d. biau or beau, s., a 
child, youth, bia kiki little 
children, bia turiai young 
men ; and in names of child- 
ren as bia-naru, &c. [TaSa. 
pipi infant, Ml. IT. bibi in- 
fant, Ml. A. pepe infant, and 
Fut. foi, in foimata, eye (but 
lit. pupil of the eye), Ja. bayi 
infant, child.] A. bu'bu' a 
little boy (from baba to say 
papa), the pupil of the eye, (at 
Damascus) bubu a little child. 

Biau, or beau, s., wave, waves 
[Sa. peau, id., My. ombak, id.] 
E. ababi, A. 'ubab', i.q. 'ubab' 
flood, waves, from 'abba to have 
broken waves (the sea). Hence 

Biatiau (for biaufiau), v. t., to lie 
raised in waves, rough (as the 
sea). [Sa. peaua rough (as the 
sea), lit. wavy, full of waves ; 
peau and the a. ending a.] 

Biauli, v. r., d. bioli, barter or 
exchange with each other ; 
take each other's places, as 
men at the oar or other work, 
spell each other. 

Bialo, v. r., to wave (beckoning) ; 
reflexive of alo-fia, q.v. 

Bib, s., d. for 6a6a, a board. 

Bibisinu, v. i., to ring, sing (of 
the ears) : sinu ; bibi is the 
preformative bi doubled. 


Bibe, v. i., or a., for bebea. 

Bi6ila, v. i., or a., V)ig, great : 
redup. of 6ila. 

Blfera ki, v. t., to show by a 
fera (or omen) : fera. 

Z>'igo. See buigo. 

Bikutu ki, v. t., speak to each 
other (against someone in 
his absence) ; decide about 
(someone). See kutu ki. 

Bila, v. i., shine, lighten, gleam, 
Hash, appear ; bilafila, redup., 
to do so repeatedly : lo bila 
ki glance at ; fila lightning ; 
bule-meta eyeball (gleaming 
part of the eye). [Sa. pula, pu- 
pula, pulapula to shine, may be 
same.] A.barak, or bara', shine, 
gleam, flash, glitter, appear ; 
lighten (lightning), 2, open 
the eyes, glance at, bark' 
lightning, pi. buruk, H. barak, 
S. barka : hence bila, or fila, 
bile, or file, s., lightning : c. 
art. nafila. 

Bila ia, or bilai a, v. t., pick up, 
gather up (anything, as fallen 
leaves, fruits, fish lying on 
the ground, &c. ) ; 

Bila guru ki, bili lua, bili sai, 
&c. See guru, lua, sai. Bilai 
has the pref. b'. [Fi. vili-ka 
pick up, as fallen leaves or 
fruits.] E. 'araya gather (as 
fruits, herbs), glean (as after 
reapers) : c. preformative. 

Mia, also (dd. mbula, bur) ; 

Bi&ila, redup. (intensive), and 

i?ilena, bi6ilena, v. i., or a. (-na, 
a. ending), big, large, great, 
[Mg. bolobolo, mibolobolo, a., 
thick, close, dense.] A. 'abula, 
'abila to be thick, big, 'aban- 
bal' strong, great, large. 

45 [hilaki 

Bile, or bila, v. i., to be quick ; 
hence sudden, confused, in- 
accurate, to err, make a 
mistake : redup. bilebile (d. 
belbel) quick, sudden, bilieli 
sudden, quick, hence con- 
fused, erroneous : tabile to be 
hasty, commit an error. Often 
used adverbially, as ba bile- 
bile go quickly, si bile shoot 
missing (lit. hastily, errone- 
ously, not hitting the mark), 
&c. H. bahal, bahel, prop, to 
tremble, be in trepidation, Piel 
to hasten, to hasten (as if to 
tremble) to do anything, Hi. 
id., Ch. (behal) Ithpeal inf. 
hitbehalah, s., haste, speed, 
with prefixed be, ad., quickly. 

Bile, d. bile, v. i., to dispute, 
wrangle. [My- babil to 
wrangle, squabble.] E. behil 
(2) contradict, tabahala dis- 
pute, wrangle, bahl dispute, 
altercation, wrangle. 

/j'ili, v. t., bili meta shut the eyes, 
redup. biliuili, id. (of many) ; 

i>lli, s., a blind person (with 
closed eyes) ; and 

Bilil, s., a tree (whose leaves at 
a certain stage of their growth 
cleave together) : d. bilbilo 
wink, close the eyes. [Cf. 
Ma. kimo wink, kikimo keep 
the eyes firmly closed.] A. 
"amas'a blink, wink, close the 

Bili a, v. t., d. for be\\i ki, q.v. 

hilaki, v. i., to be terrified, 
tremble (as it were) with fear. 
H. balah to be terrified, to 
fear, Piel billeah to terrify, 
and suffix ki. 


Bile na, s. See 6ele na mother. 

Zfrle-raeta na, s., nephew or niece, 
child of a man's gore na, that is, 
his full or uterine sister. Lit. 
mother, i.e., source, of the 
tribe or family, such nephew 
being a man's heir (and not 
his own son). 

Bilaga, v. t., bilaga sa, seek, 
search for it. See laga, laga 
sa, id. 

Bilele, v. i., r., to turn hither and 
thither, to go backwards and 
forwards, round and round : 

Bilele, v. i., r., d. for bitoli, q.v. 

Biliasa, ad., the morning (lit. 
awaking) of the day after 
to-morrow : bulo, asa ; bill as 
in bili-bog, bilimitamai. 

Bilibog, ad.(d. bulbog), morning: 
bulo, bog. 

Bilieli, v., see bile, bilibile, to be 
quick, &c. 

Bilikit ia, v. t., to peel (as a 
banana). [Cf. Fi. loqa-ta to 
peel.] E. laliasa to peel. 

Bilimitamai, ad., the morning 
(lit. awaking) of the morrow ; 
bilimitamai ki nia the morrow 
following it, sera bilimitamai 
every recurring morrow : bulo, 

i^ilis ia, d. bo\is ia, uolis ia, v. t., 
to spread out anything on the 
ground as a mat ; hence to 
make abed ; hence na uol, s., 
that spread out, a bed, d. na 
mauol ; and from this latter is 
mauoli ki make a bed with 
(something), spread it out for 
a bed. [Mg. velatra, mivelatra 
to spread, expand itself (be 
spread out), mamilatra, v. t., 

46 [bilulu 

to spread.] A. faras'a to 
spread out anything, as a mat 
on the ground, spread (a bed 
for anyone), hence fars" a bed. 
TJiliti, s., the fat in the belly of 
a pig: connected with be\e na, 
the belly. A. badana to grow 
Bilisai, v., used as ad., together, 
as i tili bilisai ki nia he told 
(two or more things) together : 
it is really a v. t., and tili 
bilisai ki, lit. he told gathering- 
together it: bila ia, or bilaia, 
and sai (see saisai). 

Bilo, v. i., d bulo, q.v., to awaken, 
to open the eyes ; bulo nia, d. 
bulobulo i, v. t., to awaken 
(from sleep), to cause to open 
the eyes. [Sa. ala to awake, 
Ma. ara. v. i., wake up, whaka- 
ai*a, v. t., rouse, Fi. yadra, open 
the eyes, awake, yadrava, 
watch for, vakayadra-ta, to 
awaken.] H. 'ur to awake, 
be awake, cause to awake, 
Hi. to arouse, awake (from 
sleep) ; to watch, followed by 
the prep, 'al, to watch over 
anyone. Ef. bilo has the pref. 

Bilo sia, v. t., d. for balo nia, 

Bilora, for bulora, q.v. 

Bilu, or biliu, v. r., to go back- 
wards and forwards between 
two places or parties: liliu, 

Bilu, uilu, uulu (wulu), q.v., to 
dance (a woman or women ; 
men dancing are said to sali). 

Bilulu, v. r., vie with each other, 
contend with each other for 
superiority. A. 'ala' ('alu), 


3, vie, compete, contend for 
superiority : see lulu, or lu. 

Bilu&aki, v. r., to land cargo 
from a ship, or to land pas- 
sengers (land each other): 

Bimeta na, v. and s., to be his 
guide, lit. his eye : bi to be, 
and meta eye. 

Binako, v. t., d. banako, q.v., 
to steal : bi, or ba, pref. 

Binaka, s., mats, cloth: see fomu. 

Binata, and (Id. bunats, and 

Binauta, v. i., to be numb, 
devoid of feeling, as one's 
limb from stoppage of circula- 
tion of the blood in it : bi to 
be, nata a person (as if the 
limb belonged to some other 
person). See ata. 

Binen, v. i.. d. syn. c. banotu, 
q.v., and baina, q.v. ; the 
difference between binen and 
banotu is that the former has 
the final n = there, the latter 
tu = there ; the difference 
between binen and baina is 
that the latter has elided the 
n of the prep, and has i = 
ne = to. For n or na = there 
(that, sc. place), see uan or 
uana that, yon. 

Binats, d. for banotu. 

Binoinoi, v. r., be confusedly 
together (as different kinds of 
things, people of different 
districts or languages), tumara 
noinoi ra : 

Binofinoi, a., confused, perplexed, 
d. bunofunoi : noi, nea. 

Binote, d. for banotu. 

fiinu na, s., head or first part, 
as 6inu nafanua head of the 
country (the chief and nata- 

47 [biri-ofa 

mole tabu are said to be feinu 
naf.), binu naui head of a yam, 
syn. bau naui, 6inu namlt first 
part of a mat, from which the 
weaving or plaiting begins ; 

7>inu, v., as ftinu namit make a 
beginning of a mat, make the 
part from which the plaiting 
begins : connected with bau 
head, bau sia to weave or 
plait, bau namit plait a mat. 
See bau. 

7>inu, v. i., to whistle, dd. 6in, 
boge. [Epi bobo, Am. mofm, 
Ml. P. and U., puinpuin, 
winwin, Sa. rnapu, To. mabo.] 
A. fahlia, and fahfalia, 

Binunu, v., complete, ba binunu 
ki, to go throughout, complete 
(a piece of a fence) : nu, num. 

Bio-so, v. i., to call or cry out, 
shout, calling : bio, and so, 
q.v. The verb bio, or. fio (see 
rafioso), means to cry out, 
shout. [Sa. piapio an outcry, 
a shouting, Mg. feo voice, 
sound, report.] H. pa 'ah, to 
call, to cry out. 

Bira gia, d., 

Biri gia, d. firi gia, v. t. , to carry 
on the back, take, bring, lead. 
[Epi mbario, carry on the 
back.] A. liamala, to carry 
on the back, bring, send, im- 
pel to do something, S. limal, 
collect, carry. 

Biri-nala, s., the plaited or braided 
(rope) handle of a carrying 
basket : see ala, and bir ia to 

Biri-ofa, s., the cloth in which a 
child is slung and carried on 


the back of its mother : biri 
(gia), and ofa (ia), d. afaia, 
both of which verbs signify 
to carry on the back. 

Biragoro, v., d. ftoragoro, q.v., to 
make, break into a noise near 
someone : see bora, ia, and 

Biraka, v. r., to give presents to 
guests at a naleouan (feast 
after a death), lit. to give 
presents (or rewards) to each 
other : raka tia. 

Birakana, s., the giving of such 

Biri-raki, v. t., to give presents 
to guests at a naleouan : biri 
a (biri na&o ra, i.e., make their 
hearts void of evil thoughts, 
i.e., pleased or good), and raki. 

Birausi, v. r., to follow each 
other : rausi. 

Bir ia, or biri a, v. t., to make 
void, bring to nought, as 
counsel, bisa biri nalo na : the 
radical notion is break to pieces, 
biri na maietoa break to pieces 
or put an end to (one's) anger, 
appease, biri nabo na bring to 
an end the evil feelings of 
one's heart, appease. This 
verb is much used after other 
verbs, as mitroa, bisa, &c, 
think void, i.e., despise, &c, 
and ha biri nafanua means to 
go all through the land: tale 
round, tale-firi all round ; re- 
duplicated it is 

Biiitiri, nearly the same meaning 
as biri ia. H parar to break in 
pieces, Hi. hefer to break, as a 
covenant, make void, be void, 
bring to nought : eg. para', 
and following word. 


Bin's ia, v. t., to break down r 
destroy, birisi nakoro break 
down a wall : the notion of 
breaking in pieces, asunder, 
is implied in this word, which 
is cognate with the preceding. 
H. paras to break, break 
down, ifcc. 

.Biri, v. i., to warble, whistle 
(birds). [Epi faru, forfaru.] 
See bova, ia, iiragoro. 

Biri, d. for biira to be full, q.v. 

Bir ia, v. t., to plait a string or 
rope. [Sa. fili to plait ; to be 
entangled, involved ; filiga to 
persevere, Ma. whiri twist, 
plait, Ha. hili braid, plait, 
twist, fasten, Tali, firi to 
plait.] A. marra, 4, to firmly 
twist (a rope) ; to wrestle, to 
be locked together in wrest- 
ling 1, 4), to fasten, 1, 4, to be 
bitter (lit. and ti g.), 10, to 
persevere, marira/,' a rope 
firmly twisted together, or a 
long rope, mumarr' firmly 
twisted together (a rope). 

Bir ia, v. t., d., to stick, stab, 
pierce, as biri naui to stick a 
knife or fork into a yam while 
being boiled to know whether 
it is cooked. See bur ia. 

Birife, v. r., to seize, p U H hither 
and thither (to take away a 
man's property as a punish- 
ment). See rau. 

Birigirigi, v. r., to be moaning, 
bemoaning oneself. See rigi. 

Brigi, d., v. t., bri (i.e., biri), 
prob. for meri, to do, make : 
therefore it is bri-gi (biri-gi). 
See meri. 

Birigite na, s., d. for bura na, 


i/iriki, s., a jmrt, side. A. farlk' 
a part, from faraka to divide, 
separate, Ac. Hence 

iftrlki, s., a "falling" star, a 
meteor: used also as a name of 

Biri-sai, v. t., to pierce open, 
birisai na ftago aso pierce open 
the tunnel (or end of it j of 
the robber-crab, fig. to lay 
open some hidden wickedness: 
biri to pierce, and sai, q.v. 

Biroa, and biroaroa, v. r., to turn 
each other (in some work, 
causing' it to be clone in some 
other way), as, when one is 
doing some piece of work, to 
make him do it some other 
way is to biroa : see roa to 
turn, to change. 

Bisa, fisa, or basa, v. i., to speak, 
na fisan, d. nafsan, the act of 
speaking, speech, a word ; 
tabisa to speak earnestly (ta, 
q.v., and bisa), tafisafisa, d. 
tafisfis, to speak earnestly ; to 
pray (so used now in Christian 
sense ) ; to utter inarticulate 
sounds (as those made by a 
cocoanut on the gravel which 
a rat is turning about trying 
to get at its kernel). [My. 
bacha to read, recite, chant, 
Tag. basa, Fi. vosa to speak, 
talk.] A. nabasa and nabasa 
to speak ; to peep or chirp (a 
bird) ; nabsai' a word. 
Bisafisa, v. i., redup. of foregoing, 
to speak rapidly (as one in 
Bisa, or fisa, d. bia, q.v., to be 
how many 1 so many, a few ; 
blsa-mau, d. bisi-^a to be only 
a few, few. See mau. 

49 [bisi na 

Bisab, d. for bisif, v. i., or a., 
surpassing, excelling, as form 
bisab an excelling (big) turtle, 
i uia bisif it is good, surpassing 
or excelling. See safe. 

Bisai ki, v. t., to show, d. bisa. 
ki. See sai. 

Bisakaui, d. for bisaku tia, q.v. 

Bisaki (cl. biski), d. transposed 
for bakasa, q.v. 

Bisaki a, or busaki a, v. c, to 
raise up, to place above, fig. to 
appoint or make one a chief. 
See saki. 

Bisaku tia, v. t., d. bakasau, q.v. 
See siku tia. 

Bisalot (for 6osa-lot), v. i., to 
clap the hands, lit. bring (the 
hands) together, sound, or 
crack : 6osa ia, and lot. 

Bisau, v. i., dd. futum, busuf, or 
busofu, bisobu, to sprout forth, 
spring up. See futum. 

Bisaui, d. for bisaku tia, bisa- 

Biseka, v. i., d., to sit (as talking 
with a neighbour) : seka. 

Bisela, v. r., to bear, bring forth, 
give birth to : sela tia 

Bisera, biserasera, v. i., to be not 
of one size, to be different : 
sera ia. 

Bisere a, v. r., to be near : sere 

.Sis ia (kwis ia), or uis ia, v. t., 
to take with the hand, grasp, 
take hold of, accept, receive. 
H. kabas, Pi., to take with 
the hand, hold, receive, A. 
kabas'a take with the hand, 
lay hold of, seize, S. libas to 

Bisi na, or biisi na, s., the pos- 
teriors, the backside, the 


rump. Compare busi a, d. for 
muri a, q.v. [Mg. vody the 
posteriors, My. buri the back, 
the rear, Ma. muri hinder 
part, Sa. muli the rump.] 

Bis ia, or bisi a, v. t., to beget, 
procreate, make to be born, 
as a father his child ; maris 
one begotten or born, na- 
mafisien the being begotten 
or born. A. nafisa to bring- 
forth (ffl woman), manfus' one 

Bisi a, or fisi a, v. t., to rub one 
stick on another to produce 
fire, bisi nakabu produce fire 
by friction. The rubbing 
stick is pointed and rubs a 
groove into the other, the 
rubbed out dust at the end of 
which gradually is ignited. 
[Mg. fositra rubbed so as to 
produce fire by the friction, 
mifositra to produce fire by 
friction.] A. fasa'a, 2, to rub 
(a thing), so that its soft 
and broken interior may be i 

Bis ia, or bisi a, v. t.,to uncover or 
dig up anything buried under 
ground, to dig up, or uncover, 
by removing the covering 
earth, a dead and buried body, 
or any other thing buried in 
or covered with earth, as a 
yam, &c. A. nabas'a to un- 
cover what was covered or 
hid, as what lies hid under 
ground ; to dig up again, or | 
uncover by digging (a corpse). 

Bisl6a, v. i., or a., d. for bisamau 
(bisa-mau). See mau. 

Bisif, v. i., or a., d. for bisab, 

50 [bital ia 

Bisobu, v. i., to sprout forth, 
spring up. See futum. 

Bisua, v. r., to meet together, to 
meet each other : sua. 

Bisuaki, or fisuaki, v. r., or a., 
order or command (or send) 
each other ; i bisuaki he com- 
mands, that is, he commands 
some other person, or persons : 
sua ki. 

Bisueri, v. r., scold or vituperate 
each other : sueri. 

Bisuraki, or bisureki, i.e., bisu- 
raki, v., to speak, lit. to speak 
for, about : although raki is a 
t. prep, this word is commonly 
used absolutely, nafisuraki 
speech, a word or utterance, 
nafisuraki sa bad talk : bisa, 
and raki. 

Bisuru, v. r., lie (deceive each 
other), bisuru ki lie to (some- 
one) : suru, d. soresore. 

Bita, v. r., to be joined together, 
associated (of men) ; bita ki, 
t., make to be joined together, 
or associated : ta, bita-naki. 

Bita6elu, and, d., 

Bitafeta6elu, same as ta&elu : 

Bitago, v. r., beg (from each 
other, or one from another), 
also bitag6 sa, t., beg it, i.e., 
beg (for himself) it : tago Ha 
(q.v.) beg of him. 

Bitaki a, v. t., to place or fix the 
hot stones on the nakoau in 
the oven, d. uataki a, bitaki 
nakoau : taki a. 

Bital ia, or bitali a, d., v. t., beg, 
ask him (for something) : pre- 
formative bi, and tali. [Sa. 
fesili to question, ask, sili, ps. 
silia, to ask, inquire.] A. 


sa'ala to question, 5, beg, 6, 
question, ask each other. 

Bitanaki nia, v. t., r., to accom- 
pany one, bita-naki : bita (see 
til), and naki, t. prep. 

Bitau sa, v. t., to invite, and 

Bitautau (of many): tau, tautau. 

Bitau ria, v. t , to marry her : 
tau ria. 

Bite, v. t., to cut ; bitesu, d. 
biteiu, to cut reeds (see usu). 
[My. potong to cut.] A. 
batta (and batta) to cut ; 

Bite, s., an instrument for cut- 
ting, knife. 

Bite lua i. .See bute lua i. 

Bitefa, v. r., to arrange them- 
selves opposite to each other 
for battle : tefa. 

Bitei a, v. t., to paint, to smear 
with intei ; tei turmeric, a red- 
dish powder (made from a 
plant) much used for smearing 
the body, or wounds, or the 
nafona (native cloth). A. 
'a'da'u crocus, sanguis dra- 
conis, a red gum used for 
healing wounds, a plant with 
which cloth is coloured or 
tinged, yadda'a to tinge or 
colour a thing with the thing 
called 'a'da'u. 

Bitelo, d. butol, bitol, v. i., to be 
hungry. [Fi. vitolo to be 
hungry.] A. falaha to have 
an empty belly, tolilia id. 

Biteriki, s., an old woman, a 
matron, opp. to mariki an old 
man, a senior ; ma-'riki, bite- 
'riki, see fiteriki ; bite means 
" woman." The common word 
for "woman" in one dialect 
is matu [Ja. wedo], q.v. 

51 [bo 

Bitia, or htia, v. i., to put forth 
bati na (of bananas and taro, 
i.e., to put forth shoots) ; 
formed from bati by the a. 
ending a. See bati na, nabati 
na. Dialect syn. sulia, from 
suli na. 

Blto, s., one lame, H. pasali, to 
be lame, pisseah, lame. 

Bitoli, v. r., to pass (or go before) 
each other : toli a. 

Bit6 sia, v. t., to extend, spread 
out (as cloth, &c.), H. matah, 
S. mtah (or mathah, mthali), 
spread out, extend. 

Bitua sa, v. r., give it, place it; 
hence bituana, s., a giving, 
gift : tua i. 

Bitua ki, v. t., place, lay down : 
tua ki. 

Bituietu&a, v. r., lit. to be touch- 
ing each other (of things in a 
series, then, to be continual, 
uninterruptedly, constantly ; 
not redup. it is 

Bitub, to be touching or reaching 
to each other, as in tale bitub, 
it is all round (the two ends 
of that which goes round), 
meeting or touching each 
other : tu&a ia. [My. tubi- 
tubi, successively, uninterrup- 
tedly.] _ 

Bituma ki, v. r., to point to with 
the finger : tuma ia. 

Bo, conj., particle connecting 
verbs thus, i tulena bo lotu he 
arose and worshipped i tili a 
bo ban he said it and went 
away : the bo can sometimes 
be and sometimes is omitted 
as i tulena lotu: d. syn. kai. 
A. fa, Wr, A. Gr., II., §140, 
" One finite verb may be put 




in opposition to another. In 
this case a) the first is the 
preparative act, introductory 
to the second," as in the above 
Ef. examples : " the older and 
more elegant form is to insert 
the conjunction fa," its omis- 
sion being a later construction. 
As to the o in bo it seems the 
same as the o in the following 
word, q.v., but here denoting 
the subject, i.e. bo = and he \ 
or and she, d. syn. kai. 
Bu, d., other dd. fo. mo, uo, 6, a 
particle used after another 
particle to form the future 
tense, thus i ga bo ban, dd. i 
ga uo ban, i g'o ban, k'e fo ', 
ban, i ba mo ban (or i mba 
mo ban) he will go away: 
without the bo (uo, o, mo, fo) 
as i ga fan, &c, the meaning 
is imperative, or permissive. 
let him go, he must go, should 
go, may go, lit. that he go, the 
particles ga (or ka) and ba 
being final conjunctions denot- 
ing ut, that, to (as in, I told 
him to go) : see supra ba, 
conj., and infra ka (ga), conj. 
In Ml. P., Motu, Ac, this ba 
alone forms the future tense, 
and in Florida and Vaturanga 
this k' (ka, ga) alone forms the 
future, thus k'e fan, i.e., ke 
fan that he go, Ef., is in these 
two languages not only equiva- 
lent to this, but also equiva- 
lent to ke fo ban he will go. 
It is therefore manifest that 
the particle bo dees not by it- 
self express the future idea, 
but, in Ef., is a mere adverbial 
enclitic to a final conjunction 

which does. It may perhaps 
in this construction be best 
rendered by ' then,' iga bo 
ban he will go, lit. that he 
then go, k'e fo ban he will go, 
lit. that he then go. See the 
following — 

Bo, an adverbial particle used to 
form the present progressive 
tense, as i bo ban he is going : 
i ban denotes either he goes 
or he went. This is the same 
particle used in the future 
tense denoting "then." As 
used in the present progressive 
tense, it may be best rendered 
literally by '■ now :" i bo ban 
he now goes, he is now going. 
H. 'epo, ad., properly here, 
there, but always in reference 
to time now, then : according 
to Ges. composed of 'e demon- 
strative and po or poh (here, 
there, this latter being for 
pahu or bahu in this or that 
(place) (the prep, b' and pron. 
3 pers. masculine). 

Bo na, redup. bobo na, or bobo 
na, s., the heart (i.e., the 
mind, the seat of the intellect 
and affections). The original 
meaning is seen in the phrase 
na kasu na6o na the carti- 
laginous substance on the 
front of the throat, lit. the 
stick, or tree, of the bo 
(pectus). [Mg. fo the heart, 
mind.] A. bahw' the cavity 
of the chest (pectus). 

i/oa, v. i., to emit odour ; n&bo y 
d. tamo, to emit odour, Jon 
odour. [Ha. po, puia, id., My. 
bau, Mg. fofona, odour.] A. 
£aha,fall'a (fa'a) to emit odour. 


Bob', d., father (voc.) See ab, 
babu, (fee. 

Bobo. See bo na. 

Bobo, v., as bobo ki atelagi to 
hail the new moon by making 
an exclamation or a series 
of sounds like bo! bo! bo! 
[Mg. babababa, cry, &c] S. 
yabeb clanxit, H. yabab, Pi. to 
exclaim, cry out. 

Boboi, s., a mask, cover, or 
disguise ; not only a mask for 
the face, but a cover of the 
whole body, made of kaka 
naniu, etc., and painted so as 
to appear terrific (to children) ; 
used at the naleouan after the 
death of a chief when the 
naftea was set up. Perhaps so 
called from covering oneself 
with the mask or disguise. 
See bo-fia, &c. 

Bobu, s., redup., d. bua, grand- 
father (voc), mother's father. 
See bua, tobu na. 

Bo-tia, and reduplicate 

Bobo-fia, v. t., to cover, to be 
upon a thing, or above it, 
covering it ; 

Bo-gia, v. t., or bu-gia, to cover, 
to excel, to be above, over a 
thing, covering, not implying 
so close proximity as bo-tia ; 

Bo -gor ia, v. t., bo-gia, and gor 
ia, to be covering over — see 
gor ia ; 

Bog-kor ia, v. t., to be above, 
over, to overtop, overshadow, 
as a tree over a smaller plant, 
a higher chief over a lower : 
the g in bog is the g of bo-gia. 
See kor ia ; 

Bogi, or bog, s., darkness (from 
its covering), night, also day 

53 [hoka TIA 

in counting as "third day," 
bog tolu, or mog tolu, <fcc, te 
nabog some day, some time, 
also naubog, i.e., na ubog ; 

Bogien, s., darkness ; 

Bog, s., a dark powder, used in 
painting ; 

Bog, s., symbol of chieftainship 
(buried in the grave of a chief), 
from bo-gia to excel, be over. 
[Sa. po night, ps. pogia to be 
benighted, Ma. po night, sea- 
son, Hades (from being dark), 
Ha. po night, darkness, v. to 
be dark, become night, to be 
out of sight, hence slain, lost, 
to overshadow (as the foliage 
of trees), assemble thickly to- 
gether, a. dark, dark coloured, 
ignorant^ obscure, popoi to 
cover, poi, id., Ja. bungi night.] 
A. "amma to cover, 4, to 
submerge, H. 'amam to shut, 
close, to hide, conceal, fig. to 
surpass, excel, also to be hid- 
den, A. "amma to be hidden, 
covered with clouds (of the 
sky), "amma' darkness, dust, 
"ama to be cloudy (of the sky), 
2, night came as a cloud, 
'amo day, season or year, 'aniiy a 
to be blind, hidden, "umiya 
to faint, Sa. matapo blind, 
matapogia to faint, Ef. meta- 
buta blind (see infra, buta). 
These words are all egg. ; in 
Ef. the egg. are numerous. See 
bau (head), &c ; cf. bau-goria 
with bo-goria, <Src 

Bok, redup. bokauok, v. i., on- 
omat., to blow, to pant. [Ma. 
puka to pant.] H. puali to 
breathe, to blow, Hi. to pant. 

Boka tia, v. t., to strike, bisa 


boka tia to reprehend. [My. 
pukul, Mg. poka, strike.] A. 
baka'a to strike with repeated 
blows; to cut up; 2, reprehend. 

Bokas, s., d. for bakas, flesh ; 

Bokauoka, redup. of boka tia. 

Bokota, v. i., or a., dirty (as 
water) : gota. 

Z?olaf ia, d. for 6alaf ia : d. 
bolbolaf ia. 

Bolk sa, d. for 6ala sa. 

itolau ki, to steer (a canoe or 
ship) : bouolau. 

Bole, d. buele, v. i., to be lost, 
absent : buele. 

Bolo, v. i., or a., to be empty (as 
a cocoanut) : IjrIo. 

Bolo, s., a small basket. [Ma. 
paro a small basket, To. belu 
a cup.] H. kpor, or kepHr, a 
cup, E. kapar a basket. 

Bolo, v., to do, redup. bolofolo, to 
do, to act, nafolon, nafolofolon, 
deeds (doing, acting), work, 
conduct ; 

Bolo, d., to behave deceitfully ; 

Bolo sia, v. t., to do one, to treat 
him (as in quarrelling), to treat 
him, bolo sa, bolo uia ki, to 
behave ill, to behave well to. 
[Fi. vala, valavala, v. i., vala- 
ta, v. t., to make or do, vala 
to fight, valavala. s., work, 
custom, habit.] H. pa'al to 
make, to do, po'al or pool 
deed, act, work, A. ba'ala 
move oneself, act, do work, do 
(something to someone), 8, 
devise (deceit against some- 
one), fi'l' action, work, fa'ihii 

i?olis ia, d. for bills ia. 

54 [box 

Bolboloa, or boloboloa, d. for 
6ale6alia, large. 

Tfolof ia, d. for 6alaf ia. 

Bologa, v. i., to turn itself about 
(as something sinking in 
water), tafiloga, id. See bulo 

Bolu, v. i., to be blunt (as an 
edged tool). A. bohira to be 
blunt (as a sword). 

Bon, bono, v. i., to be shut, 
closed, stopped, bono sa shut 
because of it, bon, bonbon to 
crowd together, crowded to- 
gether : 

Bono tia, or bonu tia (and mono 
tia, bunu tia, muntt tia), v. t., 
to shut, close, plug, stop, 
block up, and 

Bon, a., and s., 1,000, d. manu 
1,000, bunuti, bunti, 100. 
These words denote, lit., a 
gathering, crowd. [Sa. puni- 
puni shut in, close in, cover 
over, punita'i to stop with, 
tapuni to shut, momono to 
plug, monoti to cork, plug, 
puipui to shut, Ma. pani, 
papain block up, kopani shut 
to, close up, close in, Mg. 
kombona or hombona shut, 
closed, mikombona to shut, 
close, coalesce, Ha. pani to 
close, shut, stop, Sa. mano a 
myriad, a great number.] H. 
'amam prop, to gather together, 
to collect, to join together, 
then to shut, to close, A. 
"amma to cover, to obstruct, 
cover in front (as the mouth 
and nose of an animal), 'aurni', 
or 'amnion, a great crowd of 
men. See monotia, munutia, 


| B0RA-KA1 

Bono-gor ia, to crowd together 
(gor ia) about hiin or it. 

Bonbon, d., a., redup. of bon, 
crowded together, nanier bon- 
bon people crowded together. 

Boolau. See boiiolau. 

I. i^ora ia, or borai a, v. t., to 
rend, split open, split; bornl 
nabati na part the teeth, i.e., 
open the mouth to speak, hence 
6orai to make a noise, bora\- 
goro make a noise (as children) 
about or near (one), bonu- 
uora-goro, id., del. ftora-goro, 
/ura-goro, id., iorurai, v. t , 
redup., rend, split open, elo 
ftorora the sun (rising) rend- 
ing or splitting asunder or 
bursting through (the clouds). 
ta6are (ta&arre), v. r. (passive), 
to be split open, burst, hence 
to be open (as a door), maora, 
or mauora, redup. maoraora, 
v. i., to be rent, hence uora a 
place, especially a landing 
place for a canoe (perhaps 
from being an opening or split 
in the reef), and, therefore, 
often in names of places, a side 
(of an island) as uora n tan, 
uora n lig, lower, upper side 
(of Efate), bora a basket 
woven out of the frond of a 
cocoanut palm whose stalk is 
split asunder, and the frond 
itself, bora the sides of the 
head or face, the temples 
(which women used to cut 
and tear open with a sharp 
shell (kai) in mourning for 
the dead). A. fara' to split, 
rend, slit, 5, tafarra' to become 
slit, rent, burst, i.e., open, 
farya£ tumult, clamour. 

Bora, s., the temples : 6ora i. 

Bora, s., cocoanut leaf, or basket 
made of it, or plaited for 
thatching houses : 6ora i. 

Borabora, s., cocoanut leaf bas- 
ket : 6ora I. 

II. Bov.x, v. i., to spring up, sprout, 
grow (of plants), be born (of 
men) ; bakauora ki, v. c, make 
to /;ora (men and plants), 
nauora na, nauorauora na off- 
shoot, offspring (of plants and 
men), ura naui the vine of the 
yam ; fara a cocoanut (fruit) 
that begins to shoot. [Motu 
vara to grow, to be born, Oba 
fori to grow.] H. parah (A. 
farih'a, 2) to break out, burst 
forth (of the young as issuing 
from the. womb), to sprout, to 
flourish (a plant), Hi. to cause 
to do so, sprout, shoot, H. 
perah sprout, shoot, A. farh" 
offspring, shoot or sprout. 

/>'ora-bau, v. and s., over-head, 
noon, only in the phrase elo i 
ftora-bau the sun is overhead, 
lit. splits-head : 6ora I., and 

/>ora-goro, or torai-goro, or 6orai- 
uora-goro, to make a tumult, 
noise near (one) : 6ora I. 

A'orai, s., c. art., the sugar cane ; 

/>orairai, s., a reed like sugar 
cane growing in streams. A. 
bara', 4, to find sugar cane. 

7>ora-kai, v. and s., to tear or 
rend the kai (a shellfish, or its 
shell): borai I. Men who were 
worthless and died poor, and 
had no pigs killed at their 
death and burial, fcorakai in 
Hades, their jaws being torn 
and bleeding in doing so. 




i?ora-kese na, s., gills of fish ; 
bora, I., and kesa (dark coloured); 
dd. morese na, kurumase na. 

Borau, v. i., to ride or be carried 
(on a canoe or ship, horse, 
vehicle, or other thing), to 
voyage. [Fi. vodo embark, 
go on board, ride, Sa. folau a 
voyage, the crew and vessel, 
To. felau to navigate, make a 
voyage, a canoe, a fleet of 
canoes, a voyage, My. prahu, 
prau a canoe, boat, ship, general 
name forany kind of vessel, bar- 
prau to travel by boat or ship.] 
A. markab', E. markab a ship, 
vessel, A. rakib' navigating, 
voyaging, rakiba to be carried, 
to ride (A. markab' denotes a 
vehicle, carrying-beast, chariot, 
as well as a ship), H. rakab to 
be carried (on a horse, chariot, 
the clouds, ifec. — so Ef. 

Note. — A. markab' is an 
infinitive, and therefore is 
naturally in Ef . and Fi. a verb. 
My. and Sa. a substantive, 
and To. both a verb and a sub- 

i?orea, s., c. art. naborea, a 
dream, or vision (in sleep) ; 

fiorea, ki naborea, v., to dream a 
dream, or see a vision (in 
sleep). [Tali, ria a vision in 
sleep.] H. mar'eh a vision (in 
sleep), A. roya sleep, what is 
seen in sleep, from ra'a' (H. 
ra'ah) to see, then to have a 
vision in sleep, E. id. 

Bor ia, or bori a, v. t., to break, 
bori nakasu break a stick, 
mauori, mauoriuori to be 
broken, and 

Bori sia, redup. 

Boriuori sia, v. t., break to 
pieces. H. por inf. of parar 
to break, break to pieces (pur 
to break), Hithpolel to be 

.Z?orroa, v. i., to grow crooked, 
for ftoraroa : bora n., and roa. 

Boro-silaia. See buru masila. 

Boroaki, v., c. t. ending, to be- 
queath to, or order to do (by will, 
when dying) ; to commission 
(one to do something), give 
orders to. [My- pasan to com- 
mission, enjoin, Sa. poloa'i to 
leave commands (as on going a 
journey or dying), to command, 
Mg. hafatra (hafarana) a will 
or testament, order, be- 
queathed, ordered.] A. wasa', 
2, to bequeath by will, 4, id., 
and to give power to, or com- 
mission, by will ; to command, 
to enjoin. H., Pi., sivah to 
charge, command, delegate, 

BorOri sia, contraction of boriuori 

itosa ia, v. t., to compress, manu 
i tumana 6osa ia a bird com- 
presses itself (with its closed 
wings), i 6osai naniu he com- 
presses a cocoanut (so as to 
break the shell), press together, 
squeeze (as a sponge), hence 
boss,, or uosa, v. i., to be com- 
pressed, i.e., narrow, and ta- 
bosa, (sela uosa a narrow track, 
natamole ta^osa a man thin 
as if pressed together), re- 
dup. uosauosa ; 6osa naru na 
clap the hands, ftosa-lot clap 
the hands with a sound, d . 
bosa, ki, i.q. bosa, ia. A. 

bosabosa] 57 

bamaza to press with the 
lingers or liand, to compress, 
push, strike, bite, break. 

Zfosa&osa, s., froth (coming from 
the mouth, as of one in sick- 
ness), sputum, (I. fut. [Mg. 
fotafota slaver, spittle, foam, 
• mifotafota to slaver, to foam.] 
A. bozak', bosak', saliva, spu- 

2>ota, v. i., and a., to be, or 
become, different, other, alien ; 

/iota ia, v. t., to divide, part, 
make one remove from the 
other, ftotauota (or iotdta) re- 
dup.; i toko Aotauota he is in 
the middle or midst, exactly 
between two things, lit. he is 
parting or dividing (the two 
things), mauota, or maota, to 
be divided or parted, hence na 
maota the midst or middle 
space between two things, i.e., 
the space by which they are 
parted, removed, or distant 
from each other. [My. beda, 
or bida, distinct, separate, dif- 
ferent, beda-kan to separate, 
to distinguish, to make a 
difference.] E. b'ud other, 
alien, different, A. ba'oda, and 
ba'ida to stand apart, be dis- 
tant, remote, 2, 4, make to be 
so, 6, to be apart from each 
other, also to recede or go 
apart from someone, 3, make 
to be apart or distant, also to 
go apart or be distant, bo'd' 
distance : cf. bana&ota diverse, 
different. Hence 

/?ota, s., c. art., a person un- 
married (apart) ; 

Ztotauota, and 

ZfotGta ia, v. t., redup. of 6ota ia. 


/iotu, v. i., to swell (of a girl's 
breasts). A. nabata, 3), n. a. 
nobot', begin to swell (a girl's 

Boua (bowa), v. i., to rain, d. for 

Boiia ki (bowa ki), v., d. ua ki, 
to fruit, to produce fruit. Ch. 
Pael 'abeb to produce fruit. 

Bouolau ki, v. t., to steer (a 
canoe or ship), then, fig., to 
steer a country (bouolau ki na- 
fanua), &c, that is, govern it, 
bouolau ki emeromina govern 
the world (of God). [Ml. dd. 
barau, baro, walu, foro, Sa., 
Ha., uli, Sa., also, muli, My. 
mudi in mamudi-kan, Ef. 
uolau (wolau) in bouolau-ki.] 
E. liadafa to steer (a vessel or 
ship), then, fig., to govern men, 
to steer, i.e., govern the world 
(said of Jesus Christ), mahdaf 
rudder, helm. See uolau, infra. 
Note. — Bouolau ki is redup- 
licate, see &olau ki (d.), id., and 
uolau ki, and note the pref. b' 
(for m) in iolau. 

Bu, d., verbal pron., 1 pi., excl., 
dual moa : d. au, dual ara. 

Bua, d. bobu (q.v.),voc, maternal 
grandfather : c. art. tobu na, 
q.v. [Fut. bua.] 

Bu (nalo), v. t., to see (a thing). 
See bunu, bunu sia. [Santo d. 
vi to see.] A. ba"a' (final w 
or u) to look upon, observe. 

Bu, s., c. ai*t., a bundle. [Fi. ai 
vau.] See bau si and afa. 

Bua, v., divide, as ta bua i cut*, 
divide it (cut it open), mafua, 
and tabua, to be rent open, 
cracked, ti bua i press rend it 
(press burst it open, as new 

bua] 58 



wine old wine skins), and fai 
(or fae) in magafai a half, a 
division (of a thing), and lao 
fai (see fai). [Sa. vaega a divi- 
sion, vaevae to divide in parts, 
cut up, mavae to be split, to 
be cracked open.] A. fa'a, 
n. a., fa'w', or fa'y', 1, 4, to 
split, cleave, 7, to be open, to 
be separated, rent, cleft. 

i. Bua, v. i., to be empty, vacant, 
having nothing (as an empty 
cocoanut), tabu, i.e., ta bu, 
men having nothing, or naked 
(name applied to the naked 
people of some neighbouring 
islands, i.e., people who use no 
waist cloth). A. bahiya to be 
empty and bare (as a house). 

II. Bua, and bubu, d. mobu, 
v. i., and a., to be deep (as the 
sea, or a pit), i toko bua (said 
of a yam down in the ground), 
ebu or ebua in the deep part 
(of a thing), i toko ebu or ebua, 
and sofa ni ebu is consumption 
or phthisis in the deep part 
(i.e., inside) of the body (deep- 
seated) ; ebua the abyss, Hades, 
Malo abua, id., bua-riri abyss, 
Hades (riri to sink), and bu-gia, 
or bubu-gia to sink deep, d. na 
tibu the deep. [Ma. kopua 
deep, An. ubo deep, Fi. tobu, 
d. nubu, deep.] A. 'amuka 
and ma'uka, 1, to be deep, 
also, to be distant, far off 
(emai, ufea), 4, make deep, 5, 
to be deep, H. 'amak to be 
deep, 'amek, 'amlk deep, E. 
'amaka to be deep, 'muk deep, 
ma'mak any depth, a valley, 
the abyss (Hades). 

in. Bua or fua (in na fua-goro, 

d. na mua-goro, a spring on the 
shore covered by the flood 
tide), so called because the 
sea mua gor ia flows over it r 
and mua v. i., to flow (the 
tide) ; 

Buafua, v., na tas i buafua, or 
naroa i buafua the sea or 
current flows or carries things 
floating on it ; 

Bua tia, v. t., to take (make to 

go) ; 

Bue a, v. t., make to flow upon 
(a thing), pour upon, moisten. 
[Ha. puai to flow, as blood from 
a vein, or water from a 
fountain, to cast up ; to boil 
up, as water from a spring. 
My. buwang eject, expel, cast.] 
H. naba' to bubble forth, gush 
out, Ch., S., A. naba', naba". 
" The primary syllable is ba' r 
ba", like bak, imitating the 
sound or murmur of boiling or 
bubbling." Cf. egg. H. bu'a to 
swell up, Arm. be'a' to boil 
up, H. ba'ah make to swell 
and boil, A. ba"a to gurgle out 
(as blood). The connection 
between the ideas of going 
or flowing out and taking out 
(making to go out) is seen in 
the eg. Ch. nepak to go out,, 
cans, to take out, and also in 
H. yabal to flow, caus. to bring, 
beai", carry. 

Bubu, v. i., to gargle. [Sa. pupu 
to gargle.] See under pre- 
ceding word, and cf. A. 
ba'ba', or ba'ba'u gurgling 
sound of water flowing from a 
bottle or flask. 

Bua na. See bul na. 

Bu £fia, and 


Bubu-gia, v. t., to sink down, to 
dip (anything), put it down 
into the water ; uta bugi 
rarua load a canoe deep ; 

Bubu, v. i., to be deep : bua n. 

Buele, d. bole, v. i., to be lost, 
missing. [My. ilang to lose, 
be lost, missing, Mg. very 
lost, missed.] A. s'a'a to be 
lost, missing. 

Bugafuga, v. i., to be awake, to 
awake, bugo nia, v. t., to 
awaken one. [8a. fagufagu, 
fafagu to waken, rouse from 
sleep, ps. fagua, Mg. folia, 
fohafoha imp., awake, mifolia, 
v. i., to awake, mamoha, v. 
t., to awake, fohazina being 
awakened.] Nm. fak, v. i., to 
awake, 2, 4, v. t., awaken. 

Bugo nia, v. t., to awaken. See 
preceding word. 

Bui na, or bua na, s., c. art., 
backbone, tail, rump. [Fi. bui 
tail, Fut, bua back, To. mui 
after, the hindermost end, tip, 
or extremity of anything, Sa. 
muli the end, the rump, Mg. 
voho the back.] See muri. 

Buigo, or feigo, v. i., to lose the 
way, be at a stand, perplexed, 
not knowing the way. [Com- 
pare Sa. pogia to be be- 
nighted.] See bog. 

i. Buka, v. i., to be filled, swell 
out, as the belly when filled 
with food, or as a sail filled 
with wind ; namarita na i 
buka his belly is puffed up or 
swollen, or pants (with rage), 
mafukafuka to be swollen or 
puffed up, nafukana the being 
swollen or puffed up. [Mg. 
voky satiated, filled, mimoky, 

59 [buka ia 

v. i., mamoky, v. t., vokisana, 
havokisana, My. bakat stuffed, 
filled, Ma. puku to swell.] A. 
nafah'a to inflate, 8, to be in- 
flated, to swell, naphai' in- 
flation of the belly, manfuh' 
ventrosus ; obese. 

Buka, s., a swell, as a ground 
swell. [My. bakat, id.] Set 

Buk, s., as nabuk natamole a 
band of men, [H. puu, a 
gathering or collection, sign of 
plural number, he puu kanaka 
a gathering or band of men.] 
See buka. 

Note. — This word is used 
in Ef. also for a gathering or 
collection of things, thus : 
nabuk anena i oni au I am in 
his debt, but lit. his collection 
of things (which he has given 
me) remains on me (i.e., I 
have not yet repaid it). 

II. Buka sia, or buki sia, v. t. r 
to open, as a roll of cloth, 
buka ua (uwa) open the oven. 
[My. buka to open, unclose, 
uncover, Mg. voha opened, 
mimoha, v. i., mamoha, v. t., 
to open.] A. fakka, v. t., to 

ill. Buka, v. i., to bark (a dog), 
buka ia bark at it, bukai 
kusiie bark at a rat, d. syn. 
oro-maki; also, buka to cough. 
H. nabali, A. nabalia to bark 
(a dog). Formed from the 
sound. A. nabalia is followed 
by ace. with or without a prep. 

iv. Buka ia, v. t., to hit upon, 
meet, fall in with, find, as i 
ba bukai uago buele he hit 
upon, met, fell in with, or 


found a lost pig. H. paga' id., 
as in Ex. xxiii. 4. 

Bukaru, or bakaru, d. fakaru, v., 
to joke, jest, bukaru ki, v. t., 
mock, deride. [My. gurau to 
joke, and kara, id., bargurau, 
manggurau, joke, jest, mang- 
gurau-kan, v. t., mock, deride.] 
A. kahara, 5), laugh, joke. 

Buko na, s., c. art., protuberance 
or knob, as nabuko naui pro- 
tuberance or knob of a yam. 
[Ha. puu.] See buka i. 

Bukoro, s., enclosure round a 
house at its base, name of a 
tree and its fruit (from its 
kernel being enclosed), a proper 
name (of men). [Ma. pukoro 
sheath, case, halo, net.] See 

Bukota, v. i., or a., to be dark- 
coloured, dirty, blackish (as 
water with dust or earth in 
it) : gota. 

Bukubukura, a., full of little 
swellings (pimples) : ra a. end- 
ing. [Ha. puupuu, id.; Sa. 
po'u pimple, po'upo'ua full of 
pimples.] See buka I. 

Bukutu, s., a rise, hill. [Ha. 
puu, id., My. bukit a hill.] 
See buka i. 

Bul-meta na, s., eyeball, gleam- 
ing, part of eye. See bila. 

Bula, mbula, d. for 6ila, q.v., 
big, large. 

Bfile, a., adult, nafera bide a lot 
of grown up men (adults). 
A. bala"a to reach mature or 
full age, bali" adult ; and 

I. Bule, v. t., complete, used 
after other verbs adverbially, 
as i ba bule nafanua he went 
completely through the land, 

60 [bulo 

le bule nagusu it (a canoe) 
completely rounded the point, 
nafisan i soka bule nafanua 
the word shot (lit. leaped) 
through the whole land, from 
end to end, noai i sera fule 
(or fulefule) nalia the water 
ran completely throughout the 
place. Bule is really a verb, 
in these instances, in appo- 
sition to the verb preceding 
it, as he went — completed 
(finished) the land, &c. [My. 
bulah the whole, To. fuli all.] 
A. bala"a, n. a. buhl" to com- 
plete, go through to the end. 

II. Bule, v. t., to strip off leaves, 
ora naui i bule nakasu the 
yam vine strips oft* leaves from 
the tree, mafule to be stripped 
of leaves (a tree). [My. bulus 
stripped of leaves.] A. 'abala 
1, 2, to strip off" leaves, foliis 
jiudavit arborem. 

Bfile, s., a shell, lit., gleaming, 
shining, glittering, See bila. 

Bullbog, d. for bilibog, for bulo- 
bog : bulo. 

Bull, s., a corpulent person ; 

Bulia, a., swollen ; and 

Bulifulia, a., swollen here and 
there (the body), a a. ending, 
and mabulu and fuluara, q.v. 
[Sa. fula stout, fulafula swel- 
ling, fulafula, fufula to be 
swollen.] H. 'afal, prop, to 
swell up, be tumid, A. 'afda 
to have a tumour or hernia. 
See telatela. 

Bulai, s., d. for belaki, and 

Bulai, v. t., d. for belaki, to gird. 

Bulo, v. i., d. for bilo. Bulo is 
also thus used : iga uo bulo (bo) 
mai, he will come by-and-by, 


lit. he will awake and come 
(of a ship, man, or thing), 
hence bulo-bog morning, lit. 
awaking of day, or night, 
bulo asa, bulo metamai, and d. 
bulbog, <kc, and bilebog (for 
bilo-bog) ; 

Bulo nia, v. t., to awaken ; bulo 
nameta na open his eyes ; 

Bulobulo i, v. t., awaken him. 
See bilo. 

Bulo ki, v. t., to turn, to twist, 
also bulo sia, bulu sia, buli 
sia, tafolo to be turned, twisted, 
tafulus to be turned, bologa, 
to turn itself (as a thing in 
sinking in water), taflloga, id., 
bulora, or filora (ending ra), 
twisted, confused (as a lot of 
things turned or twisted about). 
[My. pubis, Ja. pulir to wring, 
twist, to turn aside (out of the 
way), to turn, turn round, Sa. 
milo to twist, mimilo, milo- 
milo, ps. milosia, milosi, to be 
twisted, to be perverse, milo- 
milosi, Pi. mulo-ca to twist a 
single thread, Ma. miro to 
spin, twist, mimiro to move 
swiftly, miro, s., thread, a 
whirling current of water.] 
A. malla, n. a. mallo, to turn, 
to twist round ; to twist one- 
self about, malmala, 2, to roll 
oneself about, malla to hasten, 
move quickly. 

Buloki, v. i., or a., to* be sticky, 
d. bubulu. See bulu tia. 

Bulora, v. a., or a., to be twisted; 
a. ending ra. See bulo ki. 

Bulu sia, or bulo sia, or bilo sia, 
v. t., to wash. See balo nia. 

Bulu sia, bulo sia, or buli sia, v. 
t., to turn. See bulo ki. 

61 [bulu aki 

Bulu tia, v. t., to plaster, over- 
spread with some sticky sub 
stance (as lime, paint, pitch), 
to cover with a plaster or 
poultice, as a wound, nabulu, 
s., plaster, (fee, bubulu, bulu- 
bulut, buloki (and mabulu, 
q.v.), to be sticky, as plaster. 
[Fi. bulu-ta to bury or cover 
with earth, to apply an ex- 
ternal remedy, ai bulu an 
external application or thing 
that covers or buries, Sa. 
puluti to glue, to pitch, 
pulu glue, gum, resin, pulu- 
pulu to cover the body with 
a cloth, pupulu to interpose, 
to meditate, ps. pulutia, Fi. 
bulu-ta to repair an injury, 
lit. to bury it, ai bulubulu a 
peace offering, or thing offered 
as a reparation of an injury.] 
H. kapar, A. "afara to cover v 
cover over: A. "afara to cover, 
cover over ; to cover (white 
hairs, with some dye or 
tincture, Ef. bulu tia) ; to 
pardon (sin), 2, to cover with 
dust, H. kapar to cover, over- 
spread with anything, as with 
pitch, to pilch, Gen. vi. 14 
(H. koper pitch); to cover (i.e., 
pardon) sin, Pi. to make expia- 
tion for an offence. 

Bulu, bulufulu, and fulufulu : 
bule I. 

Bulu, v. i., to fall down (as fruit 
from a tree, &c), mala bulu 
faint, fall down (a man), and 

Bulu aki, v. t., throw down (as 
firewood, &c), (make to fall 
down). H. napal to fall, S. 
npal, Ch. nepal, id., Hi. hipil 
to throw down (make to fall). 


Bulu aki, d. for bulo ki, to turn, 

Bulum, or buluma, d. bulim, v. i., 
to be changed, lit. turned : 

Buina, v. i., d. fuga, to flower or 
blossom, nabuma na, s., its 
flower or blossom. [Ml. P. pug 
to blossom, pugan its flower 
or blossom, Sa. fuga flowers, 
blossoms, My. bunga flowers, 
blossoms, Mg. vony flower, ma- 
mony to blossom.] S. liabeb 
to produce flowers, hababa', or 
habobo', flower. 

Buna sum ia, v. t., to cork, plug, 

Bunaso, or funaso, s., c. art., a 
cork or plug : see bono tia, 
or bunu tia, and sume lia. 

Bunats, d. for binata. 

Bunofunoi, d. binofinoi, v. r., to 
be confused, perplexed. See 
binoinoi : noi, no i, no ia, nea. 

Buma, s., an insect that makes a 
shrill sound in the jungle in 
the evening, hence buma i gai 
(the buma makes its sound) is 
often used for "it is getting 
dark," " it is evening." 

Bunu, d. for fanau, q.v. 

Bunu lia, v. t., d. for balo nia, 
bulu nia, 

Bunu sia (bu-nusi a), v. t., to see 
(a thing) : bu. 

Bunu, s., death, destruction, as 
ru sua bunu ; 

Bunu ea, v. t., to kill or destroy 
(fish, men, &c), to extinguish 
or quench (a fire, or lamp), ru 
sua bunu they met destruction 
(having fallen into the sea), 
mafunufunu and mafunei, d. 
fanei, to be ended, to be anni- 

62 [bura 

hilated. [My. bunoh to kill, 
mambunoh, mamunoh to kill, 
Mg. vono killed, mamono to 
kill.] Hence 

Bunufunu, redup. of preceding 
woi'd. A. fana', disappear, 
pass away, vanish, 4, make 
disappear, destroy, annihilate, 
5, destroy and annihilate (wipe 
out) each other (in war), fani 

Bunu tia, v. t., same as bono tia. 

Bunutia, s., hundred, d. bunti 
(cf. bon) ; and 

Bunuta (and bunta), v. i., or a., 
to be silent, lit. to be shut 
(the mouth), ba funuta, be 
silent, exactly equivalent to 
the vulgar English " shut up," 
hence nafunuta, s., a silent 
person, one that says little (a 
term of praise). 

Bur, d. for iila, bula, to be big, 

Bura, or fura, v. i., or a., to be 
empty, to be devoid of, as i bi 
an fura it is an empty shadow, 
a bura ki nalo I am empty of 
the thing, devoid of it, A. 
fara"a, 1, 2, to empty. See 
6aro. Hence 

Bura, s., rubbish ; nabura naniu 
the husk of the cocoanut, 
nabura na the husk or worth- 
less part of a thing : hence the 
stalk of a fruit (as a worthless 
thing thrown away as rubbish) 
is called in different dialects 
bura-tena, bura-gitena, bara- 
tuna, biri-gitena, and miri- 
gitena, i.e., the bura of it. 

Bura, d. bin, v. i., or a., to be 
full, bakafura to fill. [Mg. 


feno full, mam en o to till, My. 
panoh full, mamanohi to till.] 
H. mala' to fill, to be full, Pi. 
to till ; with another verb, to do 
anything full;/, i.e., thoroughly, 
so Ef. bera-tia, d. bera-katia, as 
lo b., look fully or thoroughly 
■at it, i.e., watch it, rogo b., 
hear fully, i.e., obey, i uia b. 
it is good fully, i.e., thoroughly 
good, and it can also be said 
tea berakati na, i.e., tea anena 
berakati a thing fully or 
thoroughly his ; A. mala', S. 
mla', same as H. Hence 

Burafura, furafura, s., the jungle, 
forest, vegetation : so called 
because it tills the land. A 
place covered with any kind 
of weeds, ifec, is called nalia 
bura a full place. 

Bura-gitena, and 

Bura-tena, see bura, s. 

Burasa. See marasa. 

Burau, s., a long or tall cloud ; 
the sky : eg. barau. 

Bure ia, fure ia, or bure a, 
burei ki, furei ki, v. t., to 
wash, rub, as bure naui wash 
off the earth from a yam, 
furei ki natuo na cleanse his 
feet, furei ki lu nasoga, bure 
biakik wash, cleanse a child, 
bure nabau na ki narora rub his 
hair with oil, oil his hair. H. 
marak (rub), polish, cleanse 
by washing or anointing (egg. 
marali, &c.) 

Bure ia, or bura ia, v. t., d., to 
leave, allow, forsake, abandon. 
A. bara', 3, to leave, abandon. 
[My. bir, to permit, allow.] 

Burei a, d. marag ki, v., to spit 
out, to spit, to spit on. A., 4, 

63 [buru 

mara"a to emit saliva, bar', 
mar" saliva. 

Bur ia, buri, v. t., to pierce, 
stick, buri uago stick a pig : 
d. for biri. 

Buria, v. i., or a., to be swollen 
(of the body), to have the 
dropsy. [Ma. kopurua drop- 
sical, My. buru elephantiasis, 
burut hernia.] The a in buria 
is the a. ending. A. nabara to 
raise up, heap up, 8, to swell, 
nabra£ a swelling on the body. 

Buria (bauria, bouria), v., to 
kindle or make a fire (in the 
oven), ru buria ua (uwa), and 
ru buria, they make a fire in 
the oven, or, simply, they 
make a fire, kindle up : this is 
done every evening about an 
hour before sunset. See bara 
(H. ba'ar), and compare H. 
bo'erah kindled (an oven). 

Burog, v. i., or a., offensive, 
mouldy, filthy (as food). [Ma. 
puru mouldy, and kopuru, 
kopurupuru, id.] A. mara"a 
to be contaminated. 

Buru masila, v. i., to roar (of 
thunder), tifai i buru masila, 
d. boro silaia, the thunder 
roars, or thunders sounding : 
for masila and silaia see sila. 
[TaSa. biri thunder, and to 
thunder, Ml. P. omburumbur, 
Ml. A. amburambur, to roar 
(of thunder), TaSa. roro to 
roar (of thunder), Ml. P. 
berver thunder.] H. ra'am 
to roar (as thunder), ra'am 
thunder, S. r'em to thunder, 
ramo' thunder. 

Buru, burufuru, v. i., or a., to be 
short : d. mito, q.v. 



Buruma ki, or bSruma (or biruma) 
ki, v., to be in the relation 
of son-in-law to parent-in-law, 
or of parent-in-law to son-in- 
law, syn. monaki (nio-naki) ; 

Buruma, or biruma, c. art. na 
buruma, s., one in that rela- 
tion, son-in-law, mother-in-law, 
father-in-law : see mo na. E. 
(liamwa) tallamwa to contract 
affinity, to be joined in affinity 
(with someone), to marry the 
daughter of someone, talima 
affinity, specially the relation 
between a father-in-law and 
son-in-law, then (abstract for 
concrete) son-in-law. 

Busa, v. i., or a., redup. busafusa, 
to be young, springing up (of 
plants and animals), hence to 
be inexperienced, foolish, to 
be spotted (the skin, as with 
cold, &c.) [My. mud - a young, 
immature, not deep in colour 
(light), foolish.] A. wabis'a 
to be spotted (with white and 
black spots, as the nails or 
skin), 4, to germinate, or put 
forth plants (the soil). 

Busa, s., or a., dumb, mute. A. 
yabisa to be arid (see bes), 4, 
to be silent, mute. 

Busa, a., orphaned, meta busa 
orphan. A. yabisa to be arid, 
dry. An orphan is called 
meta busa because deprived of 
it's mother's milk. See bes, 

Bust, v. i., to blow, spout (as a 
whale). [Sa. pusa to send up 
a smoke (also applied to spray, 
dust, and heat), Tah. puha to 
blow (as a whale), puhepuhi 
to blow out of the mouth, 

64 [but a 

blow, as with bellows, Ha. 
puhi to blow or puff, breathe 
hard, blow a trumpet, <kc, 
Mg. fofotra blowing the bel- 
lows, mifofotra to blow the 
bellows, My. ambus to blow, 
make a current of air, am- 
busan bellows, ambusi to blow, 
drive a current of air.] A. 
nafatha, i.q. . nafah'a, to blow 
with the mouth, blow out, 
puff, eject venom from the 
mouth (as a serpent), eject 
spittle (a man). 

Busa, s., nabusa a mist. See 
under preceding word. 

Bus ia, v. t., d., to lay down, 
leave, and bis ia in turu bis ia 
leave, abandon, allow ; 

Busfus ki, d., redup., d. for 
bure ia, or bura ia, q.v. 

Busi a, or fusi a, v. t., d. for 
muri a, q.v. [Mg. fody re- 
turned, sent back. ] 

Busa ia, or fusa ia, v. t., break 
or smash to pieces, smash (as 
a yam), mafusai ps. H. pus, 
or fus to break in pieces. 

Buta, d., in meta-buta blind, lit. 
eye dark. [Fi. matabuto faint, 
buto darkness, Sa. matapo 
blind, matapogia faint, My. 
buta blind.] See bog, batu. 
A. 'amiya to be blind, "umiya' 
to be faint. 

Buta, or futa. v. i., to spring up 
or out, as water from a 
spring ; to spring up or out, as 
smoke from a fire ; to spring 
out, as a musket ball from 
a wound — i si buta ia he 
shot him, the bullet springing 
out from or glancing off his 
body, wounding but not fatal ; 


Butafuta, d. futfut, redup., to 
spring up or out, as water 
from a spring ; 

Butu-raki, or buti-raki, d., v. i., 
to appear, come in sight. [Ma. 
puta, v. i., pass through, in or 
out, come in sight, My. tfirbit 
to issue, come out, emanate, 
spring, arise, appear, escape.] 
A. nabata to spring up or out, 
as water from a spring, 4, ps. 
form, to appear, go or come 
forth, come in sight. 

Butfiki, dd. mitaki, milai, q.v. 

But, d. for iota, unmarried. 

Butia, or buti a, or futi a, v. t., to 
pluck, as a fowl, pluck out or 
up, as weeds, mafuta to be 
plucked. [Fi. vuti-a to pluck 
feathers, hairs off animals, 
hence, to pull up grass or 
weeds, Sa. futi to pluck 
feathers or hairs, fufuti, ps. 
futia, My. bantun to pluck, 
pull out.] A. namasa, 1, 2, 
to pluck out, as hairs. 

Buti a (for ba-uti a), v., d. for 
bakauti a, q.v. [Mg. vita com- 
pleted, finished, mamita to 

Bute (lua i), v. t., to praise. A. 
madaha to praise. 

Z?uti na, biti na, s., a knob or 
excrescence growing on a tree, 
a joint (from its bulging out). 
See 6otu. 

Butili, bitili, fitili, v. r., to speak 
of each other, speak of one 
behind his back : tili a. 

Buto, v. i., to germinate, bud. 
A. nabata germinate. Hence 

Buto na, s., bud, d. muto na. 

Buto na, s., navel, then middle; 
malebuto (lit. the place of the 

65 [e 

middle), the middle (of the 
body, a land, anything), d. but, 
hence d. tu-but rainbow, lit. 
stand in the middle (of the 
sky). [TaSa. buto navel, taga 
nabute stomach, To. bito, Sa. 
pute, Tah. pito navel, Tah. 
pitopito a button.] See pre- 
ceding word and botu. : the 
navel is the knob, as it were 
the bud (bursting or swelling 
out). (Compare navel, from 
nave, prob. from nabh to 

Butol, v. i., d. for bitelo, q.v. 

Butua, v. t., d. for bitua, to 
place, lay down, give ; ta 
bituatua to speak (or pray) 
while giving (or laying down) 
an offering (to the natemate). 

Butut, s., a place where offerings 
to the natemate are put : now 
used for " altar." 

Note. — The verb butua or 
bitua is the reflexive of tua 
ki : ba butua ki go backwards 
and forwards between two 
things, to halt between two 

Buturaki. See under buta, supra. 


, article, for a, sometimes i : 
a, ne, na, in. 
E, dem., this, that, as mal e (for 
mala uai) that time, then : e 
is a contraction for uai : ras 
uai this time, now. See i 
(d.), dem. This e, or i, is 
used also as a tense particle — 
see i. 


E, or i, prep., in, on ; t. prep. : 
ani, ni, a, i. [Sa. i in, at, 
with, to, from, for, of, on, on 
account of, concerning, Ma. i 
of, Arc, and t. prep., My. i t. 
prep., Fi. e, or i, in, with or 
by (instrumental).] A. li, 
H. le, T. ne, Gurague ya, 
or ia. 
E, inter, ad., where 1 See se. 
Ei, ad., yes. [Mg. ey, Sa. e, id.] 

A. ey, or ei, yes. 
Ei a, or ei ia, ad., yes, that's it : 

preceding word, and dem. 
Ei eri, ad., d. syn. ei a : ei, and 

eri dem. 
Ei, ad., here, d. i, q.v. 
Ei (e-i), ad., no, it is not. [Er. 
eyi, Mg. ai, id.] Neg. ad. e, 
and i, dem. H. 'i, E. 'i, not. 
Eba, v. See tali-eba, tali-ofa. 
Ebau, ad., at the head (of the 
island, i.e., the east), opp. to 
etu at the foot (west) ; e prep, 
and bau. 
E6ago, ad., in the end (of the 
house), inside : e prep., and 
Ebua, or ebu, ad., in the deep : 
e prep., and bua n. Also 
ebua, s., the abyss, Hades. 
Ebut d., in the middle ; e prep., 

and but, d. for buto, q.v. 
Egura, s., the stick used for 
spreading (scraping) out the 
heated stones of the oven : e 
art., and gura ia. 
Eis, ad., same as ais. 
Eka na, s., a relative, family 

connection. See aka. 
Ekatema, ad., on the outside of 
the house, outside : e prep., 
and katema, q.v. 
Eksakes, d. for kesakesa, q.v. 

GG [enu 

Eko, s. See neko. 
Ekobu, ad., in the inside, in the 
house, inside : e prep., and 
Eia, d. for elau. 
Elagi, ad., and s., above, heaven : 

e prep., and lagi, q.v. 
Elalo, or elalu, ad., in front, 
before : e prep., and lalo, or 
lalu, see alo, or alu na. 
Elau, ad., on the sea, by the sea : 

e prep., and lau 

Elo, s., d. alo, the sun : ali. 

Elo, or el', v. i., to be sweet, 

pleasant, agreeable, redup. 

lolo. [Ha. olu to be pleasant, 

agreeable.] A. hala', halw', id. 

Elol, ad., d., in the belly, inside : 

e prep., alo na, lalo na. 
Eraai (or emai), ad., in the dis- 
tance, afar, far away ; d. ufea : 
e prep., and mki. [Sa. mao, 
mamao to be far off, distant, 
mamao, ad., far off, distant.] 
A. ma'oka to be far off, dis- 
tant, ma'k' distance. 
Emalebuto, ad., in the middle, 
inside : e prep., and malebuto 
Emate n, s., d. for namatigo na, 

the grave : mate. 
Enea, or inia, d., personal pron., 
3 sing., he, she, it, dd. nai, 
niga, kinini. 
Enera, or inira, pi. of preceding 
word, they, dd. nara, nigar, 
En', vulgar pronunciation some- 
times heard for nunu to wipe, 
rub off. 
En!, v., d. for ani, contracted en, 

an, to abide, be. 
Enu, pers. pron., 1 sing., I, dd. 
anu, kinau, kinu, keino. 


Ere na, or eri na, d., motlier. See 
ani na, note. 

Erai, dem., d., this : arai. 

Eri, dem., this. See arai. 

Erik, dem., this, here. See s. 
arai and ka. 

Eru, dem., same as eri, d. nro, lira. 

Eru, s., c. art. nieru, arms, war : 
aru na. 

Esan, ad., here, there, and 

Esanien, id., and 

Esas, id. : e prep., and the de- 
monstrative particles se, na, 
cj.v. See ais (eis). [My. sini, 
sika, here, sana, sanan, situ, 
there, and with prep, disini 
here, disana, disitu there, Mg. 
ato, eto, aty, ety, here.] 

Esega. See asaga. 

Esike, s., a forked stick, that 
which sike tia grasps, seizes : 
sike tia, e art. 

Esai, or esei, s., the open, open 
space, d. esai leba a road, lit. 

_ big open space : sai. 

Eso,or esa,d.,ad.,yes: ei (supra), 

_ and so or sa, dem. 

Esu, d., ad., outside, away, e 
prep, and su. [Of. Fi. esau 
(e sau) on the outside, sausau 
outskirts, sausau kei vuravura 
ends or outsides of the earth.] 
H. hesu, or ksu only, pi. 
kaswe, kiswoth ends or ex- 
tremities (of the earth), A. 
kasa', n. a. kasw', kaSa' to 
stand apart, be afar off. 

Esuma, ad., in the house, at 
home : e prep., and suma. 

Et, v. i., or a., d., to be many. 
Cf. A. 'ada' to be many. 

Etaku, ad., at the back, behind. 
[Sa. i tua, id.] E prep., and 
taku na. 


Etan, ad., on the ground, down : 
e prep., and tano the ground. 

Etu, ad., at the foot (of the 
island, i.e., the west, opp. to 
ebau) : e prep., and tua na 
the foot. 

Eiio (ewo), ad., no, it is not : e, 
_ as in ei, and uo dem. 

Euta, ad., on shore, ashore, on 
land, opp. to elau : e prep., 
and uta. 


a (and fe or fi), inter, pron., c. 
dem. sa or se, safa, sefa, what ? 
also where 1 It is ma in 
matuna, q.v. A. ma', H. mah 
what 1 

Faa na, s., d. mao na, the thigh : 
mao. See bua, lai. 

Fa, or ba, q.v., to go. 

Fafa-sia, v. t. , redup. of ba-sia, to 
tread upon (of many). 

Fa, d. for mau, in mal fa nin = 
male mau ua = this very 
time, now. 

Fafan, for bafano, to wash the 

Fafaga, redup. of faga. 

Fafatu, v. r., to trust, confide, 
fafatu isa to trust or confide 
in him, or in it. See under 

Faflne, s., d., a woman (i.e., wife- 
man), and, a., female. Fa-fine 
(see Note 3, infra) is fa (for 
which see mera, infra, man in 
general), and fine a female, 
and denotes lit. female-man, as 
ata-mani denotes lit. male-man. 
[Sa. fafine, Fut. fine, Mg. 
vavy, My. paranipuan woman, 


female, bini a wife.] H. 
nkebah, f., a woman, a female 
(a genitalium figura dicta) of 
persons, and of beasts, S. 
nekebta', pi. nekbata'. 

Note 1. — Tbe ni in fafine, 
fine, the same as the ni in 
kuruni and atamani and the 
final n of the My. parampiian, 
is a suffixed particle ; fafi-nl 
is thus the same as vavy, and 
the difference between fafi-m 
and fi-ni is that the former has 
fa or va prefixed. In fy (fi, 
vy), as also (as it occurs in 
various dialects) in fu, ueo, 
bio, bo, foya, bayi (Santo d. 
nekepai), bai, bua, the ancient 
feminine termination, t, or th, 
as in the H. form of the word, 
i^ not heard : it is heard, as 
in the Aramaic form of the 
word, in matu (iv/ra), bite 
(-riki), or fite (-riki), Ja. wedo, 
other dialects but, fid. 

Note 2. — In Santo dd. 
occur katsai, karai, a woman, 
female : with katsai compares 
Ysabel gase ; and with karai 
Efate kurui, or koroi, kuruni, 
nagurui, naguruni, Wango 
urao : these belong to another 
stem, for which see s. v. lai. 

Note 3. — The fa, or va, in 
fafini, vavy, is the same (by 
elision of the r) as the para in 
My. parampuan, Ja. parawan 
or prawan (Ta. dd. pilaven, 
bran, New Guinea d. mer- 

Fagan ia, v. c, same as bagan ia, 
q.v. Hence 

Fagafaga, v., redup., and 

Fagafaga, s., a bait, and 

68 [fakaruku 

Faga, s., that which is given to 
eat, food ; a present, a bribe. 

Fai (vai), c. art. nifai, dd. noai 
(n'uai, i.e., n'wai), nai (n'ai), s., 
water. [An. inwai, Er. nu, 
Ml. nue, Epi ue, Sa., Fut. vai, 
Ma. wai, Bouru dd. wai, waili, 
Ceram dd. wai, waeli, arr, My. 
ayer, i.e., ay (ai), and er.] H. 
ma' unused in sing., pi. maim 
construct, me' water; Nm. mai, 
E. mai, water. 

Fai, v. t., d., divide or cleave, as 
lao fai plunge into, cleaving 
("with a spear) : bua to divide, 
cleave, and see also maga-fai. 

Fai, s., a skate (fish). [Cf. My. 
pari, Tag. pagi, skate fish.] 
Der. unknown. 

Fakal ia, same as bakal ia i. 

Fakal, a. (in active sense) kano 
fakal a comforting person, 
comforter (in passive sense), 
uago fakal domestic or tame 
animals, lit. pigs cared for, or 
taken care of. 

Fakalo, or fakal, s., war. [My. 
barkalahi (kalahi) to fight, to 
quarrel, kalahi fight, quarrel.] 
(Mahri ghorat war), H. garah, 
Hith., to make war (with any- 

Fakamatua, s., c. art., an ancient 
story : matua, tuai. 

Fakamauri, i.q. bakamauri, q.v. 

Fakarago, s., c. ai't., the rough 
prickly scab that forms on a 
sore : rago. 

Fakarogo, i.q. bakarogo 

Fakaru, i.q. bakaru. See bu- 

Fakaruku, s., the under part, as 
na fakaruku ki nakasu the 


under part of a tree (i.e., shade 
or shelter under its overhead 
foliage), ki nauot (tig.) the 
shelter or protection of a chief : 
rukua (and the caus. prefix). 

Fakasa, s., a festival : bakasa. 

Fakataliga, s., an ear pendant : 
caus. prefix, and taliga. 

Fakatokoi, or fakatokei, i.q. 

Fakau, or fakaua, s., d. fikau, 
tikaua, a messenger, ambas- 
sador, agent sent to do 
something for a chief or com- 
munity ; and 

Fakau, or fakaua, s., a message 
such as the agent sent by a 
chief or a community carries 
to deliver, i ofi nafakaua he 
carries the message (of state). 
See kau, gau, giasp, take hold 
of, carry, &c. [Sa. fe'au to 
send for (v. r.), fe'au a message, 
To. fekau to bid, command, 
order ; a message, order ; My. 
and Ja. panggawa a grandee, 
a noble : in Java it is the 
title of the five chief coun- 
cillors of state, and the word 
is derived from gawa to bear 
or carry, convey, bring, Ef. 
kau to carry, (as a club), Fi. 
kau-ta to carry, Sa. 'au to send, 
'au mai to bring, 'au'auna a 
servant, 'au a troop, gang, 
shoal, bunch (of bananas), Ef. 
makau a bunch or cluster (of 
fruit), d. umkau many, all 

Faki, or fiki, transitive particle, 
connecting the verb with its 
object, after or suffixed to 
the verb, consisting of the 
preps, fa, or fi, and ki. 



Fala, s. (see under frala II.), a 
ship's yards. 

Falafala, s., cross sticks fastened 
on a tree for a ladder to climb 
it : 6ala n. 

Falea, s., a cave. [Tab. farefare, 
a., hollow, fare a house, Ma. 
whare, Sa. fale.] See iala in. 

Fain ia, or bam ia, v. t., to eat. 
[Tali, amu to eat.] H. ba'am, 
A. fa'ama, to have the mouth 
full, to swallow down. 

Fanau sa, v.t., d. bunu to teach, 
to instruct : to preach (recent 
use). [Fi. vunau-ca to ad- 
monish, harangue, preach to.] 
H. bin, Hi. to teach, to in- 
struct, A. bfina, 2, 4, make 
clear, explain, lucidly expound, 
5, render lucid. 

Fanauen, s., c. art., the teach- 
ing, i.e., either the act of 
teaching or the thing taught, 
law (as " law " of Moses, re- 
cent use). 

Fanei, v. i., d., to be extin- 
guished, out (of a fire) : bunu 
ea, bunue a. 

Fanu, s., darkness, shade, only 
in kot-fanu, evening, lit. time 
of shade, d. rag melu. See 

Fanua, s., inhabited country, 
land, My. banua, id. [Malo 
vanua house, Santo d. venua 
house, village.] H. banah, to 
build, as a house, ps. part, 
banu' built, binyaha building ; 
A. bana', S. bna'. 

Note. — The Santo word has 
best preserved the primary 
meaning house, or building ; 
then a country, district, or 
land is called banua, or fanua, 





because, like a house or village 
(or building), it is the dwelling- 
place of men. 

Fara ki nameta na, v. t., to fix 
the eyes, stare with open and 
motionless eyes. Nm. fajar, 
or fagar, 2, fix (the eyes), 

Fara, s., c. art., a cocoanut (fruit) 
that begins to shoot. [Cf. Fi. 
vara, a cocoanut ready to 
shoot ] Ztora II. 

Fara, s., a chafed place on the 
skin, especially on the thigh 
(from being rubbed or chafed 
in walking) : baro sia. 

Fara, or fera, s., a row, or rank, 
or band ; 

Farafara, or ferafera, s., a row, a 

. lot, a band (as of sores on a 

limb), lit. a number of rows ; 

Bifara ki, or bifera ki, v. c, to 
put or arrange in rows. [My. 
baris a line, row, rank, file, 
troops, mambaris, v., and baris 
kan, v., and barbaris, v., bari- 
san parade, place where troops 
are exercised.] H. ma'arakah 
(and ma'aroth for ma'arakoth) 
disposing, ranging in order, a 
row or pile, battle set in array, 
army, or band ; from 'arak to 
arrange in order, or in a row. 

Fara-bule, s., c. art., a rank, row, 
or band, of adults or full- 
grown men : fara rank, and 
bule adult. 

Fara-kal, c. art., a row or band 
of men connected together by 
relationship, as of brothers : 
fara, and kal, su bakal ia. 

Farati, s., c. art., sticks fastened 
above and upon the rafters of 
a house : a. pr. name (the 

name of the chief of Sesake, 
the chief binding the people 
together as the nafarati (lit. 
that which binds together) do 
a house.) [My. baroti rafters, 
Fi. vorati upper cross beams of 
a house.] From bara tia, q.v. 
H. hibar (E. aliabara, v. c.) to 
bind together, connect or join 

Fare, farefare. See bare, bare- 
fare, to move. 

Farea, s., the public house of a 
village, d. fare outside. [Mota 
varea outside, Ml. P. vere, Ur. 
vari outside, Mg. ivelany out- 
side (i-velany).] A. barriyy' 
outer, external (Ct. barri), 
Nm. barrani outer, exterior, 
(and barra, out). 

Farea, d. for bi reko to be poor : 
reko ; and bi to be. 

Farofaro, a., tea farofaro, a thing 
that rasps, &c. : baro sia. 

Fasi, i.e., fa-si, v. t., tread upon, 
fasi koro bind together the 
reeds of the koro-fence (which 
is done by treading upon 
them) : basi a. 

Fasu (na meta na), s., d., eye- 
brows, tafasi, v. r., to make a 
sign with the eye. A. "amaza 
to make a sign (with the eye, 
eyebrows), 6, make such signs 
to each other. 

Fasu, fasua na, s., a part, por- 
tion ; member (of the body). 
[Sa. fasi a piece, a place, 
fasifasi to split up in pieces, 
fasi to split, beat.] H. basa' 
cut in pieces, A. bas'a'a 
cut, cleave, bas''a£ part, a 
piece, eg. H. badad to divide, 
bad a paii;, pi. members of the 


body, A. badda separate, dis- 
join, budd' portion, part (of 
anything), badad' part. See 
s. v. H. badad. 

Fata, s., a bench, shelf, stand, 
platform, del. ucnr', uer6, 
uete, kofeta (i.e., kofeta.) [Sa. 
fata raised house for storing 
yams in, a shelf, a bier, Tali, 
fata altar, scaffold, piece of 
wood to hang baskets of food 
on, &C., Mg. vatra (and vata) 
box, shelf for keeping rice, 
&c] H. 'omeel platform, 
place, 'emdah a lodging (place). 
See fatu. 

Fatok, same as batok and 
matok : toko. 

Fatu, same as batu and matu: tu. 

Fatu (see matu ki), hence fafatu, 
v., to trust in, rely upon, con- 
fide in ; matu ki (na koro) to 
set up the posts or supports (of 
a fence), palo fulsit, stabilivit ; 
na matu na, the column of the 
back, that is, the backbone 
or vertebral column ; also, 
post or stake (of a fence) ; fatu 
stones or rocks ; na fatu 
na bones ; fata (see ante) ; 
uota (wota) a chief (column 
or support or upholder of the 
people). [Mg. vato a stone, 
My. batu a stone, Sa. fatu a 
stone, core or stone of fruit, 
faafatufatu to persevere inde- 
fatigably, fatu (-amoa) to have 
a swollen shoulder (fron bear- 
ing burdens), Tah. fatu the 
gristly part of an oyster, the 
core of an abscess, fatu lord, 
master, owner.] A. 'amada 
1, 2, 3, to sustain, prop up, 
. make firm or stable, with a 

71 [kka 

column, post, or stake, (matu 
ki), 8, to rely upon, trust or 
confide in (fafatu) ; also, 1, to 
have the hump or the back 
contused with carrying (a 
camel), H. 'amad to stand (be 
firmly set), confide in, endure, 
persist, persevere (cf. Sa.;, 
A. 'imad higher structures, 
column, stake, 'amod' prop, 
column, stones put in the 
ground for supports for the 
foundation, column, prop of a 
family, chief, lord, the back, 
'amid' column and chief or 
prince (of a people), H. 'amud 
column, pillar, platform, scaf- 
fold. See fata (ante). 

Fatu, s., c. art. nafatu, the ridge 
of a house, ridge-pole : see batu. 
[TaSa. papatu, id., Malo uobatu, 
id., Ml. U. uobut, Fut. tau- 
fufu, id., My. bubungan, 
babungan, and bumbung, Ja. 
wuwung, id., Mg. vovonana, 

Fatuna, s., and ad., d. for ma- 
tuna, q.v. 

Fau, same as bau, a., new. 

Faulu, s., barter, i.q. baulu. 

Faum, d. fau, new ; na faumuen : 
perhaps for faumau, redup. 

Faus ia, same as baus ia, ask, 
question ; hence 

Faus, pr. n. (Questioner), a spirit, 
officer of Saritau at the gates 
of Hades. 

Fe a, and fefe a, same as be a, 
befe a ; nafeiina, nafefeana, s., 
the act of reading, or counting. 

Fe, conj , if, should, for be. 

Fe, d., conj., then, but. A. fa, id. 

Fea, same as be, or bea, to pre- 
cede, first. 



[fifis ia 

Fefe, same as befe. 

Fei, or fe, d., inter, pron., who ? 
[Sa. o ai, Tah. o vai, Ta. ba, 
Er. me, id.] H. ml, A. man, 
men, mun, or min, also often 
pron. 3 pers added man hu 
who 1 (who-he ?), contracted 
manu, menu. 

Feifei ki, same as beifei ki ; na- 
feifeien, s., the act of indicat- 
ing or showing, or the thing 
by which something is made 
manifest ; a sign, token. 

Feko, s., a cockroach, and similar 

Felak, s., c. art., d., a tribe, or 
family clan, dd. syn. metarau, 
kainaga : 6ala in. 

Felaki, s., c. art., girdle to which 
the nafon, or loin cloth, was 
attached : it is about six inches 
wide : belaki. 

Fera, c. art., a row. See fara. 

Fera-bule, fera-kal. See fara- 
bule, fara-kal. 

Ferafera, rows. See farafara. 

Fera, c. art., s., an omen, also 
fefera • the natamole tabu hav- 
ing poured out some namaluk 
(kava) to the natemate drinks 
off his own cup, and then 
looking into it sees some blood, 
or a human hair, or some other 
thing, which is called fera, an 
omen, or indication, good or 
bad, as the case may be : or 
he perceives the omen, good 
or bad, by " lo namo," which 
is another species of divina- 

Fefera ki, or fera ki, and bifera 
ki, v., to show by a fera, as 
the natemate are supposed to 
do (see under the preceding 

word) ; to give an omen. [Mg. 
fambara an omen, presage, 
My. fal omen (A.)] A. faT 

Fera, v. i., fera ki, v. t., ferafera, 
v. i., ferafera ki, v. t. ; 

Feroa, c. art., s., a crumb : bera, 
bera ki. 

Fet, s., a bird's nest, made like 
a platform of woven twigs. 
[Sa. J'ataniga, a nest.] See 

Feta, c. art., s., a tribe : beta. 

Fete, or fite, c. art. nafete, 
inter, pron., what 1 Nm. made 
what ? 

Fetta, s., soapstone, a soft stone 
that can easily be cut : fatu 
stone, and ta to cut. 

Fi, v., to be : bi. 

Fi, prep., after verbs, or bi, on, 
&c. A. bi, fi, id. 

Fiare ki, v., to go into the 
presence of someone, to be 
unabashed ( opposite of maliare, 
or maliere). See rairai. 

Fiatu, v. r., to smite each other, 
to fight, war : atu. 

Fieie, v. r., d., to speak, con- 
verse. A. liara, 6, to converse, 
talk together. 

Fifi, s., anything binding round, 
as a fillet or turban, &c, then 
a thing going round, as a ship 
round a cape or island, then 
hostile talk (with which one's 
adversary as it were binds 
him round) ; 

Fifi ki, v. t., to go round, as a 
yam vine round a stake, a 
ship round an island : fifi is 
for fifisi, redup. of fisi, q.v. 

Fifis ia, v. t., to bind round : 
redup. of fisi. 


Fikifc, or tikat, v. i\, to be 
savage, given to biting, lit. to 
bite each other : kat ia. [ Fi. 
veikata, id.] 

Fikoba, v. r., lit. to chase, or 
pursue, each other : koba sia. 

Fili, or fila, c. art., same as bila, 
lightning : bila. [Sa. uila, 
My. kilat, Mg. helatra, id.] 

Fillflli, s., a gleaming or flashing 
shell worn as an ornament : 

Filora, same as bulora, and, 

Filililora. See bulo ki. 

Finieri, v. r., to be doing some- 
thing to each other, usually in 
a hostile sense, to be fighting : 

Fimuri, v. r., to be returning 
each other, dismissing with 
presents, repaying : muri. 

Finaga, c. art., s., food : kan ia 
(in finaga the k is elided 
after the prefixed fi.) [My. 
makanan, Mg. fihinana, id.] 

Fira nia, v. t., supplicate, 
or pray, him, and without 
object, fira to supplicate, pray, 
also bifira, bifira nia. [Tali, 
pure to pray, pupure to pray 
frequently.] H. falal, Hithp., 
to supplicate, pray. 

Firaka, v. i., to delay. A. 
'araka, 5), to delay. 

Fisa, v., tisan, c. art., s., to 
speak, word : bisa. 

Fis ia, or fisi a, v. t., to bind 
round, to bind about, as a 
fillet, turban, or vine round 
the head, a string round a 
parcel, a bandage round a 
wounded limb ; fisi namanuk 
to bind up a wound ; a yam 

73 [firi 

vine binds round a stake 
(twines round it), and fisi 
name to twist a rope (bind 
round the one strand on the 
other — this is usually bulo ki) ; 
a whip or rod binds round the 
body to which it is applied, 
hence tale fisi a to flog (see 
tale to go round), lit. to go 
round binding about, d. mafisi 
a to whip, flog : often the final 
s is elided hence fi-gote fia to 
flog him to pieces (for fisi-gote 
fia), lit. to flog — break him, 
and see fifi (supra), and tafifi ; 
the word of an adversary is 
said to fisi the object of his 
anger, that is, bind him 
round ; fisi uago bind round 
a pig (in order to its being 
carried slung to a pole, so 
that it may not be hurt). 
[Sa. fisi to entwine as a 
vine, To. fi to twist and fihi 
entwine, twist, Ma. whiwhi be 
entangled, whakawhiwhi wind 
round, fasten, My. pusing to 
turn round, twist.] H. habas' 
to bind, bind on, bind about, 
as a head band, turban, tiara, 
" the seaweed is bound about 
(fisi na bau gu) my head," 
Jon. ii. 6 ; to bind up a wound, 
to bind fast, shut up. 

Fisi, a. used as s., i bi fisi (a boy 
that is circumcised, ru tefe a i 
bi fisi they circumcise him, he 
is fisi). A. 'afsa'u e praeputio 
apparentem habens glandem 
paer, faSa'a a glaude prae- 
putium reduxit puer. 

Firi na, c. art., s., d. fiti na, 

Firi a, or fir ia, v. t., same as bir 


ia, to make void, bring to 
nought ; hence 

Firi, in tale-firi, round bringing 
to nought, i.e., all round. 

Firigia, same as biri gia, to 

Fisau na, s., d., as nafisau naui 
= ora naui, the sprout, shoot, 
or vine of a yam : bisau. 

Fisiko na, s., flesh. [Cf. Bu. 
juku, My. daging, id., TaSa. 
veseko, id.] Cf. E. siga flesh. 

Fiso, c. art, s., an annual reed- 

• like plant whose top is used 
for food. [Sa. fiso a species 
of reed.] Der. unknown. 

Fisuaki. Same as bisuaki. 

Fisueri. Same as bisueri. 

Fisuraki, c. art., s., talk, speech : 

Fisurakien, c. art., s., the act of 
talking : bisuraki. 

Fisurua, c. art., s., a lie, or lies ; 

Fisuruen, c. art., s., lying : 

Fiti na, c. art., s., d. firi na, the 
rib, or ribs, side. [Er. mperi, 
Santo d. porera na, Ma. rara, 
Mafoor raar, rib.] H. sela', 
Ch. 'ala' rib, side, A. s'il', rib. 

Fitaua, c. art., s., d. syn. with 
fakaua or fikaua : tau. 

Fit, v. i., d., to run. Cf. A. 
fadda to run. 

Fiteriki, or biteriki, s , an old 
woman, matron, lady, as 
mariki an old man, senior, 
sir : mariki is ma' man, and 
riki old, and fiteriki is fite 
woman, and riki old : for fite 
see under fafine and matu ; 
and for riki or 'riki old, what 
follows. [Ma. ariki first-born 


[fu na 

male or female in a family of 
note, hence chief, priest, 
leader.^ E. leheka to advance 
in age ; be the hrst-born, or 
eldest, in a family ; be senior ; 
alhaka to grow old, lhik 
advanced in age, aged ; con- 
tracted lik chief. 

Fitefa, same as bitefa. 

Fitili, same as butili. 

Fitia, same as bitia. 

Fito na, s., d., syn. 6ile-meta na, 
q.v. : buto, v. i., and buto, &. v 

Fo, d. for bo, particle used in the 
formation of the future tense ; 

Fuga, s., d. c. art. nafo, i.e., na 
afo, whetstone, grinding stone, 
and (because used as whet- 
stone) pumice stone. [To. 
fuaga (Ma. hoanga, Sa. foaga) 
a grindstone, a whetstone, 
fuafuaga pumice stone.] H. 
hafaf to rub off, scrape off, 
A. Iiaffa to rub off. 

Fona, c. art, s., d. syn. tofe, the 
native cloth, or clothing, made 
from the bark of a tree. [E. 
Mai funa, id.] H. hafaf to 
to cover (kafah to cover, to 
veil), A. haffa to cover with a 

Fonu, s., the turtle or tortoise. 
[Fi. vonu, My. paiiu, Mg. 
fany, To. fonu] A. 'awinatf, 
'ayinai?, the tortoise or turtle. 

Fu, v. i., d. for mil to hum, buzz, 
lago fu humming or buzzing 
fly (blow fly) : mu. 

Fua na, or bua na, s., nafua n 
rarua, the bottom (outside) of 
a canoe or ship, lit. the back, 
syn. na matu n rarua : bua na, 
bui na. 




Fuagoro, s. See muagoro. 

Fuata, v. i., or a , to have raised 
stripes on the skin (as from 
blows with a rod, or as are 
formed by the veins on the 
arm). See bua ill., and bua 
tia : the radical notion is 
swelling otct : ending ta. 

Fua tia, i.q. bua tia. 

Fuga, d. buma, q.v. 

Fugaga, v. i., to well up, spring, 
bubble up, welling over or 
spreading asunder (as a 
spring) : fua, or bua ill., and 
gaga, for which see maga. 

Fugafuga, v. i., or a., i.q. buga- 
fuga. [Sa. fagufagu.] 

Fugafuga na, s., as fugafuga 
nabiau, the whitened or 
breaking crest of a wave, lit. 
its blossom : fuga. 

Fule, and fulefule, or bulefule. 
See bule I. 

Fulu, and fulufulu : i.q. pre- 
ceding word. 

Fuluara, v. i., or a., to have 
swellings : bulifulia, q.v., syn. 

Fulus, v., to turn : bulu sia. 

Fumafuma na, s., d. syn. fuga- 
fuga na, q.v. 

Funaso, c. art., s., stopper : 

Fura, same as bura, to be full. 

Furei, s. See futei. 

Furei ki, v. t. Seebureia: rub, 
cleanse ; furei ki natua na, 
cleanse his feet, as by rubbing 
or scraping them on a scraper, 

Furei a, same as burei a, or bura 
ia, to leave. 

Furiana, c. art., s., the being 
swollen, or having the dropsy : 

Fus ia, same as bus ia, d. uiur 

Fusa ia, same as busa ia. 

Fusfus ki, same as busfus ki. 

Fut, c. art., s., d. for 6osa6osa. 

Futei, dd. furei, futrei, mitoi or 
mitei, s., the white ant. See 
rei, tei. [Sa. loi, Tab. ro, ant, 
gen. name.] 

Futfut, d. for butafuta. 

Futum, v. i., dd. bisau, busuf, 
busofu, bisobu, to sprout forth, 
spring up, grow. [Fila, Meli, 
Aniwa, Fut.. somo, To. tuba; 
Sa. tupu, My. tumbuh, J a*, 
tuwuh, Mg. tombo, id. In Ef. 
(but not in all dialects) sobu 
denotes also the first springing 
forth or beginning of any 
thing, as i sobu it sprang 
forth, i.e., began; ru sobu meri 
a they began did it, i.e., they 
were the first who did it, were 
the first beginners of the doing 
it.] H. samah, Kal and Piel, 
to sprout forth, to grow (as 
plants, trees, the hair), and 
tig. used of the first beginnings 
of things which occur in the 
world, as Is. xliii. 19, " Be- 
hold I make a new thing ; 
now it shall spring forth," Hi. 
make to sprout forth or grow, 
and tig. make something spring 
up or exist, H. semah off- 
spring, Ef. atuma, id. 


(pronounced ng). 
Ga (nga), d., pers. pron., 3 sing., 
he, she, it (nom. suf. n, or 
na). [Ma. nga pi. art., Sa. na 


he, she, this, that, these, those 
Ha. na, pi. art., and sign of pi. 
number, My. iha (inya) he, 
she, it, they.] Mod. S. ani, 
'ni, they, also sometimes he 
or she, and pi. art. (St., p. 22, 
and fol.) 

Ga, conj., usually go, q.v., and : 
ka, in kai, conj. 

Ga, final conj., that, ut, d. ka, or 
k', q.v. 

Ga, dem., this, here, there, 
always (in this form) suffixed 
as in nag, naga, q.v., alaga 
(alia ga) this place, or place 
here, i.e., here (d. li ke, see 
ke) ; hut alaga may be a con- 
traction for alia naga : ka. 

Gabuer, a., and s., grey-haired, 
aged, a grey-haired, i.e., aged 
person : kabuer. 

Gafa, s., a fathom (six feet). 
[Sa. gafa a fathom.] A. 
karnai (Nm. kama) a fathom 
(six feet). 

Gafikafi, s., a small basket ; and 

Gaflkafi, v., to feel for or take 
hold of a thing in a basket 
with the fingers. A. koffai a 
basket, kaffa to take stealthily 
between the fingers. 

Gaga, v. i., to well out, or bubble 
up, as water from a spring, in 
fugaga. See maga. 

Gai, orgei, redup. gaigai, v. i., to 
cry, sing, &c. : kai or kei 

Gai (ga, final conj., and i, tense 
and mood particle of the fut.) 
See i. 

Gaigai, v. i., to pant, be out of 
breath. [Sa. ga'ega'e to be 
out of breath, Ha. nae, naenae 
to be out of breath, to pant.] 
S. kah to pant. 

76 [galu 

Gai-tagoto, v. i., to scream (as in 
pain) : gai, and tagoto, for 
which see koto to break. 

Gakalau ia (gkalau ia), redup. of 
galau ia. 

Gakarafi (gkarafi). See karafi. 

Gakasi (gkasi). See kasi. 

Gakatak (gkatak). See kati. 

Gakau sa, v. t., to grasp (as an 
oar, in pulling, or a branch of 
a tree) : usually pronounced 
gkau. See gau, kau. 

Gakua, inter, ad., used with 
verbal prom, as i gakua how? 
lit., let it be as what ? indefi- 
nitely, let it be as somewhat, 
let it be so, thus, yes (assent) : 
ga, final conj., and kua, q.v. 

Gala, v. i., or a., small : kala. 

Galakala, v. i., to laugh. [My. 
galak to laugh loud continu- 
ously.] A. karkara to laugh 
loud and long, karkara to 
laugh, cf. kalla, 7, to laugh. 

Galau ia, v. t., to cross over, d. 
(transposed) lakau ia, q.v. E. 
lialafa to cross over, ahlafa 
make to cross over. 

Gale-baga, s., d., bowstring : 

Gal ia (al ia, kai ia), v. t., to stir 
round (as water or any liquid). 
[Ma. ngaru a wave, ngarue 
shake, move to and fro, Ha. 
ale well up, aleale make into 
waves, stir up, as water, ale a 
wave, Sa. galu a wave, gagalu 
to be rippled, galu to be 
rough, break heavily on the 
reef, &c, My. * alun, Mg. 
alona, a wave.] H. galal to 
roll, hence gal fountain, well, 
pi. waves, S. galo' a wave. 

Galu, c. art., s., husks, peel, etc. 


(for pig's food), better part of 
a thing; pudenda; d. the 
inner bark of trees : see kalu 
tia. Cf. Ch. gilla', S. gelo', 
gullu chaff, <fec, a 
better part of a 

A. gillu, 

Galu tia, v. t., galuti nilsu to 
put the bowstring on a bow, 
na&ela galu covering board on 
end of a canoe ; and 

Galu, c. art., s., bowstring. 
See kalu tia. 

Galugalua, v. i., or a., d. sagalu- 
galu, to be aged, experienced 
(of persons), to be mature, 
also to be worn out as with 
age (of anything), as if to be 
full of agedness, and mere 
husk or skin : it has the a. 
ending a ; nagalu matua an 
aged, full-grown, or full- 
bearded person, or one not 
immature. A. galla, 2, to be- 
come aged and expert or ex- 

Gan ia, ganikani a, v. t., to eat : 
kan ia. 

Gara, v. i., to be dry : kara. 

Garagara, v. i., to be strong, 
vehement, and garakarai : 
kara, karakarai. 

Gara sa, v., to meet (any person 
or thing), to come upon, hit, 
as ru ba gara nata they went, 
met a person, i ba gara sa it 
(as a calamity) came upon 
him, i si gara sa he shot (hit) 
it or him, i bisa gara sa he 
spoke met. (or hit) it, i.e., he 
spoke to the point. H. karah 
and kara' to meet. 

Gara ki, v. See kara ki. 

Gara, d., pers. pron., 3 pi., they: 

77 [gere na 

ga and 'ra. [Ma. ngara they, 

Gar ja, v., and, redup., 
Garikari a. See kar ia. 
Garo i, v. t. See kar ia. 
Garu tia, and redup., 
Garukaru. See karu tia. 
Garei ki. See karei ki. 
Garaf ia, v. t. See karaf ia. 
Gari, a., d. for kasi. 
Gasa, inter, ad. See kasa. 
Gas ia, v. See kas ia. 
Gasua, and gasukasua, a. See 

Gat. See gaut. 
Gat ia, v. See katia. 
Gat, v. See kat. 
Gatikati. See katia. 
Gati, d. for kasi. 
Gato na, d. karo na. 
Gau, v. t., to grasp : kau. 
Gaua, a., barbed (of a spear) : 

kau, v. t., tagau. It has the 

a. ending a. 
Gaut, d. gat, in bati-gaut a plant 

with kook-like thorns, lit. 

grasping teeth : kau, v. t., 

Gel ia, v. t., to clasp (in order to 

lift or carry), carry away ; 
Gele tia, v. t., id. ; and 
Gelakela, v., used of many carry- 
ing away. See kele tia and 

kalu tia. 
Gel ia, for gal ia. 
Gema, d., verb suf., 1 pi., excl. : 

garni, nami. 
Genii, d. gami, nami, nom. suf. 

1 pi., excl. 
Geraf ia, for garaf ia. 
Gere na, s., in mele-gere na the 

hollow in the tail of a fish. 

[Ml. P. kare, tail ; My. ekor, 

ikur, tail.] H. 'ahor, A. 




'oll'or', hinder part, rear, end ; 
Nm. ekir, end. 

Gesa, gesakesa, for kesa,kesakesa. 

Gi, prep., and ki, q.v., to, 
belonging to, of. 

■Gl, s., porpoise : perhaps so 
called because of the squeaking 
noise it makes on rising out 
of the water. See next word. 

Gia, gki, giki, v. i., creak, squeak, 
ping, moan. [Fi. gi to squeak, 
Sa. 'i'i squeak.] A. nakka, 
nakik' creak, <fcc. 

'Gie na, or gia na, s. 
kiha na and gisa na, 

•Gie sa, or gie ki, v. 
ceding word), to 
acquire a name for or in con- 
nection with something. 

Giki. See kiki, small. 

•Gil ia, or kil ia, or kili a, 
to dig. [Sa. 'eli, My. 
Mg. hady, to dig.] A. 
n. a. karw', to dig. 

Note. — Kili natano dig - the 
ground, kili ki nakasu natano 
dig a stick into the ground. 

Gkiliki (i.e., gikili ki), redup., 
intensive, as ba gkiliki 
natuoma dig thy feet (into the 
ground), i.e., stand firm, or 
simply ba gkiliki. 

Gkita, i.e., gikita, v. redup. See 
gita, kita. 

Ginit ia, v., gini gota fia. See 
kinit ia. 

Girigiri, v. i., or a., to be bright, 
brilliant, shining, polished. 
[To. gigila bright, brilliant, 
polished, My. gilang and gilau 
to shine, glitter, be bright, 
brilliant, dazzle.] A. gala' to 
be clear, shining, &c, galiyy' 
bright, shining, polished. 

name, dd. 

(see pre- 
have or 

v. t., 



Note. — The A. word also 
denotes to be or appear un- 
covered : Ef. d. karo to be 
unclothed, have the clothes 
removed, naked. 

Gis, or gisa, ad., together, lit. as 
one, with numerals, as rua rua 
gis two two together, in twos, 
and so with all the numerals. 
H. k'eliad as one, i.e., together, 
Ch. kahada. See ki as, and 
sa, s, one. 

Gisa. See kisa, or kesa. 

Gisa na, s., c. art., name, dd. 
gie na, kiha na (for kisa na). 
[TaSa. kitsa, Ml. U. se, Malo 
isa, Epi (Ba.) sia, (Bi.) kia, 
Ta. dd. rige (narige), na'ge 
('ge), An. da (tha), Fi. yaca 
(yatha), Am. sa, Paama isa, 
Ta. d. lige (nahge).] A. 'ism' 
and sim', H. s'em name. 

Note. — The Ef. gisa (kiha, 
gia) has the dem. k' (or g') 
prefixed, as Epi kia and 
TaSa. kitsa. This dem. is not 
prefixed in Epi sia, Ml. se, 
Am. sa, Malo and Paama isa : 
in all these the final m of the 
the original is elided, as it is 
in tra (q.v.) blood, and nu 
(for num) ; this final m ap- 
pears as ng in Ta. 

Gis ia, v. t., to feel, touch, and 

Giskis, redup. See kis ia. 

Gita ia, v. t. See kita ia. 

Gite troa i, for gita troa i. See 
kite troa i. 

Go, conj., connecting substan- 
tives and sentences, and. 
[Ml. P. ga, ka, Ml. U. ko, Fi. 
ka, and.] Ami), ka and (with 

Goba (gote fia), v. t., to cut, as a 


liiikoau with a knife. [Mg. 
kafa cut, mikapa, v. t., to cut.] 
H. gub, A. gaba, to cut. 

Goba sia, v. t. See koba sia. 

Gobera, or gobara, s., or kobara, 
side, as kobara kerua the other 
side : ko deru , and bora i. 

Gofu sa, v. t. See kofu sa. 

Gofkofua, a. See kofkofua. 

Gkofita (for gokotita), a., sticky, 
gluey. [Mg. tita, fitaka, clay 
adhering, wet, sticking to.] 
A. 'amada, 2, 5) to be wet so 
as to stick (earth or clay). 
Note the prefixed ko (or go), 
as in Fi. ka, Ja. ka, the 
sense of the compound being 

Gogo, v. i., to wade, to wade half 
swimming ; 

Gogo, s., an aquatic bird. [An. 
agag to swim, Sa. 'a'au to 
swim, Fila kaukau to bathe, 
Ma. kau swim, wade, Ha. au, 
auau, swim, bathe, hasten, cf. 
Ja. kumbah to wash.] A. 
liamma, 1, hasten, 4, bathe, or 
wash oneself in cold water, 
10, bathe in hot water ; and, 
general term, wash the body. 

Goi a, or go ia, v. t., or ko ia, as 
goi naniu to rub, scrape, or 
grind out by rubbing or scrap- 
ing the kernel of the cocoanut, 
suru-go ia (cover-drain out) to 
cover with one's mouth the 
the aperture of a drinking 
vessel and drain out the con- 
tents, koi a mark or boundary, 
also koika nafanua ; redup., 

Goko ia, v. t., to scrape (nafona); 
to mark paint, or smear 
(nafona, i.e., native cloth), koko 
the paint used for this, gokoi 

79 [gkon 

(or gokai or gokei) nafona. 
[Sa. 'o'ai to mark or paint 
native cloth.] H. hafeah, i.q. 
Iiakak cut into, hack, engrave, 
carve, draw, paint, delineate, 
hok a defined limit, a bound, 
A. hakka, 3), grind by rubbing, 
1), hack, cut, pierce, 7), drain 
out (as milk), hakka scrape, 
rub ; hence also 

Gko, or goko, v., to cut into, cut, 
hack, always followed by 
another verb, as gko bora, ia, 
gko gote fia (used of cutting 
up the nakoau or native pud- 
ding), na kokoen, s., the cutting 

Gokolau, see gakalau (gkalau ia). 

Gule, s., a cripple, one lame. 
A. gayala to be lame. 

Gkola (gokola). See kola, ko- 
kola, to be dry. 

Gkola. See kola shout. 

Gkolau. See kolau. 

Goi! na, c. art., s., bird's beak, 
lips, mouth. [Sa. gutu mouth 
(of animals, wells, bottles), 
Ma. ngutu lip, rim, whaka 
ngutungutu grumble at, scold, 
Fi. gusu mouth, Fut ragutu 
beak.] A. nakara to peck 
with its beak (a bird) ; to 
scold, nakra< foramen (gulce), 
mankar bird's beak. 

Golo&a, v. i., to be filthy, dirty. 
Karafa, 3, to be defiled, 4, to 
be infected, contaminated, 
Nra,, 4, to disgust. 

Golu tia, v. t. See kalu tia. 

Gon, v. i., to be firm, fast : kon. 

Gkon (kokon), redup. of pre- 

Gkon (gokon), v. i., to be bitter : 
kon, kokon. 


Gonai a, v. t. See konai a. 

Gor ia, or kor ia, v. t., to enclose 
or surround with a fence 
(nakoro) ; then to enclose as 
with a fence a sick person 
(shutting out and prohibiting 
evil spirits or evil influences 
from him) — this is done by 
the " Sacred Man" (natamole 
tabu) — hence gorokoro to 
divine, and nekoro divination, 
or incantation, with its accom- 
panying rites ; redup., gorokor 
ia (native Christian prayer, 
Atua 0,ba gorokoro gamia uga 
toko loga namolien anago — 
O God, enclose us that we may- 
abide in the loga (enclosure) 
of Thy salvation) ; gorb sa to 
conceal it (as a crime with 
which one is charged) ; gor ia 
to prohibit, as tuba gor ia 
prohibit, impede, obstruct, 
bisa gor ia speak impede, or 
obstruct him ; tu gor ia stand 
obstruct ; gkoro (gokoro), 
v., and nakokoro, s., a pro- 
hibition, also an obstruction 
or thing put to close up or 
obstruct the entrance to a 
house, a door. This verb is 
much used after other verbs 
as ba gor ia to go obstructing, 
i.e. to meet, d. bakor to meet, 
or rather to come or go before, 
i.e., appear before (anyone), 
then to arise, come into sight 
(as a man, ship, &c.), and 
take place (as an event) ; meri 
gor ia, bati gor ia, like gor ia, 
simply mean to enclose or 
surround with a fence, sera 
gor ia to enclose or encircle 
(the head) with a fillet, hence 

80 [gota 

seragoro-bau a hat • gore na a 
brother's sister, or sister's 
brother, brother and sister 
being children of the same 
mother, or of the same na- 
kainaga. A. liagara impede, 
prohibit, interdict, 2, to have 
a halo surrounding it (the 
moon), (see koro), 4, to 
conceal ; lligr', hogr' a fence, 
a wall, what is prohibited, 
genitals of a man or a 
woman, kindredship, relation- 
ship, hagir' a fence ; H. hagar 
to gird, hagdr a girdle, clad. 
Nm.,2, to fence round, confine, 
forbid ; E. hagar town, village 
(Fi. koro, id.) 

Gore na, s., brother's sister, 
sister's brother. See under 
preceding word. 

Goro, v. i., or koro, to snore. 
[Ma. ngongoro (redup.), My. 
ngorok, Mg. erotra, id.] H. 
naliar, A. (h'arra, h'arh'ara) 
nah'ara, S. nhar snort, breathe 
hard through the nose, E. 
nghera snore ; 

Gore na, c. art., s., the nostrils, 
nose, dd. usu, gusu. [Fi. ucu, 
Sa. isu, Ma. ihu, My. id'ung, 
Ja. irung, Mg. orona, nose.] 
H. nlilraim, du., the nostrils, 
S. nhiro' the nose, A. noh'ra< 
aperture of the nose. 

Gorot ia, v. t., to cut round, as 
to cut round a stick in order 
to break it ; hence 

Goro gote fia, v. t., cut round, 
break it (as a stick). Nm. 
h'ara^ to shave off" in turning, 
H. hara£ (q.v.), S. hrai cut in, 
engrave. See karati. 

Gota, redup. gogota, v. i., or a., 



81 [gura IA 

black, dirty, bukota dirty (as 
water with dust or earth in 
it). [Gilolo kokotu, kitkudu, 
black.] A. Katarna to be 
dusty, 9, black, katim' dirty, 
black, katam' black, blackish, 

Gota fanu, s., or ad., evening, d. 
kot' fan, d. syn. rag melu, lit. 
time of dusk, or sunset : gota, 
or kot', a time (see kota). A. 
wakata, 1, 2, to fix a time, 
wakt' a time, a point or part 
of time : fanu. [Santo punu 
to set (the sun), puni dusk.] 
H. pun (perhaps i.q. A. 'afana 
= 'afala, cf. H. 'apal, see 
melu) to set (as the sun), to 
be darkened. 

Got, v., cut. See koto fi. 

Gote fi, v. t. See koto fi. 

Gotokoto, v. i., to begin (break 
or cut, as it were, into the 
doing of something, " break 
ground " in the matter), as 
i gotokoto bat ia he began — 
did it : koto fi. 

Gil, d. mu, norm suf., your, 2 
pi. (ku verb, prom, 2 pi.) : 
separate prom, 2 pi., kumu. 

Gu, dd. mu, kama, verb, suf., 
you. See preceding word. 

Gu, d. k (for ku), nom. suf., 1 
sing., my, as narugu my hand. 

Gua, inter, ad., how ? lit. as 
what 1 It is used with the 
verbal prons., as i kua it is 
how 1 Indefinitely i kua it is 
so (assent), lit. it is as some- 
what : kua and gua are equally 
used, d. kasa as what 1 how 1 
The sole difference between 
kua and kasa is that in the 
latter the dem. s' is prefixed 

to the inter, prom See ka as, 
and sfi what 1 Ch. kgmah how ? 
(as what 1 ), A. kama' as, so. 

Gua, v. i. See kua. 

G-uku, v. i., to shrink, shrivel, be 
incurved, maguku to he in- 
curved, ^uku rumu ki mo na 
to shrink or incurve the bosom 
to her son-in-law (of a mother- 
in-law shrinking together and 
covering her bosom and face 
so as not to be seen by her 
son-in-law), d. kuku ruma 
[Mg. kainkana aged, kainkona 
bent, curved, shrivelled.] E. 
guihkua (gwihkwa) to be in- 
curved, bent, specially from 
old age, hence guliuk' one aged, 
bent, and shrunk together. 

Guku-taki, v. t., to make guku. 
See guku. 

Gulu tia, v. t. See kalu tia. 

Gulu, v. i. See kulu. 

Gum ia, v. t., or kum ia, to 
absorb in the mouth fas a 
lolly). H. gama' to absorb, 
to drink up, to swallow, i.q. 

Gum ia, v. t., dd. urn ia, gu ia 
(gw ia), m ia (mw ia), to seize, 
grasp, catch, hold, with or in 
the hand. [Sa. 'u'u to take 
hold of, to grasp, ps. 'umia, 
Pi. qumi-a, ququ, id., My. 
gangam, Ja. gagam to clutch, 
to clench, the fist, the clenched 
hand.] A. kamkama to collect, 
to seize or catch with the 
hand, to take. 

Gunut ia, v. t. See kinit ia. 

Gura ia, v. t., to scrape off, gura 
ua to scrape or rake off the 
heated stones from an oven, 
magir ia, v. t., scrape, magura, 


v. i., or ps. a., diminished, 
lean, igura, d. igiri, the stick 
for scraping or raking the 
stones from an oven, gura biri 
ki (d. syn. sera biri ki) to 
startle (one) (as by coming 
behind one and suddenly lay- 
ing or sweeping the hand on 
him) : kar ia, garu. H. gara' 
to scratch, to scrape, scrape 
off, then take away, withhold, 
to diminish, Ni. to be taken 
away, withheld. Note the Ef. 
magura denotes lit. taken 
away from, i.e., diminished, 
lean, with the prep, ki, magura 
ki to withhold from (one), 
meta magura ki he eyes with- 
holds (something) from (one) 
he is stingy ; in one d. i meta 
makur ki is said to denote he 
eyes withdraws from (one), he 
is covetous, lit. he eyes scrapes 
off (from someone). 

Gure sia, v. t., to gnaw : see 
gura ia and kar ia. [Sa. gali, 
gnaw, Fi. quru, v. i., quru-ta, 
v. t., to eat anything unripe, 
to scranch, eat ravenously, to 
gnaw, My. greb to gnaw.] 
This word seems properly to 
denote scranch, scrape off, 
absorb, H. gara' scrape off, A. 
gara'a to absorb, swallow. 

Guru ki, v. t., to gather together, 
guru-maki, v. t., id., or kuru 
ki, kuru-maki, gkuruk (guku- 
ruk) gather together (with- 
out object) ; and 

Gui'ua, s., c. art.,' a field (of 
battle, of yams), so called be- 
cause men or things are 
gathered together in it : kuru. 
H. gur, 3), to be gathered, to 

82 [i 

gather together, 'agar collect, 
gather in. 

Gurui, and 

Guruni, s., c. art. naguruni, a 
woman, wife, female. See 
fafine, Note 2, and lai. 

Gusu, v. i., to stoop. A. nakasa 
to stoop. 

Gusu na, s., c. art., the nose : 
gore na. 

Gusugisu ki, v. den., from pre- 
ceding word, to nose (a thing), 
i.e., smell it. [Mg. oroka 
(from orona the nose), mioroka 
to kiss by touching noses.] 

Gusi, v. i., to be crooked, con- 
torted, magusl crooked, con- 
torted. A. 'akis'a to be 
crooked, contorted, 5, id. 

Gusu, v. i. See kusu, kosu-mi. 

Gusu-mi, v. t. See kosu-mi. 

Gut ia, v. t., and gukut ia 
(gkut ia). See kut ia. 

Gutu ki, v. t. See kutu ki. 


verb, pron., 3 sing., he, she, 
it, sometimes pronounced e ; 
also dd. i, e, verb, suf., 3 sing., 
him, her, it. [Epi Ba. o, Epi 
Bi. e, him, her, it ; Fut. i, 
Ml. P. i, TaSa. i, he, she, it.] 
Separate pron. nai, dd. inia 
or enea ga, or niga, he, she, it. 

I, dem., d., this, here, d. ei, rag 
i, for rag uai, this time, now : 
like e, q.v., contraction of uai. 

I, or e, a tense particle used 
after ka (sign of past tense, as 
i ka fano he went), and ga, 
and ba (final conjs.) thus, i kai 
bano he had gone, i gai bano 


let him have gone, the notion 
expressed being that the action 
(as going) was done or is to be 
done before the doing of some- 
thing else. Dialect syn. ko, 
ba i bano = ba ko bano = that 
thou have gone, lit. that thou 
now (before something else to 
follow) go. [Of. e after verbs 
in Ha. and Tali.] Probably the 
dem. e this or that i contrac- 
tion of uai, this, now, that, 
then), thus i kai (or ka e) bano 
he went then (that time), ba i 
bano go now (this time), d. kui 
ban, you now go (as bidding 
I, in ei, it, or that, not that, no : 

syn. eiio. 
I, no, compare e in ei. [This 
neg. ad. is seen in Sa. i (in i'ai 
no), To. i (in ikai no) ; for the 
kai, see tika.] 
la, verb, suf., 3 sing., dd. i, e, 

him, her, it. 
I, prep, (also e), contracted from 
ni (li), often t. prep. [Ma. i, 

Note. — The verb, suf., 3 
sing., is often combined with 
this prep, ia, d. i, for iia, ii. 
la, s., d. for bia, child, 
lak, s., d., mother (vocative). See 
aka and i art. [Mg. kaky 
and ikaky, my father (voc.)] 
Ibe ! iebe ! iboi ! interj., ex- 
clamation of wonder, surprise, 
and pleasure, d. bai. See bai ; 
i as in io, iore. 
Igam (i, art), dd. agam, nigami, 

kiganii, kinami. 
Igin, d., ad., here ; i prep., and 
gin (or kin), q.v. [Sa. i 'inei, 
Fut. ikunei, id.] 



Igira, d. for igita. 
Igiri, s., and 

Igura, s. Same as egura. 
Igita, dd. agita, nigita, kigita, 
nininta : i, art., and gita, for 
Ika, s., c. art. naika, fish. [Sa. 
ia, My. ikan, Santo d. ika.] 
Of. H. dag, pi. const, dege 
and dagah, const, degath, fish. 
It is possible that ika is the 
same by the elision of the d. 
Iki, a., small, little; in kariki 
(kar' iki) little children. See 
kiki. [To. iki small, little.] 
Ikin, or kin, s., c. art. nikin, a 
bird's nest. [Mg. akany.] H. 
ken, A. wakn', wukuna^, 
Ilibagoen, s., a basket with 
closed bottom, a purse, or 
wallet : ala (basket), 6ago, 
Ili-hki, v., also lele- or lili-fiki, d. 
syn. kelu-faki, as rarua i ili- 
tiki nagusu the canoe rounds 
the point, or cape. See lele, 
lili ; fiki or faki is a com - 
pound of the two preps, fi (or 
fa) and ki. 
Ilisela, ad., throughout, for lili - 
sela, lit. all round (throughout) 
the way : lele (or lili) sela. 
Imrum, d. imrau, ad., inside the 
house : i prep., moru hollow , 
um house. See katema. 
In, s., c. art. nln, the wind, the 
air : lagi. [My. angin, Mg. 
anina, the wind.] 
In, dem., this, d. na. [Cf. Sa. 
nei this now, Mg. iny that, 
this, My. ini this.] S. liana 
this, Ch. 'alien, Assy, annu, 


inia, inea, or enea, d., pers. pron., 

3 sing., he, she, it. 
Inin, here : i prep., and nin this. 
Inini, d., s., c. art. nainini, spirit, 

soul. See anu. 
Inira, inera, or enera, d., pers. 

pron., 3 pi., they. 
Inira, or nira, or nera, d., verb. 

suf., 3 pi., them. 
Inuma, s., d. for isuma. 
Io, ad., yes. [Sa. io, Fi. io or 

ia yes, Ja. iya.] H. 'Ihu', E. 

'ewa, yes. 
lore, ad., d. ore, yes. [Fi. iarai 

yes.] From io, and ri dem. 

See eri. 
Iru, or eru, or ru, verb, pron., 3 

pi., they, d. lu, or u. 
Ira, or era, or ra, verb, pron., 3 

dual, they two. 
Ira (d. ir), or ra, verb, suf., 3 pi., 

Isi, s., c. art. naisi na, basis, 

foundation ; naisi matua na its 

great foundation, naisi matua 

nafisan the great foundation of 

the discourse or speech, its text, 

naisi namal the foundation of 

the affair ; and 
Isuma, d. inuma (s to n), s., a 

clearing for a plantation, lit. 

the foundation of the clearing 

for cultivation. See urea. A. 

'iss', &c, a foundation. 
Is, ad., or interj,, no, not so. 

[Mg. isy, id.] I, neg. ad., and 

s' dem. See se. 
Ita, s., c. art. naita, d. for nata, 

a human being, man. See ata. 
Ita, interj. of exhortation, come! 

now then ! come now ! [Ta. 

ita, id.] A. hi'ta adesdum, 

Itaki, s., dd. otaki, uataki, a 

84 [ka 

split stick for grasping and 
lifting hot oven stones, the 
native tongs : i art., and taki. 

Iu, or eu, verb pron., 3 pi., d. for 

„ iru, or eru, they. 

Iu, s., c. art. naiu or naiyu, d. 
for nausu. See usu. 


., d., verb, suf., 2 sing., thee, 
d. ko. A. ka thee. 

Ka, ki, or ke, ad., as tera ki 
mala move (lit. fly) like a 
hawk (of the dancing of 
women who move with both 
arms stretched out like the 
wings of a hawk) ; usually 
prefixed to another particle, as 
kite as, kasa as what 1 d. kua 
(kuwa) as what ? A. ka, H. 
ke as. 

K, d. gu (ku), nom. suf., 1 sing., 
my, as naruk my hand. [My. 
ku, Mg. ho.] 

Ka, k', tense particle, past in- 
definite, as a ka bano, I went, 
i ka bano he went, d. ki ban 
he went (ki is k' tense particle, 
and i he, the verbal pron. 
being after the tense part., 
whereas in i ka it is before it). 
In one dialect the particle te is 
added, as a kate ban, ku kate 
ban, i kate ban, &c. In 
another dialect the particle te 
is added thus, kate ban (k' 
tense part., a verb. pron. I, 
and te tense part.) I went, 
kute ban (u represents the 
verb. pron. you) you went, 
kite ban (i verb. pron. he or 
she) he went, tu kute ban (1 


pi., incl.), agam kute ban (1 
pi., excl.), we went, kute ban 
you (pi.) went, ru kute ban 
they went : used sometimes 
for pluperfect. See te. As 
to ki ban he went, it may also 
denote the present, " he goes," 
or what practically is not dis- 
tinguishable from it. [Fi. ka 
a sign of the past tense, some- 
times of the present.] See 
the word following the next. 
K', d. ga, d. ka, final conj., that, 
in order that : prefixed to the 
verbal pron. it loses its vowel : 
in the d. in which this particle 
is pronounced ga, the verb, 
pron. is put before it — i ga he 
that, i.e., that he, d. ke (k' 
that, e he) that he, ka (k' that, 
a I) that I, d. a ga : the order 
seen in ka that I, ke (or ki) 
that he, is the older and more 
correct : examples, ka fan that 
I go, ke fan that he go, let 
him go, and so with every 
verb in the language. This is 
not a tense but a mood, though 
the idea of futurity is implied : 
to make the future tense fo 
(see bo, mo, uo) is added, thus 
ka fo ban I shall go, I will go, 
ke fo ban he will go (he shall 
go is rather ke ban, i.e., he 
must go, but also let him go, 
and he may go, and to go or 
that he go). As final conj. 
A. ka', H. ki, that, in order that 
(with the future), Latin ut 
(with the subjunctive). It is 
not surprising that k' in 
some dialects denotes the 
future. Thus in Florida it 
denotes the future, as ke bosa 

85 [ka 

(k particle of tense, e he) he 
will speak, compare Tigre Mat. 
xvi. 27 (when the Son of Man) 
shall come (&tmatse), for the 
simple future in Ethiopic: this 
Tigre ki is k' the particle 
in question (A. ka') and i, verb, 
pron. or preformative, 3 sing. 
[Ef. d. ga, d. k', final con- 
junction, Ysabel ge, gi, Rara- 
tonga ka, usually kia, Ma. kia 
(the a is a dem. added), To. 
ke, Mg. h' : Raratonga ka, 
future, in some places past, 
Florida k', future, Mg. h', 

Ka, d., dem. ki, or ke, this, 
there (near), as nauot ka this 
chief ; ke, and ga in naga. See 
word after next below. [My. 
iki, ika, iku, this, that, TaSa. 
aki, or ake, this.] E. ka dem., 
seen in zeku, Amh. yeh, orihe, 
for Ike this, Arm. dek, dak, 
deka', dake', A. daka. With 
the Semitic demonstrative ka, 
Dillmann, Gr. Eth., § § 62, 65, 
seen in these words (whence 
E. kia, prefixed to personal 
pronouns) compares probably 
Assy, aga this (Sayce, Assy. 

Notb. — This Semitic dem. 
ka is seen also in E. 'elku, 
'elketu, Ch. 'illek, A. 'olaka, 
&c, these, those. 

Ka, prep., usually ki, rarely ka, 
as d. i ba ka tafa (commonly 
i ba ki tafa) he went to the 
hill : ki, or gi (ngi) is to, be- 
longing to, of, for, from, and 
transitive prep, after verbs ; 
prefixed to the nom. suf. it 
forms poss. prons., as kagu, 


kama, kana, &c. ; kana his, for 
him, is syn. c. kakana, kanana. 
[My. ka to, unto, towards, 
after, according to, much used 
in composition in the forma- 
tion of other preps, and ads., 
as in kan transitive prep, after 
verbs, and akan to, etc., and 
particle of the future tense, 
Mg. ho to, for, belonging to, 
and particle of the future 
tense, Ma. ki to, towards, 4c, 
and, after verbs, transitive 
prep.] Arali. ka to, of, from, 
Himyaritic k? or ki after 
verbs transitive prep. ; H. ki is 
a conj., that; compare 'ad ki 
until (conj.), or until that, with 
E. and Amh. 'eska, 'es, for H. 
'ad, prep, to, unto. Thus the 
same particle which is a final 
conjunction (see above, under 
k' (ga, ka), final conj.) in A. 
and H. is a prep, in Him- 
yaritic and Amh. 

Ka, or ki, dem., rel. pron., art. 
(same as word before the pre- 
ceding, above), prefixed to 
nouns, as kafika the scented, 
that which is odorous. kalu??n 
that which lumi, spider ; to 
numerals, as karua second, 
katolu third, &c. (twoed, &c.) ; 
to poss. pron , as kakana, 
kanana, kinin, kiana ; to pers. 
prons., nom., kinau, kigita. 
[My. ka, Mg. ha, Ja. ka, Fi. 
ka, Ma. (katea, koiara, &c.) ; 
and see under baka, note ] 

Kaba sia, d. See koba sia, to 

Ka&e, s., a small basket. [Ma. 
kakapu a small basket for 
cooked food, so called from 

86 [kabuera 

being curved (kapu) like the 
hollow of the hand (kapu).] 
S. kapo' poculum, H. kaf, or 
kap, hollow of the hand, pi. a 
hollow vessel, pan, or bowl, 
H. kafaf to bend, curve. 

Ka&6, s., a kind of crab. 

Kabe, d. kafini, s., a pigeon, d. 
kime. [Ma. kukupa, Tah. 
uupa, Am. um, Epi ama, id.] 
A. llama' pigeons. 

Kabu, s., d. koau, the native 
" pudding " (tied up in a 
bundle, and cooked in the 
oven) ; the main article of 
native food : see kofu. [Tah. 
ohu a bundle of some food tied 
up and baked in the native 
oven, Sa. 'ofu'ofu to envelope 
in leaves (for cooking).] A. 
kobbai, kabab', "kibby", the 
national dish of the Arabs, 
made of pounded or brayed 
wheat and fish or flesh, 
gathered into a round mass, 
and cooked in the oven. See 
the verb under the word kofu. 

Kabu, s., fire ; and 

Kabu tera gia, v., to burn heating 
it (cold food), to warm or heat 
(cold food). [My. api, Sa. afi, 
Mg. afo fire, Sa. afia, ps., to 
be burnt accidentally.] S. 
hab to burn, A. hobahib' 
(redup.) fire. 

Kabu, s. , in talekabu na. See 

Kabuer, v. i., or a., to be grey- 
haired, aged ; 

Kabuer, d , s., a husband, lit. 
an aged man ; 

Kabuera, d., s., a wife, an aged 
woman, d. abuera, or abura, 
c. art. nabuera, nabura (k 


elided). A. kabira to be ad- 
vanced in age, kabir advanced 
in age and fully grown, E. 
'eber old woman (k elided). 

Kaf, v. i., to be bent (as with 
hunger). See also kai. [Ma. 
kapu curly, kapu the hollow 
of the hand.] H. kafaf to be 
bent, kaf hollow of the hand. 

Kafika, s., the rose apple. [Fut. 
kafika, Fi. kavika, Ml. P. 
havih, Malo avica, TaSa. 
kabika (khabika), id.] H. 
tapuali an apple (so called from 
its scent, from nafah), A. 
toffall' an apple, not only the 
common one, but also the 
lemon, citron, ttc. 

Note. — The ka-, in kafika. 
is not for ta-, but the Oceanic 
prefix ka, that (that which). 

Kafini, s., d. kabe, q.v. 

Kafikafi, v., gatikafi, q.v. 

Kafu tia, or gafu tia, v. t., to 
wrap up (a thing, as a stone, 
with cloth, so as to cover it 
all round), same as kofu sa, 
which is used of thus wrap- 
ping up food to be cooked ; 

Kafukafu na, s., pellicle, as of an 
egg or fruit (its wrapper or 
covering), d. kamu. 

Kai, v. i., to be bent, for kaf, 

Kai, conj., d. syn. bo, conj., q.v.: 
ka (see ga, conj.) and i, he, she, 

Kai, or kae, tense particle (com- 
pounded of ka, q.v., sign of 
past tense, and i or e) of the 
pluperfect. See i. 

Kai (or kei), gai, v. i., to cry, 
sing (men, birds), sing out, 

87 [kala 

sound, <fec. [Ml. P. keke to 
sing.] E. nakawa to sound, 
give forth a sound (of the 
human voice, songs of birds, 
«fec), A. naka'a to cry out, 
sing out. 

Kai, s., a sharp shell used for 
scraping : goi a. 

Kaimi sia, v. t., to make to exist, 
as (the heathen used to say of 
the sea, &c.,) i tumana kaimi 
sia it made itself to exist ; and 

Kaimis, s., c. art. nakaimis one 
that does anything hiddenly 
and wonderfully, as destroy- 
ing an enemy by changing one's 
form magically and deceiv- 
ing, &c. H. hum arise, exist, 
go forth, grow up, stand (be 
fixed), Hi. cause to arise, exist, 
A. karna, 2, rightly appoint 
and dispose (a thing), 4, pre- 
pare (evil against a person), &c. 

Kainaga, s., c. art., a tribe or 
family clan. [Sa. 'aiga a 
family, relations, To. kainaga 
a meal, victuals.] See kan ia. 

Kakana (kakagu, kakama, kaka- 
gita, <fcc), poss. pron., syn. 
agana, Ac, q.v.: kaka (= aga) 
is ka dem. or rel., and ka 
prep. [Epi gka, gkana his, 

Kakei, s., c. art. nakakei, a story 
(traditional). A. liaka' to 
narrate, Nm. liuceya, narra- 
tive, tale. 

Kaka, s., kaka naniu. See under 

Kakat, s , a bite. See kati a or 
kat ia. 

Kala, v. i., or a., little, small. 
See under bakal ia II. [Mg. 
kely, id.] 

kal] 88 

Kal, s., a child. See under 
bakal ia i. 

Kalai, d., s., a spider's web, and 
d. nilau, and 

Kalau, d., id., lit. that which is 
woven. [My. labalaba and 
lawalawa a spider.] H. 'arab 
to weave. See kolau. 

Kalau, gkalau. See galau ia. 

Kale-baga, s., d. kalemaga, bow- 
string (made out of the baga 
or maga tree) : kalu. 

Kali, s., native spade, digging 
stick : kil ia. 

Kal ia, or gal ia, q.v., and redup., 

Kalikal ia, 

Kalu, and galu, s., bowstring, 
kalu nasu : kale in kale baga. 
See kalu tia. 

Kalu, s., d. kul, cloth, clothing, 
lit. a covering ; and 

Kalu tia (same as galu tia), d. 
kulu tia, v. t., to cover, as 
with a mat or rug, i kalu ki 
nakalu he covers (himself) 
with cloth or clothing, i kalu, 
d. i kulu or i gulu, middle 
sense, he covers (himself), as 
with bedclothes, i.e., mats or 
such like, also to put the bow- 
string on a bow (or galu tia), 
and to clasp round with the 
arms ( a violent man, to re- 
strain him, or a pig, &c, 
stooping to lift it in order to 
carry it) : the vowels of this 
word are changed in kalu, 
kulu, kele (galu, gulu, gele), 
golu. See similar changes of 
vowels in the My. word under 
kela, infra. A. galla, 2, to 
cover, 5, to be covered, clothed, 
gullu coverings, clothes, &c, 
as rues : the idea of covering 


arises from that of wrapping 
round or rolling up — see the 
eg. H. galal to roll, and its 
related words in Ges. Diet., 
and see below, under kela, 

Kalumi, s., the spider, lit. that 
which lu»ii. See \umi to 

Kama, d. for kabu, in anekama, 

Kama, d., verb, suf., 2 pi., you, 
d. mu. 

Kamam, d. for kinami, q.v. 

Kami, d., pers. pron., 2 pi., you. 

Kami a, v. t., to seize, grip, take 
with the fingers, or with 
nippers, compress or squeeze 
between two things (like alat 
ia) ; same as kamut ia, q.v. 

Kamu na, s., pellicle, d. for 
kafukafu na, q.v. 

Kamut ia, or gamut ia, v. t., to 
take, grasp with the fingers, 
nip, then (like alat ia) to nip 
or cut with scissors, to cut the 
hair ; hence 

Kam, s., c. art. nikam, native 
tongs (a split stick for grasping 
hot oven stones, and lifting 
them), lit. that which (kami 
or kamut) nips, seizes, grasps, 
d. kau, q.v., or gau (agau), and 

Kamkam, s., scissors. [My. cubit, 
or chubit, Ja. juwit, to nip, 
pinch, My. angkub = agau, 
tongs, nippers, Ha. umiki to 
pinch with the fingers, Fi. 
qamu-ta to take hold of, or 
hold as with pincers, to shut 
(the mouth), ai qamu, anything 
to qamuta with (My. angkub) 
as pincers, bullet mould, vice.] 
H. kamas to squeeze together, 


hence to take with the hand, 
kamat to hold fast with the 
hands, to sieze firmly, kafas 
contract, shut (as the mouth), 
kabaS to take, grasp with the 
hand, A. kabasa to take with 
the tips of the fingers, kabas'a 
take, gi'asp with the hand. 

Kana-, pref. to nom. suf., forming 
poss. pron., kanagu, kanama, 
kanana, ifec. : kanana, d. kinin, 
is syn. c. kakana, q.v. [Epi 
kana-, d. kona-, as kanaku, 
my, &c] Kana- is ka, dem., 
and na, prep. See ni. 

Kana, v. i., also kin, and ki, d. 
kano, to shrink from, to be 
unable ; i kana bat ia he is 
unable to do it (shrinks from, 
or is afraid), i sua bo kin, or 
bo ki, he takes (acquires) a 
mind shrinking from, afraid, 
unable (to do something). H. 
ka'ah to be fearful, faint- 
hearted, A. ka'a to abstain or 
decline from fear. 

Kan ia, v. t., to eat, redup. kani- 
kani: tea kanien that which 
is for eating, nakanien act of 
eating, the eating, food, finaga, 
q.v., food, bagan ia to feed, 
make to eat, or fagan ia, q.v., 
and faga, fagafaga, nakabu 
faga devouring (eating) fire, 
nalagi kanikani a strong wind, 
kana a squall ; kainaga a 
tribe, family clan (from eating 
together). [Fi. kana to eat, 
kani-a, to eat, vakani-a feed, 
cause to eat, used also of the 
heat of the sun, and violence 
of the wind, Sa. ai, My. makan, 
Mg. (m transposed) homana, 
hanina, to eat.] A. 'akala to 

89 [kanoa 

eat, 3, eat together, 4, to feed, 
cause to eat, 'akll' one who 
lives with one, messmate, 
familiar friend (cf. kainaga, 
and A. 3), H. 'akal to eat ; A. 
'akala, 2), to scratch (thehead), 
'akila to be itchy, Ef. makini- 
kini to be itchy. 

Kana, s., a squall. See under 
preceding word. 

Kanau, or kanao, s., d. kanoa, 
kano, child ; nasutna ni kanoa. 
or kano, the womb, lit. house 
of the child (or fcetus). In E. 
Mai this is called kiri fanau 
the cover (kiri = kuli = skin 
or covering), or skin of the 
child. This word is familiarly 
used by men to each other as 
a vocative, as kanao, or kano, 
mate ! (child !), pi. kanu maga 
you people, d. nakanoa, kano 
ni Efate man of Efate, pi. 
nakan Efate people of Efate, 
lit. children of Efate, d. nati 
ni Efate (see ani, ati, child) : 
hence kano is sometimes equiv- 
alent to " person," as kano 
sa, kano uia, a bad, a good 
person ; 

Kan, c, art. nakan, children (of 
a place) ; 

Kano, or kanoa, s. — see kanao ; 

Kanoa, s., c. art. nakanoa, see 
kanao. [My. kanak child, 
related to anak, id., as Ef. 
kanao to ani, q.v., child : that 
is, kanak and kanao have the, 
prefix ka, and kanao = that 
born, that which is born, so 
Mg. zanaka (anaka), with a 
different prefix or article, and 
Sa. fanau has the prefix fa or 
£', the anau being identical 


with the anao in kanao.] A. 
walada, H. yalad, E. walada 
to bring forth, bear (of a 
mother), to beget (of males), 
and used in E. also of 
the earth bringing forth its 

Kano, or kanoa, d. kanau, or 

Kanoka, v. i., or a., to be pro- 
duced (as it were born, of 
yams), nam i kanoa (d. kanau) 
the yam is pi'oduced, born, or 
growing (as if the insat had 
brought it forth new born), 
naui kano new or growing 
yams. See preceding word. 

Kara, or gara, redup. garagara, 
v. i., or a,, strong, hard, and 
d. karakarai, or garakarai, 
strong, tagaragara strong, 
vehement. [My. kras hard, 
violent, strong, vehement, 
force, Mg. hery power, 
strength, force, might, mihery 
strong, powerful, mighty, hery 
being forced to, compelled, 
constrained.] See next word. 

Kara, or gara, redup. garagara, 
v. i., or a., to be dry, bagara 
ia, v. c, to make dry, to dry 
(a thing), nakaran the being 
dry, also the being (bare and 
dry) poor, poverty ; kara dry, 
then (see preceding word) 
hard, strong, stiff, rigid (as 
dry wood). See also kara, s., 
and makarakara, v. i., infra. 
[My. kring dry, kring kan to 
dry (a thing), Mg. haraka 
dried up, scorched, parched.] 
H. harar to burn, be hot (cf. 
A. liarra, E. liarara) ; the 
primary idea is that of "the 
shrivelled roughness of things 

90 [kar ia 

that are dried or scorched,'* 
Ges. ; to be burned, to be 
dried up. 

Kara, s., c. art. nekara, the 
nettle (so called from its 
burning ; compare makarakara 
to be burning, to be hot, as 
the mouth with pepper, or the 
skin stung by a nettle). See 
preceding word, and compare 
H. liarul the nettle, so called 
from its burning, from the 
root haral = liarar. 

Kara ki, or gara ki, v,, to seize, 
grasp, and 

Kar ia, or gar ia, v. t., to 
scratch, scrape, shave, seize,. 
redup. garikar ia, also karu 
tia, or garu tia, v. t., to 
scratch, and karo i, or garo i, 
v. t., to scratcli, scrape, redup. 
garokaro, and karokaro, karo- 
karoa, or garokaroa, itchy, 
scratchy, scabby, and garu 
and tagaru, v. t., to seize, 
grasp, garu sera (grasp every- 
thing) be grasping, redup. 
garukaru, id., karo to scrape, 
sweep, to swim (i.e., sweep 
with the arms — to swim with- 
out doing this is afa, or of a), 
karati, karakarati scratched, 
marked, scored ; kari, s., a 
plane (from being moved with 
a sweeping or sawing motion, 
or shaving) ; kare sia, or kares 
ia, v. t., to scratch, scrape ; 
gure sia, v. t., to gnaw, 
scranch. [My. garis, Ja. 
garit to scratch, score, garu to 
rake, &c, garut scratch, scrape, 
claw, garok to scrape, garap 
grasp at, garaji a saw, greb to 
gnaw, karat, karot, kfirot 


grind or gnash the teeth, make 
a grating noise, karut to 
scratch, karok to rub, curry 
(a horse), kikir to rasp, file, a 
rasp, file, avaricious, Mg. 
haratra shaved, manaratra to 
shave, kory gnaw, sci'ape, Ei. 
kari, or karikari, v. i., kari-a, 
karitaka, v. t., to scrape, karo- 
karo prickly heat, itch, Sa. 
'ili a rasp, file, saw.] A. 
garra to drag, snatch, sweep, 
seize, H. garar to scrape, 
sweep, saw (primary meaning), 
to drag or snatch away, to 
saw (niegerah a saw), to gargle, 
produce rough sounds in the 
throat (see Ef. karo, throat, 
ivfra), cognates S. gra' to 
shave, H. gara' scratch, scrape 
(see Ef gur ia, magir ia), &c. 

Karati, and redup., 

Karakarati, a., see kar ia. 

Karaf ia, v. t., to scratch, scrape 
(the earth or ground) ; hence 

Karafi, v. i., to creep on the 
ground (as it were scratching 
or scraping on the ground) : 
see kar ia. Karafi a is kara fi a, 
fi, q.v., prep. 

Karaka, v. i., to move tremul- 
ously (creep), as crabs and 
suchlike animals do; karaka 
ki naburuma (a mother-in-law) 
creeps or shrinks away from 
her son-in-law (ti'embling and 
afraid) : kara-ka, compare pre- 
ceding word. 

Kare sia, or kares ia, d. karas ia, 
v. t., to scratch, scrape, and. 
from the idea of scraping to- 
gether, beinggathered together, 

Karesi, or karisi, s., a cluster 
(as of cocoanuts), and 

91 [kas.v 

Karesibum, pr. n., of a person 
mentioned in a myth, one of 
the two sons of a woman who 
came down from heaven, lit. 
blossoming-cluster. See kar 

Karei sa, d. karei ki nia, v. t., to 
dislike, be averse from, hate. 
[My. iri to hate, Mg. hala 
hated, detested, abhorred.] 
A. kariha to dislike, abhor. 

Karei, or garei turi a, to dislike 
(the thing he is bidden or sent 
to do) abiding with him (some- 
one). See turi a, and cf. kita 
roa sa. 

Kari, s., a plane. See kar ia. 

Karl, v. i., to hasten, takari, id. 
[Cf. Ma. kari rush along 
violently.] A. kara, 1, 8, to 

Kari-iki (kariki), s., little child, 
little children, and 

Kari-kiki (karikiki), s., id. (kiki 
little), and 

Kari-riki (kai'iriki), s., d., H. 
'eker a shoot, and riki little. 

Karo, karoi, garoi, v. i., to swim 
(sweeping with the arms) : kar 

Karokaro, and 

Karokaroa, scabby, itchy : kar ia. 

Karo na, s., c. art., dd. gato na 
(garo na),kanro na, the throat, 
gullet. H. garon the throat 
from garar (see kar ia), E. 
guere the throat. 

Karo, v. i., d., to be uncovered, 
have the clothes off, naked. 
H. galah to be naked. See 

Karu tia, or karut ia. See kar 

Kasa, and kasafa, also kasana, 


inter, ad., as what 1 how 1 
why 1 d. kua : ka, ad., as, and 
sa, or safa, q.v., what 1 ? 

Kasana, inter, ad., as what 1 
kasa, with the dem. na suffixed. 

Kasau, s.. c. art., small brand), 
fruit stalk, nakasau na its 
small branch, d. (transposed) 
sakau, id., and also a reef. 
See sakau. [My. gusong a 
reef of rocks.] A. kas'ib' 
long and slender bi-anch, H. 
liisbe', pi. const., " the ends, 
i.e., the roots of the mountains 
(in the depth of the sea)," 
Jon. ii. 7; perhaps the branches 
of the mountains (running out 
into the sea). 

Kas ia, or kasi a, gas ia, v. t., to 
rub, wipe. [My. gosok, gosot, 
gosoki, gisik, kisil, to rub, 
Mg. kasoka rubbed, mikasoka 
to rub.] A. kas's'a, 3), to rub, 
lias'a' (kas'w') to rub, wipe. 

Kas-toru, s., handkerchief, lit. 
sweat-wiper : kas ia, and 
toru, q.v. 

Kasi, v. i., or a., to be sweet, 
redup. gkasi (gakasi), dd. gari, 
gatr, kati. [Of. Mg. hanitra 
fragrance, manitra sweet smell- 
ing, My. manis sweet, luscious, 
•mild, gentle.] A. nakusa to 
be sweet, nakls' sweet, frag- 
rant with sweet odour. 

Note. — The k elided and 
initial n retained in My. and 
Mg., and the final has also 
been elided in Tah. mona 
sweet, and Ef. mina sweet, 
Kasu, s., an old man, a kind of 
priest or sacred man. [Fi. 
qase an old man.] S. kas'is'o 

92 [kat ia 

an old man, a priest, from 
kas' to grow old (Freytag), 
A. kas's' a Christian Presbyter. 

Kasu, or kas, d. kau, s., c. art. 
nakasu, tree, wood. [Epi. dd. 
iesi, lakai, Ml. dd. nice, nai, 
TaSa. tagai (taghai), Fut- 
rakau, Sa. laau, My. kayu, 
Mg. hazo, tree, wood, Mg. 
hazo hard.] H. 'es tree, 
wood, Ch. 'a', from H. 'asah, 
A. 'asa' to be hard, firm. 
Note. — Kasu has the art. k. 

Kasua, or gasua, d. kasu, v. L, 
or a., hard, strong, redup. 
kaskasua, id., nakasuana, s., 
the being hard or strong, 
strength. [Ja kakas hard, 
firm, rigid, stiff, cf. kuwasa 
strong.] H. kas'ali, A. kasa' 
to be hard, stiff, H. kas'eh 
hard, firm, fast, strong, power- 

Note. — In Ef. naiona i 
gasua his heart is hard, meri 
gasua ki nia treat him hardly, 
or with violence. 

Kat, or kati, v. i., to thunder, 
tifai i kat, or i gat, the thunder 
thunders. See following word. 

Kat ia, or gat ia, v. t., to make 
fast, as nakasu i gati natua na 
the log makes fast his foot, i.e., 
jambs it and holds it firmly 
fixed against something ; to 
compress between two things, 
hence to bite, redup. katikati, 
na kakat, s., a bite, fikit to 
bite each other, savage, to be 
pressed together, hence to be 
inspissated, clotted, curdled, 
katak, redup. gkatak, gakatak, 
with the suffixed k as in kanok 
or kanoka ; nalagi i katikati 


the wind becomes fixed (in a 
certain direction) ; i tua gat 
ia sa he gave him by compact 
or computation for it, i mate 
gat ia he died by compact or 
computation for it, i.e., he died 
for it as for sin ; i kati, or gati, 
to thunder, is said to be the 
same word, tifai i gat, and 
when a " thunderbolt " rends 
a tree it is said tifai i gati 
bora, ia the thunder bites, rend- 
ing it (6ora I.) The Efatese say 
that the thunder has teeth, 
and the idea in tifai i gat is 
that the tifai is biting i.e., 
grinding its teeth together, or 
rending with its teeth. [Ma. 
kati block up, closed, kakati a 
bundle, sheaf, and, v. t., tie 
up in bundles, katikati, v.i., 
champ, move the jaw as in 
eating, Fi. kata (vei kata = 
fikit) to bite, a., close together, 
as boards on a floor, My. gigit 
to bite, gigitan a bite, Mg. 
hehitra, s., hold, grasp, seizure, 
clutch, bite, kaikitra a bite, 
bitten, manaikitra, v. t., to 
bite, kekerina being bitten.] 
A. 'akada to bind, fasten, to 
make a compact, to compute, 
to coagulate, become clotted, 

Katau, s., a kind of crab. [Cf. 
My. katam a crab ; to nip, 
snip off.] Cf. A. katama to 
bite, cut off. See koto a kind 
of crab, infra. 

Kati, d. for kasi, sweet, redup. 

Kate, tense part., d., past, a 
kate, ku kate, i kate, au kate, 
ifcc. : ka, and te. 

9:3 [kau 

Kate, d. Same as a kate, but 
with the a verb. pron. after 
the k', or between the k' and 
te. See ka. 

Kate, s., c. art. nakate, any- 
thing, a thing, lit. the that- 
that, d. nete (ne te, the that). 
See ka, and te. [Fi. ka a 

Kate, s., kate ni rarua the stick 
on the outside of the canoe 
superstruction on the side opp. 
to the sama. 

Katema, ad., outside of the 
house. H. hus outside, and 
ema house. See imrum, suma. 
In ekatema, q.v. 

Katoro, s., a basket. A. ka'tarai 
a basket. 

Kau, or gau, redup. kaukau (c. 
art. agau, d. ni kam, tongs, 
forceps, nippers, for grasping), 
v. t., to grasp with the hand, i 
kau na&e he grasps a club 
(carried on his shoulder), then 
to carry anything on the 
shoulder, i kau nauos he grasps 
the oar (in rowing), i kaukau 
nara nakasu (the flying fox) 
grasps the branch of a tree 
(moving along it as it were 
hand over hand, till it finds a 
resting place), hence ba kaukau 
(of men) go seeking a resting 
place. See kam, kamut ia 
[My. gawa, Fi. kau ta, to 

Kau, d. au, a lizard, perhaps 
from grasping or clinging. 

Kau, v. i., to bend (as with 
hunger), also kai, and kaf, q.v. 

Kau, s., d. for kasu, tree, wood. 

Kau, v. i., or a., d. for kasua, 
hard, strong. 


Kaua, s., an open worked wicker 
basket or trap for catching 
fish : so called because 

Kaukaua, a., full of openings or 
apertures, as if windowed, or 
apertured : the final a is the 
a. ending. A. kaww' an 
opening in a wall, kawwai 
a window (Nm. couwa dormer 
window), Ch. kaw a window, 
from kawah, or kavah. 

Kaukau, s., c. ait. nakaukau, 
the upper cross (i.e., above 
and across the kiat) or binding 
sticks between a canoe and its 
outrigger (sama) ; from grasp- 
ing or holding together, kau, 
v. t. 

Kg, or ke (cf. kei), dem., this. 
See ka, id., and ko id. ; kerua, 
ketolu, d. karua, &c. 

Ke, d., that he, k', final conj., 
and e (or i) verb, pron , 3 sing.: 
ka, k. 

Ke, keke, interj. See ake ! and 
ako ! [Florida ke ! keke !] 

Ke, d., verb pron., 2 sing., you, 
dd. k, ma, ko. 

Ketaku, or keitaku, s., the 
end of a canoe, . ad. 
for ko itaku. See 



Keikei, s., c. art. nakeikei, tattoo 

marks or lines upon the skin. 

[Fi. qia to tattoo.] See goi a 

(or koi a, or kei a). 
Kei naniu, for koi naniu. See 

goia or goi a. 
Kei, d , dem., this, that (near), 

for koi, q.v. 
Kekel, s., d. for kal, child, 

infant. See under bakal ia I. 
Kei, redup. gkel (kekel), v. i., 

to sweep round or wheel in 

9-1 [kelu 

curves (of a bird in flight with- 
out moving its wings) ; and 

Kela, s., the curved beam or 
wall-plate that goes round the 
end of a native house ; and 

Kele tia, v. t. (see golu tia, 
gele tia, gel ia, gulu tia, 
kalutia), as keleti, kei, or golu 
nasu put the bowstring on a 
bow, nuana i laba i keleti 
nara nakasu its ( a tree's) fruit 
plentiful bends the branch of 
the tree, i keleti wago (or 
other heavy thing to be 
carried) he stoops down and 
clasps the pig (or other heavy 
thing) to lift and carry it, 
hence kelakela, or gelakela (of 
a people carrying such things, 
as in going to a naleouan) ; and 

Kelu-faki v. t., to round or 
double a cape (of a canoe or 
ship), eg. syn. ili-hki ; and 

Kelu, a., going round, as bagana 
kilu its (the army's) rear or 
hinder part (see bago, baga) 
going round, making a detour 
(to surprise the enemy). [My. 
guling, goling, giling, gulung, 
to turn round, revolve, roll, 
roll up, igal to whirl, curly, 
and ikal to whirl, gyration, 
Mg. kodia a wheel, rolled, 
mikodia, mikodiadia to roll, 
and mikodinkodina, ifec, also 
koriana, twirled, mikoriana to 
twirl, and mitsingerina, mit- 
singeringerina to turn, wind, 
roll, revolve.] H. 'agal, i.q. 
galal, to roll, to revolve, 'agar, 
hence 'agur revolving, whirling, 
gyrating (of a bird in flight), 
A. karkara to turn (a mill) 
round, 2, to revolve, wheel (as 


a bird in flight), H. gilgal a 
wheel, ifec. 

Ken, for kana, v. i. 

Kerikeri, v. L, to be deep, as a 
pit, the sea. A. Ra'ara to be 

Kesa, kesakesa, gesa, gesakesa. 
See kisa. 

Ki, ad., see ka, ad., as : also in 

Ki, d., that (because) he : k', 
that, and i, verb, pron., 3 sing. : 
ka, k\ 

Ki, d., deni., this, or k6, id. : ka, 

Ki, v. i. See ken, kana, d. kano. 

Ki, prep, (the usual form), c. 
art. aki the, that which to, or 
of, also gi, agi. See ka, prep. 

Ki, same as ka, art. 

Ki, redup. kiki, v. i. See gi, 
gki (giki), v. i. 

Ki, d., verb, pron., 2 pi., you, 
dual kia : ku. 

Kia-, or kie-, pref. to the nom. 
suf. forming possessive pro- 
nouns kiagu, kiama, kiana, 
kiagita, kiagami, kiainu, kiara 
or kiata : kiana his (countiy, 
plantation, house, vicinity) ; 
kia (or kie) is ki, dem., the, 
that (same as the first ka in 
kakana), that which, and a or 
e, q.v., prep. The use of 
kakana is different, his or 
its (as a weapon to kill him, 
a door for a house, oar for 
a boat, ifec.) [Epi kiaku, 
kiamo, kiano, kiandro, kie- 
memi, kiemiu, kialo, same as 
Ef. kiagu, kiama, &c] 

Kia, d., verb. pron. 2 dual, you 
two, d. ko ro. [Epi ko, An. 
ekau, id.] 

95 [kili 

Kiag, d. for kiama, thy (vicinity) : 
kia-, and g suf. pron., 2 sing. 

Kiat, s., c. art. nakiat, the sticks 
which cross from the canoe to 
the outrigger (sama) joining 
them together. [Sa. Tah. 
iato, Ta. niciatu, Fut. akiato, 
Ha. iako, id., Ma. kiato 
thwart of a canoe.] A. gaiz' 
pi. gawaiz', 'agwiza£, gizan', 
Sic, beam which crosses from 
one wall to another joining 
them together, from gaza to 
cross over, go across. 

Kie, s., c. art. nakie, the plant 
whose leaf is baked, dried, and 
split into thin threads to be 
woven into mats, &c. [Sa. 
'ie a fine mat, cloth.] See 
under neko. 

Kigami, d. kinami. 

Kigita, d. syn. nigita. 

Kiki, v. i., or a., and iki in kariki, 
small. [To. iki id.] See under 

Kikita, or gkita, redup. of kita. 

Kilakila, a., knowing sagacious, 
shy, i meta kilakila (of an 
animal). [Fi. kila wild, sus- 
picious, on the lookout, as an 
animal.] A. 'akala, 1, 2, to 
be intelligent, prudent, saga- 
cious, 'akil', a., id. 

Kil ia, or kili a, v. t., to dig, 
hence kali, s., a digging stick, 
and nakili, s., a current (as in 
the sand, lit. that which digs). 
[Sa. 'eli to dig, Ma. 'eli to be 
dug, My. gali to dig, Mg. hady 
ditch, trench, &c, dug, mihady 
to dig.] E. karaya, A. kara', 
H. karah, Ch. kera', to dig. 

Kili, s., c. art. nakili, d., a cur- 
rent : kili a. 


Kilikili, v., redup. of kili a, used 
of many digging : ru kilikili 
they (as the people of a dis- 
trict and whose yams are ripe) 

KUiti, s., a sow, a mother-pig. 
[An. karite, or kerite, an 
animal that has had young.] 
Kiliti, lit. that brings forth 
(young), or the bringer forth, 
i.e., mother. See ki or ka, 
art., and for liti, see ani, note. 

Kin, s. See ikin, nest. 

Kin, el., clem., this : ki dem., and 
in dem. [Assy, agannu this, 
aga dem., and annu dem.] 

Kinam, d. kinami. 

Kinami, pers. pron., 1 pi., excl., 
we, they. 

Kinau, pers. pron., 1 sing., I, 
shortened kinu, dd. keino, anu, 
enu : ki, art., or dem. prefix, 
and nau (for naku, hence nom. 
suf. gu, d. k). [An. ainyak, 
Epi. nagku, TaSa. enau, Sa. 
o a'u (for ko aku), My. aku, 
Mg. izaho, aho, I.] H. 'anoki, 
shortened 'ani, Assy, anaku, 
Aram, 'ana', 'eno', E. 'ana, I. 

Kinit ia, also ginit ia and gunut 
ia, v. t., nip with the fingers, 
nakini na the fingers (nippers), 
kini gote fia nip, breaking it 
(reeds for thatching), hence 
nakini-got reeds for thatching. 
[Fi. kini-ta nip, pinch between 
finger and thumb, Sa. 'ini to 
take hold of with the nails, 
pinch, ps. 'initia, Ma.' kini, 
Ha. iniki, My. gantas (cf. Ef. 
d. gint ia, for ginit ia) to 
break oft", nip off, snap off.] 
A. liarasa, to nip (with the 
fingers), pinch, grasp with the 

96 [kihi 

points of the fingers or hand, 
snip off. 

Kini na, s., c. art., the fingers, 
or toes, lit. the nippers, or 
graspers ; also claws, talons. 

Kini gote fia, v. t., and 

Kinigot, s., c. art., see kinit ia. 

Kintu, dem., that (near) : kin, 
dem., and tu. 

Kinu, I, see kinau. 

Kiri, d., s., c. art. nakiri, d. syn. 
ori, rubbing stick for produc- 
ing fire. [Sa. 'ili rasp, file, 
saw.] See kar ia, magiri a. 

Kirikiri, s., gravel, pebble. [Sa. 
'ili'ili, Ma. kirikiri, My. kri- 
kil, karikil, karikil, gravel, 
pebble.] H. garger, A. girgir' 
a berry, from H. garar, see 
kar ia, eg. A. garal' gravel. 

Kirikiri, a., small, like pebbles, 
in bia kirikiri little children. 
See preceding word. 

Kis, s., a shell, used for cutting. 
A. giz'a£ a shell, from gaza'a 
to cut. 

Kis, d., dem., this, here : ki, 
dem., and se, dem. 

Kisa, a., in mita kisa blind (the 
eyes sunk into the head). A. 
has', id. And 

Kisa, or gisa, v. i., or a., redup., 

Kisakisa, v. i., or a., to be 
putting forth leaves, hence to 
be green ; hence 

Kisa, s., c. art., nakisa, d. takis, 
a green stone or chalk (used 
only for painting himself by a 
a chief), a chief's grave (in the 
bush, sacred). A. li'awisa to 
have the eyes sinking into the 
head, 4, to put forth leaves (a 
plant), to germinate. 

Kihi na, d. kui na, q.v. : kihi na, 


i.e., kisi na (h being for s in 
that d.) 

Kis ia, or kisi a, v. t., also gis ia, 
redup. giskis, to feel, touch, 
lo giskis to look, exploring (as 
at a person's body partly un- 
covered). A. gassa to feel, 
touch, to explore or grope 
with the hand or with the 
eyes, H. gas'as', Pi., E. gasasa 
to feel, touch, S. gas' to feel, 
touch, to explore. 

Kisau, v. t., d. kisur, to remove, 
get out, stand apart : i kisau 
ki nabua he removes from, or 
stands out, or gets out of the 
i-oad, ba kisau get out (of the 
way), remove, stand away. A. 
Rasa', kasww', kuguww', kasa', 
to stand apart, to be remote. 

Kistu, clem., this here : kis 
dem., and tu. 

Kisur (ksur), d. for kisau. See 
(d.) esu. 

Kita, a., little, small, li kita 
small place (name of small 
boat entrance of Havannah 
Harbour) opp. to li leba big- 
place (name of large entrance 
to Havannah Harbour). [Sa. 
iti, itiiti, small, few, Ma. and 
Tah. iti, itiiti, small, little. 
My. kate, kite, diminutive.] 
E. liasasa, hasa to be small, 

Kita (rare), or kite, ad., as, takes 
the verb, pron., as i kite fatu 
it is as (or like) a stone, kite 
or kite uan as, as if, i bisa i 
kite i maieto he speaks as if he 
were angry, i marafi kite nifila 
it is quick as lightning. A. 
kada like, as this, as that. 
See ki, as, and te, kite, or 

97 [ko 

kita, lit., as that, or like 
Kita, or kite, conj., or, d. ko : 
rarua kite boat a canoe or 
boat; inter, particle at the 
end of sentences, d. ko, as i 
bano kite 1 has he gone ? 
fully this is, i bano kite i tika 1 
has he gone or not 1 For 
kite, disj. conj., see ko, conj., 

Kita, v., to divine, redup. kikita, 
gkita, lit. to perceive or feel 
with the eye or the mind (cf. 
rogo, rorogo), bati kita ia, or 
gita ia to try (cf. bati rog ia), 
lit. make or do feeling or per- 
ceiving or knowing or finding 
out. [Ma. kite to see, know, 
perceive, find out, discover, 
matakite to divine, s. one who 
foresees an event.] A. wag- 
ada to find with the eye or the 
mind (a thing sought), to per- 
ceive by the feeling of the 
body (a thing), or by the 
mind, 4, make to find or to 

Kita ia, and gita ia, v. t., to hate, 
redup. kitakita ia, to be en- 
vious of, to hate ; and 

Kita roa sa, or kita roa i, to hate 
turning after him (someone), 
as a boy sent a message meet- 
ing another boy and (hating 
to do the message) turns after 
him to play. See roa. H. 
kut, followed by prep, be, to 
loathe* also kus and nakat. 

Kita, in bakita and bakitakita. 
See makitakita, id. 

Kite. See kita, ad. 

Ko, verb, suf., 2 sing., you (pi. 
for sing.), dd. k, ke, ma. 


Ko, d., verb, pron., 2 sing., you, 
d. ku. 

Ko, sign of imperative, 2 pi. 
(sing, ba), lit. that you : 
k' final conj., and o fragment 
of pers. pron., 2 pi. 

Ko, cl., ad. of assent., d. syn. na, 
and red up., 

Koko, id., d. ko, interj. See 
ako and kori : ko, dem. 

Ko, ad., now, d. syn. uo (wo), as 
i ko toko (d. i uo toko) he 
now remains (has not yet gone) 
ba ko toko remain now, or 
just now, d. syn. ba i toko 
(bai toko) ; and i ko toko, d. 
i uo toko, in another d. is i ta 
toko. For i, uo, and ta, see 
these words. H. koh, ko' 
(from kahu, k' as, and the 
pers. pron., 3 sing., as a dem., 
like as this) (so, here), now. 
[An. ko just now ; in this 

Ko, dem. See koi, kofeta, 
kofakal : E. ku (ka dem., and 
u (o) pron., 3 sing.) 

Ko, d., disj. conj., or ; inter, 
particle at the end of a 
sentence as, i bano ko ? has 
he gone 1 fully, i bano ko i 
tika 1 has he gone or not ? D. 
syn., in both uses, kite or 
kita. [An. ka, id., Er. ku or.] 
H. ki or, 1 Kings xviii. 27, syn. 
c. A., S., 'aw, or, in this 

Note. — Kite and ko have 
both a dem. suffixed to ki, the 
former te, the latter o (the o 
in the preceding word), and 
therefore lit. denote or — this. 

Ko, s., c. art. nako na (for n 
ako), the face, a part ; nakona 

98 [kohu 

his face (see nako, infra), 
nakonako ki to face (someone), 
nako nafakotoen a part of 
the price, ba tu au nakon give 
me a part, nakon ru bano 
nakon ru toko a part (of the 
whole number of men) go, a 
part remain ; and, without 
the article, shortened to ko, 
as ko-be ni rarua, or nakobe, 
the fore part of a canoe, ke- 
itaku ni rarua, or nako-itaku 
the after-part of a canoe ; 
ko-be the part before, the 
front, i baki kobe he goes to 
the front, ke-itaku the part 
behind, behind, i baki ke- 
itaku he goes behind, or to 
the rear. A. wag^' (wagto) 
the face, a part or side, wiga£ 
a band, wagaha, 3, to face 

Koa, a., fibrous, stringy, as a 
yam when cooked, naui koa : 
aka, ako, and a a. ending. 

Koakoa, redup. of koa, very 
stringy or fibrous. 

Koau, s., c. art. nakoau, d. kabu 
the native pudding. See kofu 

Koba sia, v. t., to follow, to 
drive away, to pursue : i koba 
na&ona he follows his own 
heart (does or strives to do 
what is in his mind) ; v. r., 
hkoba to follow each other, or 
to drive away each other ; 

Kobausi a, v. t., i.e., koba, and 
usi to track ; to follow after. 
A. kafa to follow, to drive 

Kobara, s., see gobara : ko dem. 

Kobu, d. See kubu. 


Kofa, s., and red up., 

Kofakofa, s., an alcove, tem- 
porary house or shed, tent. 
H. kubali a tent, chamber (so 
called from its arched form, 
from kabab to make gibbous 
and hollow, to arch, to vault). 
A. kuhbat tent, vault, cham- 
ber, hence the word alcove. 

Kofakal, s., a herd of pigs cared 
for, lit. the or that cared for: 
ko dem., and fakal. 

Kofe na, s., nakofena, his skull, 
the skull. A. killf the 

Kofeta, d., s., fata, q.v., with 
dem. ko prefixed, a bench, 

Kofu sa, v. t., to enclose (as 
fish in a net), wrap up or en- 
close (as a pudding in leaves, 
to be put in the oven). See 
kabu, d. koau, the native pud- 
ding ; and 

Kofukofua, a., redup., and with 
a. ending a, bent up at the 
edges, as a shovel, or any- 
thing, as it were' rolled up or 
turned over. The pudding, 
koau, is laid on a mass of 
leaves, very wide and long, 
which are rolled up or over it 
all round, completely enclos- 
ing it, and then tied up. [Fi. 
kovuta, kokofu blistered (small 
balls or pimples), kovu banana 
leaf in which native puddings 
are done up, d., a coat, kovuna 
to do up in a kovu, Sa. 'ofu a 
garment, 'o'ofu put on a gar- 
ment, 'ofu 'ofu to envelope in 
leaves (for cooking), 'ofulua 
twenty leaf dishes of native 
food ; Ma. kohu, kokoliu, a., 

99 [koko 

somewhat concave, bent or 
warped so as to become con- 
cave (cf. Ef. kofukofua), kohu 
to cook in a native oven any 
article contained in a hollow 
vessel, To. kofu to enclose or 
wrap up, to clothe, Ha. ohu 
to roll up (as the sea that 
does not break) a roller, a 
swell, ohua a crowd of people, 
ohui to twist round, ohuohu 
heavy, burdensome, a wreath 
worn round the neck, to dress 
in uniform, Tali, ohu a bank 
or ridge of earth thrown up, a 
bundle of native food tied up 
and baked in the native oven, 
to bend downwards as the 
branch of a tree, to stoop, to 
twirl round as a wheel.] A. 
kabba to roll up into a ball, to 
make into balls (food) for 
cooking, to invert, to stoop, to 
be heavy, A. kobba^', kabab' 
(see under kabu, d. koau, 
supra) : kobba£ also denotes 
a mob of horses, crowd or 
mass of men, herd of camels, 
a ball of threads rolled up to- 
gether, a heavy ponderous 
thing, a hill, kabkaba, 2, to 
be wrapped up, enveloped, to 
wrap up or envelope oneself 
(in one's garment). 

Koi, d., dem., this, d. kei : ko 
dem., and i dem. 

Koia (ko-ia, ko-ya), same as 

Koi, s., and 

Koika, s., a boundary, from 

Koi a, or ko ia, v. t. See goi a. 

Koko, s., c. art. nekoko, reddish 
juice or paint for nafona made 
from a plant (also called ne- 

KOKORO] 100 

koko) : goko ia. [To. koka, , 
Sa. 'o'a, id.] 

Kokoro, s. See under gor ia. 

Kokoti, s., a net for catching- 
fish : koto. 

Kola, d., and redup., 

Kokola, v. i., to be bent, kola ki 
na buruma (a mother-in-law) 
bends or stoops to the son-in- 
law. See kele tia (golu tia) 

Kola, v. i., and redup., 

Kokola, v. i, or gkola, to be 
arid, dry ; hence 

Kola, s., a dry stick or log. A. 
kahala, kohol', to be arid, dry. 

Kola, v. i., and gola, and redup. 
gkola (kokola), to call out, 
cry out, to speak loud ; hence 

Kola oli, s., echo, lit. calling out 
like. See oli a. [Fi. kaila to 
shout, Mg. akora, s., shouting.] 
H. Kara' to cry out, call out. 

Kolau, redup. gkolau. See galau 

Kolau, s. See kalau, spider's 
web, dd. kalai, nilau (i.e., lau) ; 
namera kolau web of fat on 
the inwards of a pig. [An. 
nilva = kolau, nilvanilva — 

Kolau (see preceding word), pr. n., 
prob. originally given to a 
warrior full of stratagems. 
See also the verb under kalau, 
to weave, to lie in wait, watch 
in ambush (as in war). A. 
'aruba to be wily or cunning. 

Kolobu na, s., its joint (of a 
bamboo or reed), applied also 
to the knobs or rivets on a 
tank. A. karibu joint of a 
bamboo or reed. 

Kolofa, v. c, to be bent, as 


with hunger or famine, 
redup. gkoldfa. See lofa ia, 
lofa. The prefixed ko is the 
dem. [Fi. kalove bent, from 
love-ca to bend.] 

Komam, dd. kinami, kiraam. 

Kon, v. i., or a. (with ending n), 
and redup., 

Kokon, gkon, to be bitter (of 
anything), kona ki to be bitter 
towards (someone), namarita na 
i gkon his belly is bitter (he 
is angry). [Sa. 'ona, 'o'ona, 
bitter, sour.] A. ko' and 
ko'a' very bitter. 

Konai na, s., c. art. nakonai na, 
his gall or bile : kon bitter. 

Kona, v. i., gona, to stand firm, 
to be fixed, firm, then, to have 
the mind fixed upon, to be 
occupied with, kona ki. H. 
kun prop, to stand upright, 
Hi. to set up, found, then to 
apply one's mind to, Ni. to 
stand firm, fixed, steady, firm, 

Kona gor ia, v., to stand firm 
protecting him (as in war). 
See gor ia. 

Kona ia, or konai a, v. t., and 
gonai a, to pierce (as a board 
with an instrument like an 
awl). E. kanawa to pierce. 

Konai sai a, v., to pierce through. 
See sai a. 

Kore na, s., see gore na, brother's 
sister, sister's brother, children 
of the same mother (actually), 
or, if not, members of the same 

Kor ia. See gor ia. 

Koro sa, v. t., conceal it (as 
misconduct of which one is ac- 
cused) : gor ia. 


[koto bolo 

Koro, s., c. art. uakoro, a fence, 
a wall, d. ara, c. art. nara : 
gor ia. 

Koro, s., a fish fence, enclosure 
for catching fish ; a ring (or 
halo) round the moon : gor 

Koro, s., c. art. nekoro, incanta- 
tation or rites of divination ; 

Koro, v., to divine : gor ia. 

Koroatalagi, d., or nakoroatelagi, 
the sky, dd. koroinlagi, riki- 
telagi, lit. the fence, or that 
which surrounds or encloses 
the atalagi, q.v. 

Koroinlagi, s., d., the sky, lit. 
the fence, or that which en- 
closes heaven. See lagi, elagi. 

Koroki, v., to insist (as in argu- 
ment), provoke, irritate. S. 
gareg (Pael) to provoke. 

Kori, or koria, also kuri, or 
kuria, s., a clog : cognate oro, 
to bark. [Sa. uli, id., Ma. 
kuri a dog. any quadruped, 
To. kuli a dog, Fut. kuli, Ta. 
kuri, Epi kuli, kuliu, TaSa. 
vuriu, Malo vuria, Ml. kuri, 
Mg. alikia, id.] A. gorw' a 
young dog. 

Kori, interj., also in akori, kori 
la ! this now indeed ! here, 
or there indeed ! : ko dem., ri 

Koro, v. i , to snore. See goro. 

Koroi, d. kuriii a woman ; and 

Koruni, kuruni, q. v. See f aline, 
Note 2, and lai. 

Kos ia, kus ia, v. t., to cut or 
shear off (as the end of the 
outer covering of a young 
cocoanut tit for drinking) ; 

Kosu mia, v. t., to husk a cocoa- 
nut, also kusu mia, gusu mia ; 
i gusu, v. i., said of a ripe 
cocoanut which separates it- 
self and falls from the tree, 
kusu mia or gusu mia, v. t., to 
gather cocoanuts from the 
tree, kusu, or gusu, v. i., to be 
ripe, soft, makusukusu to be 
ripe, soft, kusue na, s., the 
soft place on the top of a 
child's head, the last to close 
up, makus, q.v., s., cutter or 
knife. A. gazza to cut off, 
shear; to cut (grass, &c.) in 
order to gather provender, to 
cut off the clusters of dates 
from the tree ; to begin to 
ripen (dates), 4, to have 
(sheep) ready for shearing, or 
ripe grain, to be ready to be 
gathered from the tree (dates), 
to be ripe or ready for gather- 
ing (fruit of the palm tree), 
for reaping (grain), for shearing 
(sheep) ; migazz' a cutting 

Kosu, s., a cutting instrument 
made of bone : preceding word. 

Kosoafa, s., c. art. nakosoafa, dd. 
nasoafa, soafa, a plant used in 
ceremonial or ritual purifica- 
tions : it is swept down the 
limbs to carry away the un- 
cleanness ; lit. the tree that 
carries (away) : kosu (see 
kasu), and afa ia. 

Kota, s., a time, in i ta kota ki 
(a person) he appoints a time 
to or for (someone); and in 

Kotfan, d. for gotafanu, gota 
fanu, q.v., evening. 

Koto bolo, s., a basket (see bolo). 
[Ml. cat, Malo cete, To. kato, 


Sa. 'ato, a basket.] A. ka'la? 
a basket (for carrying dates). 

Koto, s., a kind of crab : so 
called from nipping. See fol- 
lowing word. 

Koto-fta v. t., kote-fia, kotu-fia, 
gote-fia, redup. kotokote fia, 
gotokote fia (intensive), to cut, 
to cut oft', break oft* ; eni gote 
fta to lie across it, bala tagoto 
inclined across, across, ba gote 
fta go across it, soka gote fia 
leap across it; sai gote fia, tuba 
gote fia pronounce judgment 
against him, condemn him to 
death, i gotokoto bat ia he made 
a beginning, first did it (broke 
ground in the doing of it), 
makoto broken (a stick, or 
anything), ceases (as war), a 
makoto ki I cease from (a 
thing, as a thing I have sold), 
have no further connection 
with, separate from, cease 
from (a thing or person), kuti 
nakoau cut up the pudding 
(cooked), gkuti (gukuti) to 
make a stealthy invasion or 
inroad, i gai tagoto, or mako- 
tokoto he screams abruptly, 
cries out in sharp, sudden, 
broken screams ; kokoti a net 
(cutting oft' the fish) ; bagote 
fia to buy it, make it separate 
from its former owner) ; i 
kote fiau isa he breaks me oft' 
from it (a thing I possessed) ; 
bikutu, v. r., decideabout (some- 
one), bikutu ki nia decide about 
him, sera makoto to be startled, 
surprised, makot a place. [Sa. 
'oti to cut (as the hair), 'o'oti, 
'oti'oti, Fi. koti-va to clip, or 
shear, ai koti scissors or shears 

102 [kubu 

(originally a shell or shark's 
tooth).] A. kata'a cut, cut 
off, separate, cross (a river) ; 
cease; decide about (a thing) ; 
to snap (as a rope, break) ; to 
break off, cease from (a jour- 
ney, Ac. = makoto ki) ; to 
invade, or make an inroad, 
stealthily &c. ; makta' a place. 

Ku, verb, pron., 2 sing., and pi., 

Ku, dem., this, as nai ku na, cl. 
ga kin, this (is) he, or it, nai 
ua naga, nai ua, nai naga, nai 
kis. [My. iku that.] E. ku, 
id. See ko, ka, ki'. 

Ku, d., kua, or gua, v. i., to cry 
out, vociferate, cry or call 
out, low (an ox). H. ga'ah, 
S. g'o' cry out, vociferate, low 
(an ox). 

Kua, gua, preceding word. 

Kua, ad., inter., and indef. : gua. 

Kuba na, s , c. art. nakuba na, 
its or his day ; d. for uba na, 
or ube na, q.v. 

Kubega, s., d., a net (for catching- 
fish). [Sa. upenga, Tab. upea, 
Ma. kupenga, id.] A. kiftai 
a net, from kaft'a to wrap 
round, <fcc. 

Kubu, s., inside, the belly, also 
kobu, and kabu, d. kama (in 
arekabu, q.v., anekama), then, 
inside (a house), and with the 
prep, e, ekubu, ekobu in the 
inside, inside : then, ekobu in 
one d. denotes also a house. 
[Mg. kibo the belly, kobany 
its centre or middle, kobony 
the inside, inner part, entrails.] 
A. ga'fu the belly, interior 
cavity of a thing, inside (of a 
house), from gafa to be hollow. 

kufagufa] 103 

Kufagufa, (I., v. i., to fly, to Hap 
the wings, flutter. [To. kapa- 
kapa to flap the wings, My. 
kapak to fly, flapping the 
wings, not gliding.] A. h'a- 
faka 1, 4, to fly, to flap with 
the wings. 

Kui na, d., s., c. art. nakui na, 
(1. kihi na (i.e. kisi na, in that 
d. h is for s), the back, rump, 
tail : kui na is for bui na, and 
kihi na (i.e. kisi na) for bisi 
na, by the change of b to k. 

Kuku, v. i. See guku. 

Kuli na (d. uili na), s., the skin, 
bark. [Ha. ili, Ma. kiri, skin, 
bark, My. kulit skin, hide, 
pelt, leather, bark, rind, husk, 
shell, Mg. hoditra skin, bark.] 
See mulu sia. 

Kulu, v. i., to wrap oneself up, 
to cover oneself up (as in 

Kulu tia, v. t., same as kalu tia ; 

Kulu, s., c. art. nakulu, cloth, 
covering, that which covers ; 

Kulekule, or kulukulu, d., id. : 

Kuma na, s., or guma na, c. art. 
na kumana, inner bark, pel- 
licle or cover, as of an egg, 
orange, &c. : d. for kamu na. 

Kum ia, v. t. (see gum ia), to 
absorb, redup. kukumi. 

Kumu, d., pers. pron., 2 pi., you, 
dd. akam and akamus, kami, 
nikam, nimu, nem or neem, 
egu. [My. kamu, Tag. kamo, 
Ml. P. hamdi, Epi. kamiu, Ta. 
ituma, id.] 

Kunuti na, s., c. art. nakunuti 
na, the kernel of fruits, as the 
almond; also new yams : kano, 
kanoa, kanoka. [Cf. To. kano 


the inmost substance of any- 
thing, kernels of fruit, also 
flesh, kano he mata eye-ball 
(Mg. anaka inanakandriamaso 
pupil of the eye).] 

Kura, s.j c. art. nakura, a plant; 
so called from its bitterness. 
Of a stingy man who with- 
holds food from a visitor it is 
said nalo anena i bi nakura. 
See under gura ia. 

Kuraf, d. for karati, q.v. 

Kuri, or kuria, s., same as kori, 
koria, dog. 

Kuru, or kura, a., shrivelled, 
dried, nali kuru shrivelled 
dried leaves (as banana leaves 
when withered and dry are). 
See kara, or gara. 

Kuru ki, v. t., to gather together ; 

Kuru maki, v. t., to gather to- 
gether ; and 

Kuruk ; and 

Kukui'uk (gkuruk), v. i., or 
mid., to gather itself, or to 
be gathered together : see 
guru ki ; belonging to this 
stem are also takara, crowd 
(of men), and makara to be 
gathered together, d. (trans- 
posed) maraka, or meraka. 

Kuruni, s., a woman. See fafine, 
Note 2, and lai. 

Kurui, s., and 

Kuruku na, s., kuruku natua na, 
the ankle : kuruk. The ankle 
is so called because the leg 
yathers itself, as ^ were, into 
the knob of the joint. 

Kurumase na, s., d. (transposed) 
for borakese na, q.v. 

Kus, d., v. i., to be hidden ; d. 
gusu (i.e., kusu ), q.v., to stoop. 




As to connection of these two 
meanings, see beln : a man 
stoops to avoid being seen, or 
to be hidden. 

Kus ia, or kusi a, v. t., to go in 
the track of, follow, usually 
usia, q.v. (the k being elided), 
rafe kus ia to go through 
following it (as a pig going 
through a hole in the fence of 
a garden following another 
pig), hence the proverb, uago 
iskai i 6ora bua nakoro, uago 
laba i rafe kus ia one pig 
bursts open the fence, many 
pigs go through the opening 
following (or after) it : in takus 
ia, rukus ia (nrukus ia) the k 
also is not elided. See usi a. 

Kusu na, d., s., dd. kui na, kihi 
na, bui na, q.v. 

Kusu, v. i., and 

Kusue na, s. See kosu mia. 

Kusue, or kusuiie (pronounced 
kusuwe), d. kusu, s., rat (or 
mouse). [Ta. yasuk, Ml. dd. 
khasup, akasu, Pa. asua, Santo 
dd. karibi, keriu, Ma. kiore, 
Sa. iore, My. tikus, Mysol 
kelof, Gilolo luf, lupu, id.] 
A. kutrub 5 rat. 

Kut ia, v. t., to cut, and 

Kukut ia (gkut ia), red up. : i 
gkuti ban he goes to make an 
inroad stealthily (as in time 
of war) ; also si kut ia ( si to 
shoot) to shoot not killing, 
but only cutting or wounding; 

Kutu ki, bikutu ki, to decide 
about (someone). See koto 

Kutu, s., louse ; the back of the 
head. Sa. 'utu louse, an in- 

sect which eats the skin of the 
hands and feet, My. kutu louse. 
To., Fut., kutu, Ta. kiget, An. 
cet, Ml. P. cut, Malo utu, 
louse.] A. kud(la£, pi. kid- 
dan, flea (and kiddan flea, an 
animal biting like a flea), 
kudad' the back of the head 
between the ears, pi. fleas, Ef. 
ftala kutu na the hollow of the 
back of his head (6ala ill.), 
from kadda to cut. 

Note. — There is no other 
word for flea in Ef., but to 
distinguish a flea from a louse 
the former is called kutu n 
koria the kutu of the dog, 
so Fut. kutu kuli, My. kutu 
anjing (anjing dog), TaSa. utu 
vuriu, but Malo utu (simply). 
The Efatese say there were no 
fleas in the island before 
Europeans brought them. In 
Sa. flea is 'ututiti, and in Fi. 
kutu ni manuraanu. 


a, d. le, ad., indeed, certainly, 
surely, particle of emphasis, 
as uisi la yes indeed, i la masi- 
kina he indeed is one, or one 
only, i le sa he is indeed bad, 
i ga fano la let him go indeed. 
[Sa. la, My. lah, id.] A. la 
certainly, surely, indeed. 

La ia, or lai a, v. t., to put out, 
or eject from, the mouth, as 
food, froth, the tongue (see le) : 

Laba, v. i., to be much, many ; 
laba or leba, labalaba or leba- 
leba, to be or become big, 

LA 15 a] 


grow up, d. lafulafu to be or 
become (grow) big, lalaba, or 
leleba big, great, leba elder ; 
tea laba or leba plenty, enough 
(no more), it is enough, milaba 
last, nameligu milaba i en lu 
ua my last footprint is in this 
place, i.e., I will come no more 
here, tea milaba the last 
(person or thing), i libi milaba 
sa he looked upon it for the 
last time, d. leb, indeed, very; 
barab (barau, &c.) long. [Sa. 
lava to be enough, indeed, 
very, loa long (and leva long, 
of time), Mg. lava long, tall, 
continuing long (= Ef. barab, 
baraf), My. luwas, luas wide 
extensive, large, ample, Fi. 
levu great, or large ; in great 
numbers, all, as era sa lako 
levu they are all, or many, 
gone (= Ef. ru laba bano), 
vakalevu-taka to increase ; 
cause to be great or many, 
balavu long.] H. rabab to 
become much or many, to be 
increased, to be much or 
many, inf. rob a being much 
or many, abundance, mul- 
titude ; poetically multitude is 
almost used for "all" (so in 
Fi. and Ef. levu, laba), a 
being great (of might), a 
being long (of a way), rab 
much, many ; enough, (it is) 
enough (no more, cease, leave 
off, so Ef.) ; big (great, large, 
vast), applied to a wide 
space, to a long way, and to 
things generally in the sense 
of great, big ; elder. The 
cognate and supplementary 
verb is rabah, to be multiplied, 

[laga ia 

increased, often to be many ; 
to become great, to grow up, 
to be great. 

Labalaba, or lebaleba, v. i., and 
a., redup. of laba, or leba, 
v. i., and a., to be great, big, 
as natasc leba the great sea. 
See laba. 

Labo, s. See leba : leba boa. 

Laf ia, or lati a, v. t., to take, 
take up, carry (a thing), take 
up (a song). [Ha. lawe (ps. 
lawea) to take, carry.] A. 
rafa'a, to take up, carry. 

Lati na, s., c. art., the cover, 
sheath, or envelope of the 
flowers or buds of the cocoa- 
nut palm ; the hard substance 
(of same shape) of the cuttle- 
fish (d. namagi rofarofa = 
little canoe of the cuttle-fish). 
A. "ilaf a cover, sheath, or 
envelope, H. 'alaf to cover, 
to wrap up, A. "alaf a to 
enclose in a sheath or vessel. 

Lafuis, dd. rifalu, libuis, lifaru, 

Lafulafu, d., v. i., and a., to 
grow up, big : laba. 

Laga, v. t., to seek, search for, 
laga sa seek it, bilaga sa, id., 
and redup., 

Lagalaga sa, v. t., id. (frequenta- 
tive). A. rama to seek, search 
for, n. a. maram'. 

Laga tia, v. t., to raise, lift up 
(as a thing from the ground), 

Laga, s., that which raises: laga 
laga ti (the planks of a boat). 

Laga ia, or lagai a, v. t., to raise, 
lift up (as the wind raises 
thatch from a roof) ; then to 
raise (a thing, so as to make 




it conspicuous), as i mirama 
laga tia it (the moon, &c.) 
shines raising it (into view, 
making it conspicuous) ; hence 

Laga (without object) to shine 
(to raise into view, make con- 
spicuous), bisa laga tia to 
speak raising it (into view), 
laga tia to speak with a loud 
voice, laga, v. i., to sing, and 

Lagalaga, v., redup. (in all these 
senses) : nalagalaga na, s., a 
thing raised from or oft' some- 
thing (as a scale from the eyes, 
husk from grain, &c. ) ; malaga, 
malagalaga, to be raised (so 
as to be conspicuous, as a ship 
on the sea); balaga tia, v. c, 
to make raised (a tiling), 
balaga-saki nia, v. c, Malaga 
na (see under these words), 
ta^alaga, v. r., to raise itself, 
be raised (from above, or oft", 
anything) ; 

Lagi, s., with prep, elagi, ad. 
(used also as a prep.) and s., 
the sky, heaven, above : ulua, 
lua, lulu. [Sa. laga to rise up, 
to raise up, redup. lagalaga, s., 
a stick for raising up flat 
coral, v., to raise up (as a 
heavy weight), lagalagaola to 
raise the finger nails from the 
flesh, lagi the sky, heaven, v., 
to call out with a loud voice, 
to sing, Ha. lana to Hoat (on 
water), float (i.e., be lifted up, 
raised) in the air, lani sky, 
heaven, luna the upper side of 
anything, the upper, the above, 
a., upper, higher, above, and, 
with a prep., ad., or prep., 
above, Sa. iluga, id., My. 
langit sky, firmament, lalangit 

the palate, an awning, canopy, 
Mg. lanitra sky, heaven.] A. 
'ala' to be high, to be above or 
upon (a thing), 2, to raise, 
lift up, 3, to manifest, to call 
with a loud (high) voice, 4, to 
raise, 6, to stand out high, &c, 
hence prep, 'ala' above, 'ilian' 
and 'iliyyan' tall (high), high 
voice, and 'illiyyuna the seventh 
heaven, paradise, Assy. ad. 
(used as a prep.) elanu, elan, 
above, also ellaon, and elien, 
elinitu high, a being high, 
which has n the a. ending, and 
suffixed to it the abstract 
ending t in the usual way). 

Lagaraf, v. i., or mid., to mourn 
(as for the dead) : laga tia, to 
raise, and teraf ia to scratch, 
from raising the hands and 
tearing or scratching the 
cheeks in mourning (see 6ora 
I., bora na the temples). 

Lagafaru na, v. and s. com- 
pounded, to raise its wings 
(a bird) : laga tia, and afaru 

Lagafasu ki, v., make a sign to : 
laga tia, and fasu na. 

Lagilagi, v. i., to be proud, up- 
lifted. [Ha. lanilani to be 
high-minded, proud, show 
haughtiness.] See laga tia. 
A. 'ala', 5), to be proud. 

Laga ki, v. t., to have, to possess. 
See laka. 

Lagi, s., c. art. nalagi, the wind : 
other forms of this word are 
In and redup. agiegi, with 
article nin, nagiegi, the air, 
the breeze. [Ml. nien, Paama 
lag, Am. lig, yig, Fi. cagi 
(thangi), My. angin, Mg. anina 




the wind, Sa. matagi to blow, 
be windy, ps. matagia, s., 
the wind, Ma. matangi the 
wind, kotengitengi gentle 
wind, kohengi or kohengihengi 
wind.] A. nasama to blow 
gently (the wind), nasani' a 
light wind, na'sam' and nasim' 
a light wind, breeze, air. 

Lago, s., fly ; lago fu buzzing 
fly, blow-fly. [8a. lago, a fly, 
My. langau a large fly, a blue- 
bottle.] A. lakka'u a fly, from 
laka'aprehendit extremo rostro 

Lago, s., the wooden pins whose 
sharpened ends are driven into 
the sama (outrigger), and 
whose upper ends (crossed) 
hold and bear up the nakiat 
of a canoe. [Sa. lago props 
of a canoe.] See preceding- 

Lagor, or lagora, or lagord, ad., 
d. labor, q.v. 

Lai a. See la ia : redup., 

Lailai, v. t., frequentative or in- 

Lai, or lei, contracted to le, li, s., 
woman, as ie kiki little woman 
(in addressing a female child or 
girl), le or li meroan women, 
ladies (in addressing an as- 
sembly of women) : this word 
is used before names of fe- 
males, as ma, q.v., is before 
names of males, as lei, le, or li 
mako madam, mistress, miss, 
or lady, mako. [Fi. adi, con- 
tracted di, id., Mot a iro, ro, id.] 
H. 'is's'ah, Ch. 'ita', S. 'atto', 
A. 'untha, woman, Ch. emph. 
'itta', 'intta', id. 

Note. — For other forms of 

this word see koroi, kurui, 
kuruni. See under faflne, Note 
2. Koroi, &c, have the dem. or 
art. k' prefixed. 

Lai, s., c. art. nalai, or inlai, or 
nilai, sail (of a canoe or ship). 
[Sa. la, Ma. ra, Mg. lai, My. 
layar, id. ; My. layar, to sail, 
to navigate, also barlayar and 
malayar.] A. killa'ai sail of a 
ship, kala'a, 4, to make sail, to 
sail, to navigate. 

Lailai, v. i., to be delighted, re- 
joice. [Mg. laolao play, play- 
things, milaolao to play.] A. 
laha', n. a. lahw', to play ; to 
be delighted. 

Lai a, or lei a, or la ia, v. t., to 
pluck, to gather (fruit), lai 
nua nakasu to pluck or gather 
the fruits of trees. See bila 
ia, or bilai a. [My. lali to 
pluck, to gather.] E. 'araya, 
H. 'arah, to pluck, to gather 
(as fruits). 

Lai a, or lei a, v. t., to tie up, as 
lei namanuk to tie up a wound. 
A. 'ara' to tie up ; fasten. 

Lak, d. for lako, q.v. 

Laka, s., laka leo, foundation or 
cause of a matter or aft'air ; 

Laka, or lake, c. art. nalake na, 
its foundation, then, its cause, 
as nalake na tafa the founda- 
tion of the hill or mountain, 
Atua i bi nalakegita God is our 
foundation, i.e., our upholder, 
te uane i bi nalake nafakal 
that is the cause of the war, 
then nalakena because, lit. ita 
cause ; and 

Lake, or laki, v. i., to marry (of 
a woman) : lake ki nanoi marry 


a husband, lit. betake herself 
to a husband ; and lake kiena 
betake herself to his house, 
and then generally of anyone, 
i lake he betakes himself (to 
dwell somewhere), i lake en 
lu ua he has betaken himself 
to dwell here ; laga ki, v. t., 
to have, to possess, d. lakea ki, 
telakie na its possessor, or 
telake na, c. art. atelakie na 
or atelakea na, or atelake na, 
id., Atua i bi atelakea gita God 
is our possessor, possesses us. 
[Ma. taketake, a., well founded, 
take, s., root, stump, post of a 
pa, cause, putake, s., base, 
root, reason, cause.] A. 
rakaha to lean upon (some- 
thing) ; to betake oneself (to 
someone) ; to place upon, 
found, as to found (his house 
upon a rock), 4, to support 
(prop up), 5, to abide (in some 
place ; to use free power (in a 
matter) ; rukah' the firm side 
of a mountain, by which it is 
upheld, pi. 'arkah' a founda- 

Note. — The expression tu- 
lake is composed of tu to give 
(or tua), and lake, and means 
to give in trust to (to give 
relying upon or trusting in) — i 
tulake is he gave in trust it, i 
tulak ira sa he gave in trust 
to them it (as a present or 
money to be taken charge of 
and conveyed by them to the 
person for whom it is in- 
Lakau, v. t., d. (transposed) for 
galau ia, q.v., to cross over. 
[Sa. la'a to step, to pass 


over, ps. la'asia, redup. lala'a, 
la'ala'a ; la'ai to pass over, 
break over (as a wave over a 
canoe from one side over to 
the other), la'aga, la'asaga a 
step, a stepping over.] Hence 

Lakau, s., a crossing place in ;i 
fence ; a stile. 

Lako, s., d. lak, a small enclosure 
(like a hole, for putting or 
confining a pig in). See fol- 
lowing word. 

Lako, v. i., dd. laku, loku, loko, 
roko, nrok, to stoop, be curved, 
then stoop or crouch, conceal- 
ing herself (as a mother-in- 
law from her son-in-law), to be 
concealed (as one stoops in 
order to be concealed, see 
6elu, kusu), redup. lakolako, c. 
prep, ki lakolako ki to be 
crouching and stooping and 
concealed from (someone), toko 
loku to abide concealed or in 
concealment, luku, id., luku- 
taki nia, or loko taki ilia, to 
place him in concealment (as a 
wounded warrior for surgical 
treatment), ba lako-saki nia to 
creep upon it stealthily (as a 
hunter upon a bird), hence ba 
lako to hunt (birds), lit. to go 
concealed, luku or luk a hole 
or pit, luku noai a well, lako, 
or lak (see preceding word), 
6aluku (i.e., b& luku) a curved 
6a (concavity). [Fi. roko a 
bowing form or posture, a., 
bent like a bow, ad., sa lako 
roko goes stooping or bowing, 
ai roko bowstring, roko-ta 
bend a bow, roko-va bow to, 
pay respect to, rokoroko, rev- 
erence, respect, bakaroko bow 



[las ia 

down with weakness, or go 
stooping, Sa. lolo'u to bend, 
bend down, bend round.] A. 
raka'a, n. a. roko', or ruku', to 
stoop, or be curved or bent, 
to bow or be bent down (as in 
prayer), ruk'ati a hole, pit. 

Lakolako ki, redup. of preced- 
ing word ; and 

Lako saki, the same, c. compound 
prep. saki. 

Lakor, ad., i.e., la-kor, indeed 
now : lakor is sometimes prac- 
tically syn. with la as i fi la 
mai matol, or i fi lakor mai 
matol lie may indeed come to- 
morrow, or the latter may be 
rendered, lie may indeed now 
come to-morrow. This is the 
lit. translation, but it might 
be expressed, he may perhaps, 
or possibly, come to-morrow, 
hence i lakor sa ko maki it in- 
deed now is bad, or don't-know, 
and simply i lakor sa expi*esses 
that the thing very probably 
is bad in the speaker's opinion, 
who, however, does not state, 
as a positive, ascertained fact 
that it is so : la ad., and the 
dem. particles ko and r' (ra, 
ri, ro, ru). 

LakurC, s., a kind of flute. A. 
nakor' cornu, tuba, Nm. 
naqour clarion, A. nakara, 3, 
to make hollow, hollow out 
(as wood). 

Lala, s., an idiot, one demented, 
a fool. [Fi. lialia, s., an idiot, 
a., foolish, out of one's mind, 
Mg. adala, s., an idiot, one 
destitute of reason, a lunatic, 
a fool, a., foolish, infatuated.] 
See alialia. 

Lala gor ia, v. t., to conceal, 
deny : gor ia, and lala for 
laulau, redup. of lau. 

Lalo na, or lalu na, s., c. art. 
inlalo na, the belly, then the 
front (see elalo), and the 
under side (as of cloth) : alo- 

Lam ia, d., v. t., to eat, hence 

Latnien, s., c. art. nalamien, act 
of eating, food. H. laliam to 

Lao. See lau. 

Lasa, or las, s., a bowl (as a kava 
bowl), a dish, a cup. [Ml. P. 
ras, Malo lasa, Santo las, id.] 
A. tas' vasculum, Ct. tiiss, a 
bowl, Nm. saucer, flat cup. 

Laso na, s., c. art. inlaso na, the 
testicles. [Pa. asi, Am. luho, 
Ml. dd. lisi, erasi, Put. raso, 
id., Sa. laso scrotum.] A. 
li'isy', and ll'usy', and h'usyaf, 
pi. ll'usa', the testicles. 

Lasoa, v. i., or a., to have swollen 
testicles : preceding word and 
a. ending a. 

Las, or lasi, v. i., or a., big, large, 
great, sufficient ; and redup., 

Lasilasi, id. ; and 

Las ia, or lasi a, v. t., to meet, 
i.e., to suffice, be sufficient for, 
as nafinaga i lasigita the food 
is sufficient for (meets) us and 
you, tilasi a, id., also to meet, 
come upon, come across (a 
person) i tilasinami nabua he 
met us — them on the way, 
bakatilasi a to suffice, redup. 
tilatilasi a, id. A. 'aras'a to 
meet, 'arus'a to be wide, large, 
5, ta'arrasa, for which is used 
also ta'arras'a to meet, 2, to 
make wide, large. 

lau] 110 

Lau, s., the sea; usually with 
the prep, e, elau, or a, alau, q.v. 

Lau, s., c. art. nilau, dd. kalau, 
kolau, q.v. [Bisaya lawa a 
spider's web, Fi. lawa a net ; 
an ambush ; to lie in ambush.] 

Lau ia, v. t., to plant (a yam or 
other plant) ; to plant any- 
thing upright, as a post or 
stake ; to plant (a spear in 
anyone) ; laulua i to plant 
(words in anyone), putting him 
out, or exposing him in his true 
colours ; lau suru ea to plant 
(words, in anyone) tempting 
him ; and 

Lau, v. i., to stand upright (to 
be planted), lau tu lit. to stand 
planted, i.e., to stand upright ; 
to fall down (planting itself), 
as rain, &c. ; and 

Lau gor ia, v. t., to plant, sur- 
rounding or concealing him or 
it ; redup. lala gor ia (for lau- 
lau gor ia), id., intensive ; and 

Lau fai ia, v. t., d. lau bua i, to 
plant (as a spear, in anyone) 
piercing him. See fai, bua. 
[Sa. to, to plant, to build, to 
fall (as rain), &c, To. tau to 
implant, to plant, to drop, to 
fall, &c.] H. nata', fut. ita', 
inf. ntoa' to set (anything) up- 
right, to plant (any plant); to 
plant (anything, as a people) ; 
to fix, fasten in ; set up (as 
a tent, an image). 

Launa, s., c. art. nalauna, redup. 
nalalauna, a community, as 
the people of a village or 
district : rau. [Ha. launa, v., 
'•probably, a spreading out," 
to associate, be on friendly 
terms with, a., friendly, social.] 


Lausa. See lousa. 

Lausu na, s., the nose, d. for 
nagusu na ; la art. (usually 
na), and usu, for gnsu, q.v., 

Le, s. See lai woman. 

Le, v. t., for lai a, or la ia: i le 
mina he puts out the tongue. 

Le, ad., d. for la. 

Le, also leo, and lo, v., to see, as 
lo nasan see evil, lo nafanua 
see the land, to look, lebi or 
libi (li bi) look upon, libisia 
(d. limsi) look upon him, libi 
nata look upon, see a person, 
d. le ha, nata look upon a 
person, le ba, ia, or le 6a i, look 
upon him, see him, d. leka 
nata look at a person, leka 
look at him, see him ; 

Lele is, redup., to look for it, d. 
leoleo sa, rai, q.v., aspect, 
look, forehead, rairai to be in 
countenance, unabashed, un- 
ashamed, leo, or lo, to watch, 
i.e., to look, ba lo behold. 
[Sa. leo to watch, redup. leleo ; 
leoleoga a watching, leoleosa'i 
to watch, My. Hat to see, to 
look, liati, liatkan, &c, Mg. 
hiratra sight, seeing, Fi. rai, 
a., seeing, rai, rairai to look, 
rai-ca to look at, rairai a 
prophet (a seer), vakarai-taka 
to show.] H. ra'ah to see, 
ra'ah be look upon, see, ra'ah 
'eth look at, Hi. to show, 
ro'eh a prophet, seer, A. ra'a' 
to see, 4, show, E. re'ya to 
see. See also borea, naborea. 

Le, leo, lu (in lu rik, d.), lo, s., c. 
art. nale na, naleo na, nalo na, 
his voice, speech, word, rogi 
nalo na hear his voice, i.e., obey 

LEA Kl] 

him, or rogi berakati nalona, 
or naleona, d. nalen ; without 
the nom. suf. and with or 
without the art. it signifies a 
tiling, something, as nalo sikai 
one thing, nalo laba many 
things ; nalo nagiena on 
account of, for the sake of, 
his name, lit. the thing of 
his name ; lo-soko true, lit. 
true thing, le-soko, lo ialo 
empty, worthless thing, lo sa 
bad thing, lo uia good thing, d. 
lo amau true, lit. true thing, 
hence the expressions sera- 
loamau, or sera-lesoko to 
believe, seraloialo to deem 
worthless, despise. [Sa. leo 
the voice, a sound, leoleoa, a., 
loud talking, To. lea speech, 
voice, language.] A. la"a' to 
speak, n. a. la"w' sound, voice, 
lo"a£ word, language, dialect 
(see misleo, infra). 

Lea ki (or le-aki), v. t., to throw 
away, throw down (anything), 
to throw down (as the wind 
trees), and redup., 

Leleaki, v. t., intensive. [To. 
li to toss (anything light), 
liagi (liaki) to throw away, 
lei and leilei to throw away, 
leina a throwing away.] E. 
warawa to throw away, throw 

Leana, v. i., or a., d. lena, d. leg, 
to be straight (not crooked), 
then to be right, upright, 
righteous, bisa lena speak 
straight, i.e., right, natamole 
lena a straight, i.e., upright 
or righteous man ; tu lena to 
stand straight, stand up. [Fi. 
donu straight, then righteous, 

111 [leo 

vakadodonu-taka to make 
straight. Sa. tonu, a., right, 
straight, correct, To. tonu 
straight, direct, clear, faka- 
tonu to make evident, mani- 
fest, tonuia righteous, tu tonu 
(stand) upright] H. thakan 
to be or become straight, Pi. 
to make straight, to dispose 
rightly (proverbs). 

Le ba i, le ba i, or le be ia, d., 
v. t., d. syn. le ka, to look 
upon it : le to look, and prep, 

Leba, redup. leleba, lebaleba 
(intensive), v. i., or a., to be or 
become big, great : nalebale- 
ban, greatness, the being great : 

Leba, s., c. art. naleba, s., a 
species of earth, clay, mud, 
dirt, lebalebara, a., dirty, 
soiled (a. ending ra), d. leba- 
leba, a., id. (a. ending a), d. 
la6o (i.e., leba 60, or 6oa) 
stinking leba slush, mud. 
[Ha. lepo to be dirty, defiled, 
soiled, s., dirt, ground, clay, 
lepolepo dirty (intensive).] 
A. tabi'a to be dirty, tabe', 
taba' dirt, mud, taba'a to 
impress or seal, 4), to make a 
water vessel from clay, tub 'an 

Lebaleba, v. i., or a. See leba, 

Lebaleba, a. See leba, s. 

Lebalebara, a. See leba, s. 

Lebule, v., i.e., le (lele) to go 
round, and bule, q.v., to com- 
plete, to go completely round 
(of a canoe, as round a point 
or headland) : lele, ili-fiki. 

Leg, v. i., or a., d. for lena, leana. 


Lei. See lai, s., woman. 

Leka, v. t., d. le to look, and 
prep, ka to, at, leka look at 
him, leka nata look at, see a 
person : le. 

Lele, or lili (lie, or le, Hi, or ili, 
1') to wind, to go round, turn, 
curve, as raru i sefa, soko, or 
ba lele ki nafanua the ship 
runs, moves swiftly, or goes 
curving round the land 
(island), natisan i soka lele 
nafanua the word moves 
swiftly round (i.e., all through) 
the land, le-bule, q.v., le, or 
li-taku na, or lele taku na to 
turn behind his back, lele 
takuna sa to turn behind one's 
back with it (i.e., to do, say 
something, concealing it from 
someone), ili-hki, or lili-tiki 
nagusu, to round the point or 
cape (a canoe), ilisela or lili- 
sela as i surata ilisela he 
walked all the way, lit. round 
the way (see sela), i talele (or 
talle or tale) he turned aside, 
i talele ki he turned or turns 
aside from (a person or thing), 
malele to be bent or curved 
(as a branch of a tree heavy 
with fruit), bilele, v. r., to 
turn hither and thither, lusi a, 
or lulusi a (i.e., lele usi a) lit. 
to go round following or 
tracking it, as lulusi noai sera 
he follows the stream, walking 
in the water, lusi nakasu 
goes along a stick, lili maroa 
lit. to go round turning itself. 
[Fi. lele-ca to bend.] H. lul 
to wind, twist about, eg. to 
galal, 'ul, &c, hence lul, pi., 
winding stairs, lula' loops. 

112 [les 

Note. — See the cognate liu, 

Lele, s., tortoiseshell, the cover 
of the turtle ; a tortoiseshell 
bracelet. The shell of the 
turtle is called lele from its 
round or curved form. See 
preceding word. [Mg. rere 
the largest kind of tortoise.] 

Lena, d. leana, q.v. 

Lemina : le, v. t., to put out, and 
mina, s., the tongue, to put 
out the tongue, syn. lua mina. 
See le, v. t. 

Leo, to look, see le ; le or leo 
goro gita to watch, look for, 
expect us. 

Leo, s., c. art. naleo, thing, affair; 

Leou;Tn, s., c. art. naleouan (i.e., 
naleo uan that thing, or affair), 
a feast (in heathenism), or 
heathen gathering, in which 
offerings or sacrifices are made 
to the natemate, and presents 
given to the guests. 

Ler, v. i., d. for liliu, q.v., to 
retuni, go or come back, also i 
mer ler brigi he did it again, 
lit. he mer (q.v.) returned did 

Lesilesi, for lasilasi. 

Les, s., c. art. nales, a plant with 
thick dark leaf ; and 

Les, a., dark or dusky, as in 
fal'les (fale les) dark or dusky 
cave (name of a big cave at 
the entrance of Havannah 
Harbour) ; ra les Dark-ra or 
Dusky-rfi, a name of Hades. 
See ra. A. la'isa n. a. la'as' 
to become dark, or blackish, 
'al'asu of a dark colour, dusky ; 
multus et densus, de planta. 


Les, s., coral rock, or. stone. Cf. 
A. radhal a rook in water ; 
racial rocky, stony, a place 
like a rugged hill. 

Let, v. i., or a., to be stiff, rigid ; 

Lelet, id., intensive ; and 

Let, s., spasm, rigidity, as in 
tetanus ; and 

Letilet, or 

Letilot, v. i., to crackle, as the 
bubbles of boiling water ; and 

Letilot, s., c. art. naletilot, d. 
naltelta, froth, i.e., lit., burst- 
ing bubbles. See lita. 

Let ia, for alat ia ; 

Leti bati ore, same as alatera- 
bati ; 

Leti lua i, v. t., to grasp, or 
seize, taking it away, leti lua 
i kiana grasp it away from 
him ; 

Letileti, a. : natamole letileti, a 
grasping man : alati a. 

Li, s., place : for alia. 

Li sia, v. t., to lay down, put 
down, and 

Li-saki, v. t., to throw down, 
throw away : leaki. 

Lia, s. Same as li, or alia, a 

Li, transitive prep. See ni, id. 

Li, s. See lai, woman 

Id, v., d. See lulu. 

Ll/>a, s., an arrow with a broad 
point (about the size of a 
shilling) for shooting birds, or 
the arrow head of such an 
arrow ; and 

Li6a ia, v. t., to shoot birds 
with the liba (which does not 
pierce them, but kills them by 
a violent blow or shock). A. 
lagafa to strike violently ; 



lagif an arrow with a broad 

Libi sia (li-bisia), d. Ie6a i, or 
leba ia (le-ba ia), v. t., look 
upon him, see him : le to see, 
look, and prep. bi. 

Note. — In two other dd. 
this compound occurs (the 
prep, b changed to m) as lim 
si or linn si, and lumia, or 
lumia (lu-mi a), look upon 

Libo, v. i., hide, to vanish, dis- 
appear, be hidden, talibo, id. ; 
hence libo, s., a vanishing 
demon, a demon that assumes 
the aspect of someone to 
deceive, and appears to one in 
the forest, and then vanishes 
after the evil deed is com- 
mitted, leaving the victim to 
return home to die ; liboki, c. 
art. naliboki, a name of Hades 
(the invisible world, or hidden 
refuge or home of the dead) ; 

Libo, s., an evil demon. See 
libo, v. i., 

Liboki, s., c. art. naliboki, the 
invisible world, or hiding place 
where departed souls dwell, 
Hades. [Sa. Ian to hide one- 
self, lalan (of many), lafita'i 
to conceal, lahtaga a hiding 
place, Mg. levina buried, in- 
terred.] A. s'aba', n. a. s'ab'a 
and s'ubu', to hide (in the 
earth), 8, to hide, be hidden 
(hide one's self), cf. s'aba to 
lie hid in wait for the enemy, 
mas'ba' hiding place. 

Libu, v. i., to be covered or dirty 
with ashes, ash-coloured ; 

Libu, s., an oven stone, the stones 
that are heated red hot for 





cooking in the oven (so called 
because covered with ashes, or 
ash coloured) ; hence 

Lilibu ki, v., to put the libu on 
the oven fire to be heated. 
See abuobu. 

Libu, or lebu, s., d., the middle of 
the lower part of the body at 
the upper part of the back of 
the pelvis. [Ml. Ur. livu, 
TaSa. libuka, the middle. | H. 
leb the middle, heart, lubbu 
cor et medulla rei, tfec. 

Libuis, d. lifaru, q.v. 

Lifa ia, v. t., to bend, and redup., 

Lifalifa ia, id., intensive; malibai, 
to be bent, see also lofa, raa- 
lofa, and lufa. [Sa. lavalava 
wrapper round the loins, 
lavasi to tie round and round, 
entwine (as a serpent), lave- 
lave, lave, to entangle, be 
intertwined, intricate, My. 
lipat (lampis, lapis, lampit, 
lapit), Ja. lapit, to fold, lap, 
lay in plaits, Mg. lefitra 
folded, bent, plaited.] A. 
laffa to be intricate, involved, 
intertwined ; to wrap up, 
wrap round, to fold : Nm. 
wrap up, roll up, loffa coil of 
turban, winding of road, lifafa 
wrapper, envelope, bandage, 
8, to be wrapt, &c. 

Li-fiki, for ili-fiki, q.v. 

Lifalifa, v. i., to blaze, nakabu i 
sor lifalifa the fire burns 
blazing, or putting forth 
flames. [Ha. lalafa, lafalafa, 
to blaze (of a fire).] A. 
lahiba, n. a. lahb', to blaze, put 
forth flames. 

Lifaru, s., and a., dd. libuis, 
rafalu, rlfalu, a part, some, as 

natamole lifaru some men, 
lifaru ru bano lifaru ru toko 
some went, some remained. 
[Fut. efaru some, many, Niue 
(Savage Island) falu some.] 
A. ba's'u a part, some, and c. 
art. alba's'u some (== lifaru, 
dd. libuis, rifalu, rafalu). 

Lifu, s., d. for rifu, q.v. 

Lifu, v. i., and redup., 

Lifulifu, v. i. (intensive), to be 
covered, dirty, with ashes, as 
in mourning, d. for libu, id. 

Liga, s., d. taliga, ear, the ears : 

Liga, v. i., to sing, and redup., 

Ligaliga, id. (of many), and 

Ligana, s., c. art. naligana a 
song, d. nalag : laga. 

Liglig, v. i., to be proud : lagi- 

Ligi sia, v. t., to pour out, maligi, 
or maligsi, to spill, be poured 
down. [Sa. ligi, liligi, ligiligi 
to pour, maligi to spill, to be 
poured down, maligi, s., a 
pouring (of rain), Ma. ringi, 
riringi to pour out, An. aijag- 
jig to pour out.] H. nathak, 
Ni. to be poured out (of water, 
rain), Hi. hitik to pour out. 

Liko tia, v. t., to tie, fasten 
(with a rope, as a boat to a 
ship, an animal to a stake, 
&c), and 

Liko, v. i., to be fastened to, 
affixed to, adhere to : i liko sa it 
is fastened to it, as a leech to 
the body, &.c. ; 

Liko, s., c. art. naliko, a rope 
for fastening or suspending ; 

Likoliko, redup. of liko tia (used 
of fastening or suspending the 
yams to a horizontal pole). 


[My. lakat to adhere, lakatkan 
to fasten, Ja. rakat to adhere, 
Mg. raikitra, stuck, adhered 
to, miraikitra to adhere, 
rekitra, id., mandrekitra to 
fasten.] A. 'alika to adhere, 
he affixed, be fastened to, 2, to 
suspend, 4, make to adhere, 
fasten, 'alako a rope. 
Likau, for lakau, v. t. 
Lilia, d. for liliu, q. v. 
Lili-maroa, v. i., to go round 
turning itself : lele, or lili, and 
Liliu, v. i., to return, go or come 

back : liu. 
Lima, num., five ; d. c. art. 
nalima na his hand ; bakallma, 
q.v. [Sa. lima live, the hand, 
My. lima, Mg. dimy five, Epi 
jimo (and limo) five, juma 
hand ; d. lima, yima, or sima 
hand ; d. lima five, ma hand ; 
An. nijman, or nikman ( = Ef . 
nalimana) his hand, five.] A. 
ll'amsa^, li'ams' five, alli'ams 
digiti ; Mahri khomo, Sokotra 
khemah, five. 
Lim si, d. for libi sia, q.v. 
Lina, s., the light. [Mota dina, 
My. dina, Er. dan, day.] As 
i en lina it is in the light (not 
concealed), d. i en ali : aliati 
Lirea, v. i., or a., for litea, q.v. 
Lira, redup. liralira, dd. nrirnrir 
(i.e., tirtir), litralitra, litalita, 
v. i., or a., to be bright, shin- 
ing, gleaming, brilliant. A. 
nas'ara, 2) and b), nas'ira, 
4, to be blight, shining, 
gleaming, brilliant. 
Lisoa, v. i., dd. tiso, toto : toto. 
Lita, v. i., and liti, to crackle, to 

115 [lita-kuruma 

burst, explode, as wood, or a 
stone in the fire, see letelot, 
also lot to crackle (as a fire), 
explode (as a gun), to sound 
(as a crack or explosion), and 
melita to crack or crackle (as 
wood in the fire, &c), and 
then nagiena i melita his name 
resounds ; and 
Lita ia, or litai a, or litai ia, 
v. t., lita i lita ia a spark, or 
fragment of something, burst- 
ing or crackling or exploding 
in the tire, leaps or explodes 
on to him ; also, a wasp stings 
him ; 
Lita, s., a spark, fully lita na- 
kabu (see preceding word) ; 
also a red wasp (because it is 
red like a spark, or because 
its sting burns like fire) : d. 
(transposed) tila ; 
Lita-kuruma na, v., to have the 
breast (kuruma, see ruma) 
thrust forward or out (bulging 
or swollen out), in a spasm 
(the opisthotonic) of tetanus, 
then, to be bulging or swollen 
stiffly out (of the face of a 
log or board that should be 
level) : see let spasm, or 
rigidity, as in tetanus ; let, 
lelet to be stiff, rigid (of any- 
thing, as of a dead body, kc.) 
[Fi. lidi, lidilidi, to burst, or 
explode, s., report of an ex- 
plosion, as of thunder, or a 
stone in a heated oven, lidi-ka 
to strike in flying off, lidi ni 
buka a spark, lidi-ka to crack 
between the finger and thumb 
nails, as a louse, My. latok to 
crackle, to decrepitate, latup, 
and latub, id., latum to boom, 


or give out a booming noise.] 
A. s'at'iya to burst, break (be 
broken), 5, to burst, exploding 
into fragments ; and, 1, to swell 
out, stiffening, so that the 
hands and feet stand out stiff 
and rigid (of a dead body), 
s'asa' to become rigid and 
fixed ; to swell out, becoming- 
stiff and rigid, so that the 
hands and feet stick up (of a 
dead body), 4, to make rigid 
or stiff and fixed, s'ata' id., 
s'at'iyya£ fragment of anything 
burst or exploded off or out 
from it. 

Litea, a., or v. i., dirty, to be 
dirty, d. lirea : used of any- 
thing, as cloth, &c. Also, as 
in English we speak of a 
" dirty-looking " sky or night, 
so tokalau meta lirea dirty- 
looking tokalau (tokalau is an 
easterly wind). [My. latah, 
Ja. latup, turbid, foul, muddy, 
Mg. loto dirtiness, filth, dirty, 
soiled, maloto dirty, filthy, 
foul.] A. latah'a, n. a. lath', 
to be dirty. 

Liu sa, v. t., to go before, to 
precede him, to be greater 
than him, d. toli a, i.e., to, to 
abide, to be, and 'li a to go 
before, precede (this to may 
be prefixed to any verb, and 
is to liu and d. toliu sa = 
toli a = liu sa, with the added 
sense of continuance) ; 

Liu uaki (waki), or liu aki (see 
also lu-aki), v. t., to turn, as 
to turn a stick end for end, d. 
lia ki, and lilia ki ; 

Liliu, d. lilia, cl. ler, v. i., redup., 
to turn back, i*eturn, go or 

116 [loa 

come back : biliu, luaki, q.v. 
[Sa. liu to turn, to turn over, 
to turn into, to change, redup. 
liliu, liuliu, faaliliu to turn 
round, maliuliu to be able to 
turn, Fi. liu, v. i., to precede, 
go before, be greater than, 
v. t., liu-taka to precede, go 
before, ai liuliu the first : liu 
c. preps, e, mai, ki, eliu, 
mailiu, kiliu, ad., before, afore- 
time, preceding in time or 
space, Mg. aloha (ha forma- 
tive), a., fii'st, before, previous, 
ahead, mialoha to precede, go 
before, taloha before, My. 
daulu first, to precede, Ja. 
talu beginning.] A. 'ala to re- 
turn, to rule; b), to precede, go 
before; 2, to order to return; 
to interpret (in Mod. A., espe- 
cially in malicious sense), to de- 
clare, institute, direct, define ; 
hence tawil' interpretation of 
the hidden sense, allegorical 
interpretation, 'awwalu first, 
before, the first thing, the 
beginning, 'awwaliyyu first, 

Lo, s., d. li, alia, as lo koi, or 
koia, d. li ke, this place, here. 

Lo, s., thing, and c. art. nalo : le. 

Loamau (lo thing, and amau 
true), s., a true thing, truth, 
a., true, d. syn. losoko or le- 
soko (lo, or le. thing, and soko 

Lo, v. i. and t., to look, to see: 
leo, le, icl. 

Loa, s., c. art. naloa, dirt (on 

Loa, redup., loaloa, a., and v. i., 
to be black, to be blackish. 
See also malolo, or milo, mi- 



lolo. [Fi. loa a black cloud, 
black paint for the face, loa- 
loa, a., black, loaniniata the 
black part of the eye which 
surrounds the pupil, Ml. U. 
aro, P. roro, dirty.] This be- 
longs to the word following, 
loa i, loa sia, loa ria, to smear 
with lolo (the face), or with 
intei (the body, cloth), hence 
the body, etc., so smeared soon 
becomes milo dirty, covered 
with dirt, yellowish from the 
intei (milolo), black from lolo, 
nikis, loaloa. So H. hel'ah 
rust (i.e., dirt covering) of a 
Loa i, v. t., to rub, smear; and 
Lo-fia, v. t., same as alo-fia, q.v., 

to rub on, to smear ; also 
Loa sia, v. t., and redup., 
Loloa sia (d. loloa ria), v. t., to 

rub, also to flatter ; hence 
Lolo, s., paint (for the face). 
[My. lulut, and lulur, to cleanse 
the skin by friction and cos- 
metics, to rub the skin with 
cosmetics, to smear.] H. hala' 
to rub, strip, A. hala' to rub 
and to smear the eyes with 
collyrium, halo' oil or paint 
(used by women for their 
faces), H. hala' (A. hala', see 
elo, lolo, sweet, pleasant), Piel 
to stroke, to soothe anyone, 
from the primary idea of the 
roots hala', llalah, i.e., that of 
rubbing, hence to stroke any- 
one's face, i.e., to soothe, flatter. 
Lobu (1', art.), s., bamboo (the 
plant) ; also bamboo water 
vessel and bamboo knife. 
[Santo lumuo, Ml. nambu (n, 
art.), New Guinea dd. bau, 

1 1 7 [lolo 

if a, inba, diem (d', art.), kern 
(k', art.), Sa. 'ofe, To. kofe (k', 
art.), bamboo, Ha. ohe bam- 
boo, a reed generally, bamboo 
knife, a kind of flute.] H. 
'ebeh a reed, A. 'aba'a^' a reed, 
'abau reeds. 

Lofa na, s., c. art. nalofa na, 
his track (so called because 
his track is marked by bent 
grass, &c.) : lofa, lifa ia. 

Lofa ia, v. t., to bend ; same as 
lifa ia. [Sa. lofa to cower 
down, crouch, Pi. love-ca to 
bend, kalove bent.] 

Lofa, s., hunger or famine (be- 
cause it bends one) ; a sword 
(because it is flexible) : lofa 
lofa ia hunger or famine bends 
him : lofa ia. 

Lo-fia, redup. lolo-fia. See loa i, 
loa sia. 

Ldga (ending ga), s.,an enclosure, 
the inside of an enclosure ; 
given as d. syn. for elol ( in 
the sense of enclosure, that is, 
the inside of an enclosure). 
See alo. 

Lokoloko ki, same as lakolako 
ki ; lako, v. i. 

Loko-taki, v. t., same as luku- 
taki : lako, v. i. 

Loku, a., concealed, i toko loku 
he remains concealed : lako, 
v. i. 

Lokuloku ki, same as lokoloko ki. 

Lolo, s., voc, uncle, redup. of 
alo ana, q.v. 

Lolo, s., and c. art., a black paint 
for the face (under the eyes) : 
loa i, loa sia. 
Lolo, s., c. art. nalolo, thread : 
the native thread was made 
by rubbing the fibre between 


the hand and the thigh : loloa 

Lolo, a., or v. i., redup. of Mo, 
q.v., sweet, pleasant. 

Lolo-fia, redup. of lo-fia, and 

Loloa sia, or 

Loloa ria, redup. of loa sia, q.v. 

Lolo-mina, a., lolo sweet, pleasant, 
and mina, q.v., gentle and 

Lolofa, a., or v. i., d. lulum, lumu 
to be wet, moistened : see tiu, 
d. luma. [Fi. luvu to sink in 
the water, luma to kill by 
putting the head under water, 
Ma. rumaki to dip in water, 
Mg. roboka plunged, dipped, 
soaked.] Ch. seba' to dip into 
(H., A., id.) Ithpael 'istaba' 
to be wet, moistened. 

Lor, s., d. roro, the oily milk 
expressed from the grated 
kernel of the cocoanut for 
puddings. See ror, roro ia. 

Los, or loso, redup. lolos, or 
loloso, v. i., or mid., to bathe, 
to wash (oneself). [TaSa. lalos, 
Ml. roso, Malo loloso, id., 
Ml. roso-vi to wash (clothes, 
ifec.)] A. rahas'a, n. a. rahs', to 
wash (clothes, the body), H. 
rahas to wash (the body), to 
wash oneself. 

Losia, v. i. See lusia. 

Lot, v. i., to crackle, as a fire ; 
explode, as a gun, &c. ; 

Lotelot, v. i., redup., to crackle 
frequently and rapidly, as the 
bubbles in a boiling pot ; 

Lotelot, s., c. art. nalotelot, same 
as naletilot, froth ; also, 

Lot, s., c. art. nalot, froth (i.e., a 
mass of bursting or crackling 
bubbles). See lita. 


Louua, d. for loamau (lo a night, 
and uua, i.e., uwa, for amau, 

Lousa, redup. lolousa, v. i., to be 
wet, or losa, lolosa. See lusa. 

Lu, s., d. for lo a thing, in lurik, 
a thing, lit. little thing. 

Lu, s., a place, for li, alia, as lu 
ua, this place, here, lu uan 
that place, there. 

Lu, v. i., to rise up, as intano i 
lu the ground rises up (as when 
the swelling yams below heave 
it up), redup. lulu, nabiau i 
lulu the waves rise up ; also 
lu, d. lua, to take up, then to 
take out, away, also to throw 
up (lua i and lua ki nia), i.e., 
to vomit, to put up, also to 
put out, as to put out the 
tongue, lua mina (also lai 
mina and le mina) : lua, lua- 
lua to take out, or put out 
(anything, as yams from the 
ground or a plantation, or 
demons from a man possessed ), 
lua nafunaso take out the cork 
or stopper (take it up) ; lulu 
to be uplifted, proud (see lagi- 
lagi, liglig) bau lulu a proud 
person (lit. high head), also 
lulu, d. li, to vie with, contend 
for superiority, bilulu, v. r., to 
vie or contend with each other 
for superiority, bilulu ki vie 
or contend with each other 
for superiority about (some- 
thing) ; lu e a take it up (used 
of water taking up a solid, as 
a medicine, dissolving in it, 
because the medicine, as a 
preparation of iron, lies at the 
bottom of the water, and, as 
it dissolves, rises in it) ; na- 




kabu i lua nasu the tire puts 
out, or scuds up, smoke : to this 
stern belong also ulua to grow 
up, uli, ali, .and ula, a leaf, and 
lulu the hair (of the head, 
face, or other part of the 
body), redup. uluulua to be 
growing up, putting forth 
leaves, also to be hairy, to 
be woolly (as a sheep) to be 
covered with down (a plant) : 
to this stem also belong (the 
-ga, or -gi, being formative) 
laga tia, laga ia, lagi, elag, 
elagi, lagilagi, malaga, &c. 
See supra under the word lagi. 
[Fi. lua, lua-ra, lua-raka, to 
vomit, Sa. luai to spit out, 
Ha. luai to vomit, lualuai to 
ruminate, chew the cud, to 
raise the food again from the 
stomach to the mouth, as 
ruminating animals, Ma.ruaki, 
Tab. ruai to vomit, My. luwat, 
or luat, to vomit, luwar, or 
luar, out, away, luwari and 
luwarkan to put out, expel, 
Mg. loa, &., vomit, mandoa to 
vomit, loatra, ad., over and 
above, loatra taken up, put 
out, mandoatra to take out or 
up, loarana being taken up.] 
See A. 'alu, H. 'alah under 
the word lagi. A. 'ala', n. a. 
'uluw', to ascend, go up, be 
above it, over it, overlay it, 
become supernatant upon it ; 
overcome, become superior ; 
exalt (himself) ; recoil (from), 
remove, or go away (from), 2, 
to take up or off, 3, to vie, con- 
tend, or compete for superior- 
ity, 4, take up, take out, tire. 
H. 'alah to go up : inanimate 

things are also said to go up, 
as smoke, a rising ground, a 
plant which sprouts forth and 
grows, whence the participle 
'oleh (a plant) sprouting forth 
(Ef. ulua, ulu), and 'aleh a 
leaf (Ef. uli, all) ; used also of 
things which are taken up, 
carried away, Hi. (causative) 
to take out or up (as out of a 
pit), to take up, or away, to 
put up (the oid, from the 
stomach into the mouth, Ha. 
lualuai), of ruminatinganimals, 
generally, to make to go up 
(out or away), E. redup. la'ala, 
'a I 'ala to make to go up, lift 
up, take up, le'lena height, 
highness, &c. 

Lua, v. t., see under preceding 
word. This verb is much 
used after other verbs, as sela 
lua i bear or carry (taking) 
out, or away, ba lua i, &c. ; 
rniroa lua i think (taking or 
putting) out or up (discover it 
by thought), &c. 

Lualua, v. t., redup. of preceding. 
See lu. 

Lua, s., c. art. nalua, a land slip: 
lua, lu. 

Lualua, s., c. art. nalualua. an old 
plantation (out of which the 
yams have been taken) ; the 
hair or grass-like growth on 
rocks under the sea : lua, lu. 

Luaki, s., an allegorical utter- 
ance, a proverb or parable ; 

Luaki, v. t., i luaki natisan he 
makes his speech allegorical 
(tarns it from the obvious 
sense), i tili luaki lau era sa he 
utters a proverb ( parable, or 
allegory) planting it on them 

LUBA Kl] 120 

(lit. planting, piercing, or fix- 
ing them with it) : liu uaki, 
or liu aki. 

Lu&a ki, v. t., to pour out (as 
water, grain, &c), lu&a, mid., 
to pour (itself) as rain ; also 
used of pouring out anything 
(as men) from a ship, lu6a 
kira pour them out, or land 
them, hence biluiaki, v. r., to 
pour each other out, to land 
(men) ; malu&aki to be spilt, 
poured out (water or fluid), 
talu&aki to be spilt or poured 
out (as water or fluid). [My. 
turn pah to spill, shed, pour 
out, manumpah, id., Fi. livi-a 
to pour gently, or in a small 
stream, talivi to be poured 
out, spilt. A. sabba to pour 
out (of all things, and of things 
dry) ; to pour, be poured out, 
5, 7, 8, to be poured out, and 
Saba, n. a. sa'b', to pour out. 

Lufa, s., loin wrapper, girdle 
round the loins. See lifa ia. 

Lug ia, v. t., to bend, make 
curved, and red up., 

Luglug ia, id., d. nugnug ia; 

Lug, s., c. art. nalug, d., the 
native pudding (see nakoau, 
kabu), so called because 
wrapped in leaves which are 
bent or curved round it. 
[My. lengkok bent, crooked.] 
A. laga, n. a. la'g', 2, to make 
curved, to bend. 

Luk, or luku, s., a hole or pit, a 
well : luku noai well (pit or 
hole) of water : lako. 

Luku, a., same as loku. 

Luku-taki, v. t., same as loko- 
taki. See lako, v. i. 


Luluk, s., a thing rolled up (as 
cloth). See lulu ki (luluki). 

Luko, v. i., same as liko, v. i. 

Luku tia, v. t., same as liko tia. 

Luko, s., c. art. naluko, same as 
liko, s. ; takes the nom. suf. 
nalukona, or nalikona, its 
rope, i.e., the rope for tying or 
fastening it. 

Lukuluku, same as likoliko. 

Lukoluko, and 

Lukuluku ki, same as lokoloko 
ki : lako. 

Lulu, v. i., redup. ; and 

Lulu, v. t., l'lu, d. li, vie, con- 
tend with for superiority, dis- 
pute with : lu, and see ban 
lulu and bilulu. 

Lulu, s., c. art. nalulu, as nalulu 
nabau na the hair of his head, 
nalulu na his hair : lu, and 
see uluulua. 

Lulu, v. i., to roll : i lulu ban, it 
rolls away ; 

Lulu ki, v. t., to roll up (as cloth 
into a bale) ; hence 

Lulu, s., c. art. nalulu, a roll, a 
bale ; and talulu, and talu or 
tal'lu, s., a roll (of cloth), a 
crowd (of men), a herd (of 
pigs), a heap (of stones) : see 
also malilu to roll. H 'alal 
to roll, hence to be round, 
thick, eg. galal, lul, Ac. 

Lulu, v. i., to sink, d. tutu, q.v. 

Lulia, and 

Luluia, v. i., for ululia : alialia. 

Lumi a, i.e., lu mi a, to look 
upon it, see it : d. for libi sia, 
d. lim si, d. le ba i or le ba ia. 
See le, leo, lo. 

Luma, or lum, v. i., and redup., 

Lumlum, to be wet. See lolofa, 


Luma, s., the wet, as luma iga 
luma the wet is about to wet, 
or will wet ("it will rain," or 
" is going to rain ") ; 

Lume a, v. t., lume nafanua to 
wash (immerse) or cleanse the 
land by a religious service or 
ceremony performed by the 
ii i.i :i n ii ili • tabu, or priest: so 
if a man has been poisoned, 
natamole tabu i lume a ki the 
poison, cleanses or washes him 
from the poison by a religions 
service or ceremony. When 
the land is suffering from 
drought, natamole tabu i lume 
a, or lumi a, and the hard- 
baked and therefore barren 
earth becomes soft and moist 
(lum, lulum), clothed with ver- 
dure, and fruitful, yielding 
abundance of food ; redup., 

Lulurne a, id. The radical mean- 
ing of the word is to dip, to 
immerse (see under lolofa). 
[Fi. lomo-ca to dip, to dye, 
luvu to sink in water, to be 
flooded (as the land).] H. 
Saba', A. sab"a, to clip into, to 
immerse, then to dye, to tinge, 
S. sba' to tinge, Saba' to wash, 
E. tarn 'a to tinge, to immerse 
(in water). See also riu, tiu, 
tutu, tuma. 

Lume sia, v. t., to turn, d. 
lume to wrap up, buluma, or 
bulima, to be turned, to be 
changed (in form or appear- 
ance). [Tali, rumi to wring, 
turn over, upset, Ha. limu to 
turn, to change, to have various 
appearances, limulimu twist- 
ing, turning.] E. tavvim to 
roll up, fold up. 

121 [m' 

Lumi, v. i., to swell up, d. lugi. 
A warama to swell (eg. H. 
'aram, rum). 

Lusa, v. i., to be wet, also lousa, 
lolousa. E. relisa to be wet. 

Lusi a, redup. lulusia. See lele 
(and usi a). 

Lusia, v. i., to be dirty, faded, i 
bi namau lusia (of a lazy, 
languid husband). [My. lasu 
languid, feeble, Mg. la/.o 
fading, withering, faded.] A. 
latha to dirty, to be slow, 5, 
to be dirty, lutha£ langour, 
laziness, 'alwathu languid, 
faded, withered. See milesu. 

ll± (ma, mi, or me), a formative 
prefix or preformative particle : 
the m' is sometimes changed to 
b and f, as toko, or to, mato, 
bato, or fato ; in the causative 
prefix it is b' or f, being the 
initial consonant of baka or 
faka, rarely ba or fa ; in the 
reflexive prefix it is b' or f, 
being the initial consonant of 
bi or fi. In bi, or ti, q.v., the 
i is a fragment of the ancient 
reflexive prefix, as the a in ba 
or fa, q.v., is the ancient 
causative prefix. In many 
cases ma- (often mi) is found 
prefixed to verbs having a 
passive sense, the same verbs 
being without the ma- active : 
in these cases we may regard 
the word as representing the 
ancient ps. part. The pre- 
formative m (originally ma) in 
H. and Arm. me or m', A. mo, 



or mu, E. rua, Ainh. ma, was 
attached to infinitives and 
participles (active and passive). 
Sometimes ma- in Ef., or m' 
(b', f) is to be regarded as 
originally prefixed to the sim- 
plest form of the verb. See 
mago (bngo), borau (A. rnar- 
kab, an infinitive), &c. 

M, ad., contraction of mo, q.v. 

JMa, s., day ; in mas, maisa, mes, 
masus (nanum, nana, nanofa, 
nanoasa, nasa, uasa, to-day, 
lit. this day. H. yom, A. ya'm', 
S. yom, Ch. emphatic yoma', 
and sa, dem. 

Ma, prep., for, contraction of 
magi or of mane (d. mini), as 
i manai (or maginai) bat ia, d. 
i manena bat ia, d. i masa bat 
ia. See magi. [Ma., Fut., 
<fec, ma, id.] 

Ma, s., contraction for maga, in 
names of places. [Ma. ma, 
id.] Maga. 

Ma, d. me, prep., with (of 
accompaniment), and. [Ha. 
me, Ma. me, with, and, Mg. 
amana with, and, Mota ma, 
me.] H. 'im, A. ma' with, 
together with : may, like me, 
(fee, sometimes be translated 
by and. 

Ma, v. i., for man! : ani, v., q.v., 
c. p reformative m'. 

M;l nla, v. t., to rub, grind, or 
grate (as yams) ; 

Ma, s., c. art. nima, a fern tree; 
the rough bark of it (used as 
a grater) : nima that which 
ma, i.e., grates. See foga, afo. 
[Mg. fafa swept, cleared off, 
wiped, cleansed, m ifaf a, mafaf a, 
to sweep, wipe, clear away.] 

H. liafaf II. to rub off, scrape 
off, A. haffa to rub off. 

Ma, s., a man, a male, opp. to 
lai (lei, le, li) a female, a 
woman ; used also before 
names of men, as lai before 
names of women ; as ma 
tuele, Mr. tuele ; ma-riki lit. 
old. man, senior, sir, often 
used also before names of 
men, like ma : ma is a con- 
traction of mare, q.v. [Ysabel 
(Gao) mae male, and used also 
before masculine names.] 

Note. — This ma (contrac- 
tion of mare) occurs also in cl. 
ma'ani, man! (sometimes pro- 
nounced mwane, or moan), 
and denotes male (the ni in 
mani, like the ni in kuruni, is 
non-radical, being a suffixed 
particle), thus nata-mam, or 
ta-mani, a male, male, lit. a 
male human being, and in 
another d. the initial m is 
elided and for man! we have 
anoi, q.v., a male, male. 

Ma'ani, or maani, or man! (or 
mwani, or moan), a., male, d. 
anoi, s. and a., male : see pre- 
ceding word. [Malo muera, 
Oba amera, Celebes burani 
(husband, Wallace), Ambrym 
milig, Bali muwani, Epi d. 
man, and Ef ta-, or ata-mane, 
Epi dd. sumano, atamani (su- 
mano, ata-mani), Ta. yeru- 
man, TaSa. la-mani, Fi. ta- 
ngane, To. ta-ane, Fut. and 
Sa. tane (ta-ane), id.] 

Mba, v. i., for ba, or ma, v. i. : a 
mere euphonic change. 

Mbat, s., d. nabe, a club. [To. 
mata a kind of club.] Nm. 

mabk] 123 

nabboud a club ; also nabbout 

a staff, club. 

Ma6e, s., c. art. n&m&be, the 
chestnut tree and its fruit. 
[Tali, mape, id. ; also the kid- 
neys of any animal ; An. 
mop(o) the chestnut, also the 
inside (i.e., belly) of a box, 
inside (i.e., belly) of an ani- 
mal, the pluck, the heart, 
liver, and lungs, Malo mabue 
chestnut.] See under amo, 

Ma&elu, maielubelu, v. i., d. ; 
refl. of 6elu ; to be bent, 
doubled, folded : behi. 

Ma6or, d. mauora, q.v. 

Mabulu, v. i., or a., d. mafulu, 
fat : bulia. 

Mabulu, s., a large kind of pigeon. 

.Mabulu, v. i., or a., sticky ; 
waxy, as a yam when cooked : 
bubulu, bulu tia. 

Mafa, a., swollen, in las mafa, d. 
las mUu, swollen testicles (mau 
for mafu). H. bua', ba'ah, 
A. ba"a' to swell. See fuata, 
bua in. 

Mafa, v. i., as i maf ban he goes 
hidden ly or unobserved = i bi 
bei ban ; 

Mafa na, s., his being hid or 
unseen (in going) : see bei, 
and afa. 

Mafa, d., v. i., or a., to be broken, 
cracked, d. mafua, q.v. [To. 
mafa crack, rent, split.] 

Mafa ia, or mafai a, v. t., to 
cover : 6o-fia. 

Mafaifai, v. i., or a., to be 
smashed to pieces : fai. See 
bua to divide, cleave. 

Mafaku, v. i., to be plucked up, 
or out : baku sa. 


-M.itiiitiii, v. i., to be loosed, to 

be made void : bir ia, v. t. 
Mafasu, v. i., to be broken off, 

snapt off. [To. mafacbi, id.) 

Base a. 
Mafis, s., a knife, d. for makus. 

Matisi, s., a child, one begotten 

or born, and 
Matisi, v. i., or a., to be begotten, 

born, brought forth ; 
Mafisien, s., c. art. namafisien 

the being born or brought 

forth : bis ia. v. t., to beget. 
Matisi a, v. t., to beat : tisi a. 
Mafu, s., c. art. namafu (d. 

namam), a mist; cei'emonial 

uncleanness : abu, abuobu. 
Mafua, v. i., to be split, cracked : 

bua to divide, cleave. [Sa. 

mavae to be split, cracked.] 
Mafukafuka, v. i., to be swollen 

out, puffed up : buka I. 
Mafule, v. i., to be stripped of 

leaves : bule. 
Mafunai, or mafunei, v. i., to he 

consumed, annihilated, as wood 

in the fire ; and 
Mafunufunu, v. i., to be brought 

to an end, to be ended, finished,. 

annihilated : bunu ea. 
Mafusai, v. i., to be smashed to 

pieces, as a yam : busa ia. 
Mafuti, v. i., to be plucked : but 

Maga, v. i., to gape (see maka, 

gaga, fugaga), open out, then 

to wonder, then to gape or 

open the mouth (to speak),. 

to speak, maga asi is to speak 

about it, lit. to open the jaws,. 

part asunder the jaws (asi), 

maga lua i speak it up or out, 

lit. gape outing it, maga lo 




saki, d. maka lo saki, to gape 
looking up ; hence 

Maga, s., a small canoe, namaga ; 

Maga, s., c. art. namaga, d. 
nabaga, the banyan ; and 

Magan, s., c. art. namagan, the 
art of gaping, wonder ; and 

Magamaga, v. i., redup., to gape 
often and rapidly, to pant ; 

Maga-fai, s., a division, a part 
(see fai, bua) ; and 

Maga, s., the first part in names 
of places, as gorges or valleys, 
and especially of places in the 
depths of the abyss of Hades ; 
sometimes, but rarely, con- 
tracted to ma, as niaga-tika, or 
ma-tika, the lowest abyss in 
Hades. [Ma. maga brook, 
watercourse, ditch, and con- 
tracted ma in names of streams, 
Sa. faamaga to open the mouth, 
to gape (To. fakamaga) ; maga 
a branch (as of a tree, road, or 
stream, or anything having a 
branch, or forked), Tali, maa 
cloven, divided, My. nganga 
to gape, mangu wonder, amaze- 
ment, mangah to pant, palpi- 
tate, manga open.] E. naka'a 
to gape, to yawn, to be rent, 
parted or sundered, and of 
water gushing forth (see 
fugaga), A. manka' a place 
where water remains (i.e., a 
hollow, fissure in the earth, 
or valley), nalia'a to rend 
asunder, E. nka'a£ an opening, 
gap, fissure ; 

Maga, s., see above, in names 
of the following places in 
Hades, signifies chasm, yawn- 

ing chasm, gulf, or abyss, of 
which there are several, some 
say six, one below the other, 
viz. — 

Maga-6oa6oa, evil-smelling abyss 
— see boa ; 

Maga-bua, profound abyss — see 
bua ; 

Maga-lulululu, sinking sinking 
abyss : lulu ; 

Maga-na6ona6o, evil smelling 
abyss : na£o ; 

Maga-seasea, abyss of oblivion : 
seasea ; 

Maga-tika, or ma-tika, abyss of 
annihilation (this is the lowest 
abyss) : tika ; 

Maga-tiro, sinking abyss. See 

Note. — Magatiro in one 
dialect is magalulululu in 
another ; and niaga&oa&oa and 
magana&ona&o denote the 
same. Thus there are five 
abysses yawning one below the 
other in succession. All these 
are below abokas, which is the 
uppermost, and the first to 
which departed souls go, and 
also the general name of 

Magaliu, s., name of a place in 
Efate, lit. the turning gap. 
See liu. 

Magali, v. i., to be turned round : 
elo i magali the sun is turned 
round (it is late in the after- 
noon). See kelu. 

Magasi, v. i., to speak about, lit. 
to open or part the jaws : 
maga, asi. 
Maga, prep, and pron. of 3 per- 
son, denoting with-them, thus 
— (1) kihe maga 1 ? who they? 


d. se mani '! d. se mai 1 d. fei 
manag 1 (2) John maga, d. 
John manag, d. John merauan 
(or meroan), John and his 
companions ; (3) natamole 
maga, d. manag, d. mera uan a 
man with them (i.e., a man 
with those beside him), some 
men, indefinite plural. The 
literal meaning of maga in 
(1), (2), (3j, is with-them 
there : kihe maga ? who he 
with-them there (beside him), 
or together with them there 
(beside him) ; John maga John 
together with them there be- 
side him ; natamole maga 
the man together with them 
there (beside him). It is 
probable that maga is a con- 
traction of which manag is the 
fuller form ; and the -ga (for 
naga) is the dem. there (see 
ga, dem.) This manag = 
with them there : in address- 
a number the speaker says 
tagu maga % or manag, or mera 
uan, my friends, lit. my friend 
with them there (beside you); 
so tai manag, &c, brother with 
them there (beside you), 
brothers. The expression 
mera uan is me with, together 
with, ra them or those, and 
uan, dem., (that) there, and 
manag and maga differ in 
having the r elided (as it is 
in eu, u, for eru, ru, they, 
verb, pron.) and the suffixed 
dem. nag or naga, q.v., in- 
stead of uan, q.v. Mani (and 
mai) are not used as in (2) 
and (3), but only as in (1) in 
the above example. [Ma. ma, 

125 [mago na 

Ha. ma, Fut. ma, Ta. min, d. 
mi (meh) pi., ml, dual.] 

Magasaga, v. t., to make a saga 
(crotch, fork) : maga, and 

Magau, pr. n., c. art. namagau, 
for nabagau. See bagau. 

Magi (d. syn. mini), comp. prep., 
for, contracted ma, q.v. : magi 
is agi, q.v., and m' on account 
of, in, to, and thus aginai = 
what is his, his, maginai on 
his (account), in his (interest), 
i.e., for him ; in one d. the 
genitive prep, nig, q.v., of, 
denotes also for, niga = his, 
and also = for him. Both 
magi and nig, when = for, 
are placed between the verbal 
pronoun and its verb, thus, i 
maginai, or i niga mati, he for 
him died. The prep, m' or mi 
is, except in this case, mostly 
used before the object of a 
verb — see le bai limi sia, lu 
mia, li bi sia, in which it occurs 
as mi, bi, and ba, and see also 
bai, or bei. [Mota mun for, 
An. imi to, for, Ma. ma for,. 

Magie na, prep, and s., for his 
name, i magiena bat ia he for 
his name did it, tuga magie- 
gita bat ia let us for our names 
(i.e., for each of us) do it, &c. : 
ma, i.e. magi, for, and gie 

Magiri a, v. t., to scratch, scrape : 
giri a. 

Mago na, s., c. art. namago na : 
bago na, q.v. for meaning and 
origin, is the same word by 
change of m (the preformative) 
to b. 


Magoago (m J prep.), d., ad., 
dawn, early morning, lit. at 
dawn. [Cf. Arag vaigogo to- 
morrow.] E. golla to dawn, 
goll dawn. 

Miigoro, s. See muagoro. 

Magura ki, v., to withhold from, 
d. makur ki : gura ia. 

Magura, v. i., or a., to be lean, 
d. makur : gura ia. 

Magura, s., c. art. namagora, 
contraction of muagoro. 

Maguku, v. i., to be bent, 
&.c. : guku. [An. mecuc 
old, wrinkled, makaka bent, 

Magusi, v. i., to be crooked, con- 
torted, cross-grained, as wood ; 
also, nabona i magusi his heart 
is crooked. 

Mai, ad., here, as bano-mai to 
come here, lo mai look here, 
&c, and v. i., d. for the full 
expression bano-mai, d. umai, 
to come here. See banotu, 
note, and bai, bei, be. 

Mai, s., c. art. namai, a rope, a 
string. See d. me. 

Mai a, or ma ia, v. t., to chew 
(softening food for an infant). 
[Sa. mama to chew, ps. maia.] 
A. ma"ma"a to chew (meat), 
but not wholly. 

Mai, d. for mani, as sei ? who (is) 
he 1 se mai 1 who (are) they 1 
See maga. 

Maia, s., a species of banana. 

Mai, distance, only in emai, ad., 

Maita, or maieta, d., and 

Maito, or maieto, d., v. i., or a., 
to be black, black. [My. itam, 
Mg. mainty, Bisaya maitum, 
Tagala itim, black.] A. 

12G [maka 

'adhamo' ('ahtamo, 'athamo, 
tfec, id.) black, 'idhamma, 
and 'itliamma [i.e., dahama, 
taliama, 9), to be black. 

Maieto, maito, v. i., to be angry, 
maito sa to be angry on 
account or because of it, 
maito ki nia to be angry at 
him, maito ki nia sa to be 
angry at him on account of it. 
A. ma'it'a to be angry, ma'it'o, 
and ma'it'o angry. 

Maietoa, and 

Maietoan, s., c. art. namaietoa 
anger, namaietoan the being 
angry, anger. 

Mailoa (ma-, prep.), s., ad., d., 
dawn, early morning, lit. at 
dawn. [An. imraig to-morrow, 
Mg. maraina morning.] See 

Mailua. See malua. 

Mailum,mailumlum. See malum. 

Maimai, v. i., to be in a tumult 
(of haste or passion), namarite 
na i maimai his inside (heart, 
feelings) is in a tumult. [Mg. 
maika, and maimay, a., hasty, 
in a hurry.] A. ma'ma'a to 
do a thing hastily, to be in a 
tumult, ma'ma'al crackling 
(of burning reeds or such like). 

Main, v. i., to live : dd. mauri, 

Maisa, ad., today, dd. mas, mes, 
masusa. See ma, day. 

Mak, v. i., d., to fall, become 
mild, gentle, die away, as the 
wind : eg. miio. S. mak to be 
cast down, prostrated, humble, 

Maka. See mako. 

Maka, v. i., or maga, q.v., to 
gape, to wonder, to be amazed, 




i maka sa, or maga sa, he is 
amazed or gapes at (because 
of) it ; and maka lo saki, or 
maga lo saki, lie gapes looking 
upwards. See maga. 

Makaka, v. i., or a., to be ragged 
or fissured, as cloth. See aka. 

Makal, s., an ant (so called from 
its smallness, or quick and 
light movements) : kala, and 
bakal ia II. 

Makal, s., shame, pudenda. See 
under bakal ia n. 

Makal, v. i., or a., and redup., 

Makal kal, to be sharp : bakal 
ia II. [To. machila, sharp.] 

Makalakala, v. i., or a., to be 
itchy : connected with makal, 
ant, thus, makal i makamakala 
ki nau an ant moves about on 
(is creeping or running on) 
me. and therefore a makala- 
kala I am itchy : bakal ia II. 

Makamakala ki, v., to move 
about or creep on (one), of an 
ant (makFd), hence makalakala 

Makara, v. i., to be assembled, 
to be a crowd or many to- 
gether, dd. maraka (trans- 
posed), and mera, or mara (k 
elided) : kuru, guru. 

Makarakara, v. i., or a., to be 
burning, as the throat from 
eating currie with too much 
pepper : kara. 

Makas ia, v. t., to pluck out or 
off, as a scab or anything from 
the skin, loose bark from a 
tree, husk from a cocoanut. 
A. nakas'a, 3), to pluck out. 
See bakasa ki. 

Maki, v. t., to be ignorant of, 
not to know ; redup., 

Makimaki, as i makimaki isa he 
is ignorant of, does not know, 

Maki, don't know (in answer to 
a question) ; 

Maki, pr. n. of a demon or spirit, 
one of the officers of Saritau at 
the gate or entrance of Hades. 
When the spirit of a deceased 
person presents himself after 
death for admission to Hades, 
Faus (another spirit) asks 
" Who is it 1 " If Maki says, 
" Maki " (i.e., don't know) a 
dreadful punishment is in- 
flicted by Saritau ; if he says 
" He is one of our people" ad- 
mission without punishment 
is given. [My. mukir, Ja. 
mangkir (mungkir), to deny, 
disavow.] A. nakira, 1, 4, 6, 
10, to be ignorant of, not to 
know, 4, to deny, to disavow, 
Munkar' name of the angel 
who together with Nakir is 
said to have the office of 
examining deceased persons in 
the grave. 

Makinikini, v. i., to be itchy : 
kan ia. [Sa. ma'ini, ma'ini'ini, 
to tingle, to smart.] 

Makit ia, v. t., to seize or take 
with the uataki (native tongs) 
the hot oven stones, ru sela 
uataki makiti fatu isa, or 
maki fatu isa. H. hatah to 
take, take hold of, seize. It 
is once applied to a man, else- 
where always to fire or burning 

Makita, redup. makitakita, v. i., 
or a., to be bent, curved, only 
in the expression lo makita to 
look bent, i.e., to look round 

or back, lo makitakita, id., d. 
bakita, bakitakita. A. ka'at'a 
to bend, to curve) mak'ut" 
bent, curved. 

Mako, and maka, s., offspring ; 
in pr. names, as niaka folu, lai 
or li mako, <fcc. : aka (ako). 
[TaSa. niaka pi grandchild 
(offspring, or offshoot, of grand- 
father, pi), Fi. makubu, or 
niokubu, grandchild.] 

Makota, or makoto, v.i. , to be 
broken, and redup., 

Makotakota, to be much broken ; 

Makota ki, to be broken from, 
i.e., to cease from (some person 
or thing) ; and 

Makota, s., a part (of a planta- 
tion), a place, makot i milate 
the place is cold, i.e., there 
is no one about the place 
(on calling at a house and find- 
ing no one at home), makota 
ua this place, lit. this part : 
koto-fi a. 

Makus, s., a wooden knife (used 
for cutting up puddings), d. 

Makuskus, or 

Makusukusu, v. i., to be soft 
(ripe) : kosu mia. 

I. Mala bulu, v. i., to faint, fall- 
ing down (of men), to become 
weak and falling down (of 
breadfruit) — see bulu ; and 

Mala, 8., faint, as mate ki mala 
to faint, lit. to die in a faint ; 
a species of hawk (of a 
faded colour) ; 

Malamala, v. i., to be foolish 
(My. babal, silly, doltish), c. 
art. namalamala, a fool, one 
foolish ; and 

128 [mala 

Mala, s., c. art. nauiala, a fool, 
one stupid, foolish, senseless ; 

Mala nono, v. i., to abide sense- 
less, deprived of sense or 
motion (as by terror) : no to 
abide. H. nabal to be or 
become faded (used of leaves 
and flowers falling off from 
being faded), to fall down, to 
faint, to lose one's strength (of 
men : bulu, q.v., to fall down, 
H. nafal, is eg. to mala, and 
the two verbs occur together 
(cf. mala bulu) in Job xiv. 18, 
(of a mountain falling and 
lying prostrate, like a dead 
man) ; to be foolish (the mind 
faded), flaccid, devoid of vigour, 
stupid, nabal foolish, senseless. 

II. Malamala, v. i., or a., to be 
naked, naked ; and 

Mala, s., or malala (intensive), the 
cleared place at each village, in 
the midst of which the nafoeas 
are set up, and in which are 
performed the sacrifices, sing- 
ing, and dancing of the in- 
tamate ; often in the names of 
places (because cleared or bare, 
because having a mala, or 
cleared place). [Ma. marae 
enclosed space in front of a 
house, yard, Tali, marae, a., 
cleared, as a garden, or a place 
of worship, s., the sacred place 
formerly used for worship, 
where stones were piled up, 
altarserected, sacrifices offered, 
prayers made, and sometimes 
the dead deposited, Sa. malae 
the open space where public 
meetings are held.] And also 

Mala, s. (also malo) a place or 

malmal] 129 

part (as of a garden), a part 
of time, and 

Malmal, s., a small place, or part. 
See under ali or alia. 

in. Mala, v. i., or a., d. malala, to 
be loose, and redup. malamala, 
id. A. lialla to loosen, mahlul' 
loosened, loose, Ct. mahlul 

Malamala ia, or malamalai a, d., 
redup. of (malai a) milai a, or 
milei a, q.v. 

Malafiafi, v. i., or a., to be thin. 
[Ha. lahi, lahilahi, thin, My. 
ramping thin.] A. raffa, n. a. 
rafaf, to be thin. 

Malari, d. for milati, q.v. 

Malasilus, redup. of milesu, q.v. 

Malat, s. See melat. 

Malatiga, d. malandigi, ad., and 
prep., near, malatiga ki near 
to : mala place, and tiga, tigi. 

Malau, v. i., to be bad tasted (as 
stale food), to be corrupt (as 
bilge water), faded (as a fallen 
leaf). [Tah. marau old, worn 
out, fading.] A malali'a to be 
bad tasted, have a corrupt 
taste (food), maluh'a to be in- 
sipid (meat), malili" corrupt, 
insipid (food). 

Malei a, or male ia, v. t., to re- 
quite, malei au isa requite me 
for it. [My. balas, malas, to 
reply, requite, Mg. valy, ma- 
maly, to reply, requite.] See 
liu, liliu : the idea is "make 

Maleoleo, d. malolo, v. i., to 
become tame, gentle (i.e., in- 
telligent), as an animal does 
when domesticated. A. ra'a', 
4, ; ar'a', n. a. 'ira', to become 
prudent, intelligent. 


Malebuto, ad. and s., middle 
part; inside, heart: mal (mala) 
place, part, e prep., and buto 
the middle. 

Malele, v. i., or a., to be bent, 
curved : lele. 

Malera, v. i., to be thin, running, 
of a fluid, as paint. See lor, 
roro, ro ia, roro ia. 

Maler, d. mal6ru or maliru, v. i., 
to be transparent, shining (as 
smooth water or glass re- 
flecting the light : lira. 

Maletileti, v. i., to be stiff" (as the 
back, in some disease) : let, let. 

Mali, and redup. malimali, v. i., 
to be drooping, as the coun- 
tenance in shame ; and 

Mali, s., c. art. namali, a plant 
(which when eaten is said to 
make one so) ; and 

Malierl, i.e., mali-eri, v. i., to be 
ashamed, lit. to be drooping 
or abashed in the face or 
countenance : see rai face, 
forehead. [My. malu to be 
ashamed, abashed, malumalu 
bashfully, Mg. malo, malo- 
malo, bashf ulness, mimalo, mi 
malomalo bashful, meek-eyed, 
shamefaced.] H. 'amal, 'amel 
to languish, to droop, prop, to 
hang down the head. 

Maliblib, v. i., weak, limber, d. 
maliflif : Ufa ia. A. laflafa 

Malibu, s., widow (also widower), 
i.e., one mourning, lit. covered 
with ashes : libu. 

Maliflif, d. maliblib, q.v. 

Malifus, dd. malus, maus, v. i., 
or a., bent : lifa ia. 

Maligo, v. i., to be dark ; and 



Maligoligo, id., intensive ; and 

Maligo, s., c. art. namaligo, 
darkness, d. malik, q.v. 

Malik, v. i., redup. malikoliko ; 
nauialik, s., to be dark, dark- 
ness, d. maligo. [Epi miko- 
leko, Vanua Lava malegleg, 
meliglig, black.] A. halika 
to be very black (holakliko 
very black), part, mahluk'. 

Malilu, v. i., to roll away, to 
roll, malilu ki, v. t., to make 
to roll, to roll (a thing) away : 

Malilua, v. i. See malua. 

Malio ki, v. t., to forget (a thing) : 
lailai. [My. lalai, Ja. lali, to 
forget.] A. laha, n. a. lohiyy' 
being diverted to forget (a 

Malis, d. for malus : malifus. 

Malitiga, dd. maririgi, multig : 

Malo, s., a place, part ; a part 
of time ; mal or malo tageli a 
crooked part (either a place 
difficult of access, or crooked 
conduct) : c. art. na malo na 
the trunk (of a tree or the 
body) : mala. See ali, alia. 

Malo, s., a kind of rock in the 
sea. [Santo malo a rock.] 
Cf. A. marw' very hard stones. 

Malo, v. i., to be weary, unwil- 
ling, averse ; malo ki, v. t., to 
dislike (a thing). [My. malas 
averse, etc.] A. malla to dis- 
like, to be tired, weary ; mallo 
disgusted, wearied. 

Maloi, s., a mask. [To. bulo to 
mask, to veil, buloa and bulo- 
bulo a mask ; veil for the 
head. Ha. pulou to cover the 
head, veil the eyes, s., a veil.] 


A. barka'a to cover the face, to 
veil, 2, to be covered with a 
veil, veiled, burka'o a veil, 
burku' id. 

Maloiloi, v. i., to be feeble, 
tottering from weakness. [Ha. 
loeloe, maloeloe, feeble.] A. 
la'la'a, 2, to be twisted and 
moved (from hunger), to be 
infirm and weak from disease 
or languor. 

Malolo. See maleoleo. 

Malosu, d. milesu, q.v. 

Malu, v. i., or a, to be bare, 
cleared ; redup., 

Malumalu, id. See ali, alia, 

Malua, v. i., to do anything 
gently and quietly, not to be 
in a hurry, to do after a time, 
by-and-by, d. mailua, malilua, 
d. malulu. [Fi. malua go 
gently, not to hurry, by-and- 
by, vakamalua gently.] A. 
mahala mahlu, to do anything 
gently and quietly, not in a 
hurry, 2, to grant that a thing 
may be done by-and-by. 

Malubaki, v. i , to be spilt : luba 

Malum, v. i., to be weak, faint, 
soft ; to do anything weakly, 
i.e., gently, not in a hurry. 

Malumlum, redup., also mailum, 
mailumlum. [Fi. malumu, 
malumulumu, weak, faint, sick, 
My. lamah, Ja. lamas, soft, 
flexible, weak, feeble, faint, 
Mg. lemy softness, meekness, 
gentleness, malemy soft, meek, 
gentle, TaSa., nalum, Ml. 
malum, id.] A. s'a'afa, n. a. 
S'a'f, s'u'f to be weak, infirm, 
S'a'uf, id. ; also to fold, double, 

MALUS] 131 

mas''uf (part.) weak, debili- 
Mai us, d. for nialifus. 
Mal-tageli. See malo, s., and 

Mam, v. i., or a., to be soft (as 
ripe fruit), ripe. A. ma'w' 
ripe or ripening dates, ma'a, 
to have such dates (a palm), 
ma' soft, mild (of food). 
Mam, s., c. art. namam, d. for 

Mama, s., voc, father, dd. ab, 

Marriau, redup. of mau, q.v. 
Mani, v. i., or man, contracted 

ma, to abide, to be : am. 
Manamana, s., c. art. namana- 
mana, a pudding mixed with 
pig's fat wrapped up (munu 
tia) in leaves to be cooked in 
the oven ; a captive taken in 
war (because such were cooked 
in the oven and eaten). See 
munu tia, bunu tia, &c. 
Manag, d. maga, q.v. : manag, 
i.e., ma with them or those, 
nag (clem.) there. 
Manaki, ' v. i., to stay for the 

night, to rest, as a guest ; 
Manaki, s., c. art. namanaki, one 
who does so, a guest. [My. 
rnanang to rest.] Mod. S. 
maneh to rest, Mafel, i.e., the 
causative with the preforma- 
tive m ; H. nuah to rest, A. 
nali'a to kneel down, as a 
camel, monah' a place where 
camels lie down (to rest or 
Mandu, d. for matru. 
Maneinei, v. i., to be weak. A. 

na'na'a to be weak. 
Mani, as sei who (is) he ? se 


man! who (are) they ? d. kihe 
maga 1 See maga. 
Manifenife, v. i., or a., to be 
thin. [Sa. manifl, manihniti, 
My. mimpis, mipis, nipis, tipis, 
Mg. manify, thin, hanifisina 
being made thin.] A. nahifa 
and nahufa, n. a. naliafa^, 
naliif, manhuf thin, slender. 
Ct. nahif thin, nahafat thin- 
Manru, d. for matru. 
Manu, s., a multitude ; d. a 
thousand (d. bon a thousand), 
manumanu (cl. bonbon) a very 
great number, or multitude ; 
see bon, bono tia, bunu tia, 
munu tia. [Sa. mano a great 
number, manomano innumer- 
Manu, s., a bird, birds. [Ja. 
manuk, Ta. manug, Er. 
menok, Vanua Lava mon, 
Tag. ibon, Poggi umah, Sa. 
manu, id.] H. 'of birds, fowl 
(feathered creatures), 'uf to 
fly ; E. 'awif to fly, 'ef a 
Manumanu, s., a streamer or flag 
of a native canoe sail : preced- 
ing word. [Fi. manumanu, id., 
also a bird.] 
Manu na, s., the palate and 
upper part of the throat. A. 
lianaku the palate and lower 
part of the mouth answering 
to it (eg. nanoa na, q.v.), A. 
lianaka to rub food with the 
palate, 2, to rub the palate. 
Manua, v. i., to be finished, 

ended ; and 
Manunu, id., d. manubu. See nu. 
Manubu, v. i., to be finished, 
ended ; and 


Manubunubu, id., redup. : nubu, 
num, nu. 

Manubunubu, d. matumutumu, 
to be soft, sleek, as the skin 
of a newly born pig, or of an 
infant. See nubu, tumu, noba. 
[Ha. nopunopu to spring or 
swell up, a., soft, spongy, 
thoroughly cooked, plump, fat, 
swelled out, nopue plump, 
round, as a well fed, fat hog.] 

Manugnug, d., v. i., to be bent : 
luglug ia. 

Manuka, s., c. art. namanuk, 
wound. [Sa. manu'a to be 
wounded, s., a wound.] A. 
naka' to wound. 

Mao na, s., d. faa, thigh. [My. 
p'aah, id., also the limbs or 
quarters of a slaughtered ani- 
mal, Mg. fe the thigh : cf. 
Sa. vae the leg, vaega a 
division, vaevae to divide in 
parts, cut up a slaughtered 
animal, mavae = Ef. mafa, d. 
mafua, and see Ef. fai.] See 
bua (also fai, maga-fai). 

Mao, and redup., 

Maomao, v. i., to be gentle, mild. 
A. mahiha to be mild, eg. 

Maoni, v. i., d. mani : am, v. i. 

Maole, or mauole, s., c. art. na- 
maole, a bed ; hence 

Maole ki, v., to make a bed with 
(something) : d. uol, see bilis 
ia (bolis ia, and uolis ia). 

Maon, s., d., c. art. namaon, 
sweat : der. uncertain. 

Maora, v. i., to be rent, redup. 
maoraora (intensive) : bora ia. 

Maosa, d. taos, v. i., to be 
fatigued, tired. [Fi. oca 
(otha) weary, tired.] A. 

132 [marase 

fatha', 4, to be fatigued, 
weary, 'aftha' fatigued, worn 

Maota, or mauota (mawota), v. i., 
to be parted asunder ; redup., 

Maotaota, id., and 

Maota na, s., c. art. namaota, 
interval : bota, ia. 

Mara uoka, a., having the hands 
chapped with hard work, as 
with digging with the kali, or 
with using an axe, naruna i 
bi mara uoka : maras, and 
boka tia (or uoka tia). 

Mara, v. i., to rest, stop, mara tu 
stand still ; 

Mara bakarogo, v. i., or a., to be 
quiet, rest quiet, peaceable : 
mara, i.e., maro, q.v., and 

Marag ki, v. t., d., to spit out, 
to loathe. See burei a, burog. 

Marafi, v. i., to hasten, be quick; 

Marafirafi, id. See sarafi. S. 
rhab whence sarhab, Pael, to 
hasten, mesarhiba sudden, 
mesarhlbat hastily, quickly. 
Uhlemann (Syr. Gr., §25, A, b) 
gives sarheb (Saphel, similar to 
Aphel) to permit to hasten, 
and to hasten = arheb (H. 
rahab to urge on, press, «fcc.) 

Maraka, v. i., or a., to be willing, 

Marakaraka, id., redup. See 

Maraka, or meraka, v. i., d. for 

makara, q.v. 
Marase, v. i., to be softened or 
excoriated (as the hands with 
work), to be peeled off, exco- 
riated, tamaras peeled off" (of 
the skin of a body softened 

maraserase] 133 

or macerated in water). A. 
maras'a, maratha, to macerate 
in water, rub, scratch with 
the nails ; and 

Maraserase. l'edup., to be peeled 
or excoriated here and there, 
as the skin. Compare marato. 

Marasa, or murasa, d. burasa, 
v. i., used as an ad., gently, 
slowly, by-and-by, as ba 
marasa mer ia do it gently, 
not in a hurry, slowly, or by- 
and-by. A. ratha to delay, 
to be slow, 2, soften ; be 
fatigued, murayyath' slow. 

Marate, v. i., or mareti, to be 
excoriated, peeled, as the hand 
with hard work. See marase. 
H. marat, to make smooth ; 
to polish ; to make bald, 
t pluck out the hair ; marut 
to be peeled (as the shoulder 
with carrying burdens) Ch. 
to pluck (wings), to be 
plucked, A. marata to pluck 
from the body (hairs), 3, 
pluck out hair and wound 
with the nails. 

Maratg, or maretS, a., in fatu 
marete oven stones (hard, 
smooth or bare stones, worn 
smooth by the sea) : preceding 

Mare, v. i., to be turned, lo mare 
to look turned (round), look 
back. See roa, rea. 

Mare, s., a man (male, not fe- 
male), Sir, Mr., as Mare uota 
Sir or Mr. uota : see ma, 
maani, or man!, and mariki. 
[Tah. maroa a boy, a male 
(tamaroa boy, tamahine girl), 
Motu mero a boy (not a girl), 
Malo muera, Oba amera, a 

[maro na 

male, vir.] Ch. mare' lord, 
S. mar, A. mar' (also homo, 
see infra mera), mor', mir', id., 
mara'a, 2) to be virile, mascu- 
line, and brave, as becomes a 

Mariki, s., lit. senior, sir, old 
man, Mr., opposite to lite rikl 
matron, old woman, Mrs. : ma, 
for mare, and riki. 

Marita na, or marite na, s., the 
belly, bowels, also a rope or 
string; hence 

Maritausa, v. i., to be angry, or 
marita sa, or marita na i sa : 
and marita uia to be well or 
kindly disposed. See sa, uia. 
A. muryita' the belly. See 
the verb under marate. 

Maritau, v. i., to wither, be 
withered. A. saha, 2, v. t., to 
wither or dry plants (as the 
sun, wind), 5, tasawwaha to be 

Maro, v. i., to breathe, to rest, 
be quiet, to be glad, restful, 
contented, satisfied ; maro ki, 
v. t., to perceive the odour of 
(to breathe or inhale the odour 
of), to smell ; redup., 

Maromaro, v. i., to breathe ; to 
rest ; hence 

Maromaroan, s., c. art., the act 
of breathing or resting, rest ; 

Maro na, s., c. art , breath. A. 
raha, n. p. marob, to rest (i.e., 
respire) ; to be glad ; to per- 
ceive the odour of ; to blow 
(wind), 2, to be quiet, to rest, 
4, to breathe, H. ruali to 
breathe, blow, Hi. to smell ; 
to be pleased, glad (smell with 

Maroa, v. i , to turn round : roa. 
Maro&aro&a, v. i., to fall down, 

as the smoke of a fire signal. 

See taru&a. 
Marou, and ruarourou, s., d. 

(transposed) for rum a. 
Maru, v. i., or a., d. meru, to be 

limpid, clear, pure (of water). 

A. namiru, namliu, id. 
Maru, d. for matru, q.v. 
Maru sa, v. t., to rub ; mastur- 
bate ; to joke. A. marah'a, 

n. a. marh'u, to joke, to anoint, 

to soften (the body with oil), 

H. marah to rub. 
Maruen, s., c. art. namaruen, 

joking, &c. 
Marua, v. i., to cease, leave off', 

marua ki to cease from ; and 
Maruana, s., c. art., cessation : 

baro, v. i., barua. 
Mas, s. See maso. 
Mas, ad., d. for maisa, mesa, 

Mas, and sam, ad., alone, only : 

ma for mau (as in sikei mau), 

and 's, sa, one. 
Masa, d., v. i., to go, to walk. 

A. mas'a, id. 
Masana, s., c. art. namasana, the 

going, walking. 
Masa ia, v. t., to rub, rub off, 

masa ia nafo rub it on the niifo 

(to rub the rust off' it) ; 
Masamasa ki, redup., rub (as 

the rust oft' a needle, on a 

stone) ; and 
Masamasoa ki, v. t., end. 'a, to 

stroke, smooth, flatter ; and 
Masa, v. i., at ease (as wild 

animals in their lair, as if 

smoothed into gentleness) ; 
Masamasa(n)ta, d., v. i., or a., 

end. ta, smooth, as a board : 

134 [masere 

dd. musi ki, mus ia, to stroke, 
smooth, rub. H. mas'ah to 
stroke, anoint, A. masaha to 
stroke, to flatter, wipe off, 
ma'asa to rub strongly, 
ma"as'a to rub gently, masili' 
smooth, S. ms'ah to anoint ; 
to measure; A. masaha to 
measure (land), H. mis'liah, 
mas'liah a part, a portion (Ef. 
mas, maso, mis, id.) 

Mas, s., also maso, mase, and 
mis, a part, a portion, a place 
(part of the land), as bau-maso 
na, q.v., masleo a portion of 
speech or words, as of a song, 
masleo naligana, a portion of 
human speech, dialect (see leo), 
maso ua this part, or place. 
See preceding word. 

Mas', or masu, v. L, d., to come j 

Masuen, s., c. art. namasuen, the 
act of corning. E. mas'a to 
come (H. masa' means to come 
to, i.e., to attain to, to arrive 
at, anything). 

Mas ia, v. t., to shave, as masi 
nasina to shave the chin or 
part of the face covered with 
the beard : masi noai shave 
off the surface of water, bail 
out : hence, redup., 

Masimasi, v., to bail out (a canoe 
or boat), and 

Masi, s., a knife, and 

Masimasi, s., id., d. mismis. A. 
masa to shave, musa' pi. 
mawasi a knife. 

Masaki. See misaki. 

Masei, s. See masoi. 

Masere, s., c. art. See miseri. 

Masere, v. i., to be treated 
kindly : sere a, bakasere a, te 




inasere, one treated kindly, as 
a beloved child. 

Masere, v. i., to be torn : sere. 
[Fi. kasere, id.] 

Masi&a, v. i., to be broken, done 
into fragments ; and redup., 

Masi6asi6a, id., intensive: si&a ia. 

Masi-6alo, s., wilderness, lit. 
empty part (of land). See 
mas, maso. 

Maslka, v., in sera maslka sa to 
desire, covet (a person or 
thing). A. s'aka, 5, to be 
desirous of. 

Masiki na, d. mihi (for misi), 
v. i., taking the nom. suf. 
agreeing in number and per- 
son with its subject as, a 
niasikigu I alone, ku masikima 
thou alone, i masikina, or 

f masikinia, he alone : siki, and 
pref. ma. 

Masila, or masili, v. i., to be 
thin ; and 

Masilasila, d., I'edup. ; and 

Masila na, s., c. art. namasila 
na, chip, shaving. See sila ia. 

Masila, in buru-masila, q.v. See 

Masirsir, d., v. i., to sob (as after 
crying). A. zahaia to utter 
the voice, to give forth a 
sound, to pant or gasp with 
vehemence and groaning. 

Mas-leo, s. See mas, s., part or 
portion, and leo voice, speech. 

Maso, s. See mas, s., a part, 
portion, place. 

Maso, v. i., or a., to be cooked, 
done, d. mahi. [My. masak, 
Mg. masak a, Ma. maoa, and 
maoka, and maonga, cooked, 
also ripe, Bugis motasok ripe, 
Tah. maoa cooked, ripe, Fut. 

moa, Santo, d., maa, cooked, 
To. momoho ripe.] A. sawa' 
2, to finish off (see infra su, 
si), 8, to be finished ; and (of 
food) to be cooked, done ; 
Nm, (Part.) mostewi cooked 
(meat), ripe (fruit). 

Masoi, masoei, or masei, s., star, 
stars, d. mohoi, c. art. na- 
mohoi. [Epi d. mohoei, Fila 
masoi, Fut. fatn, Sa. fetu, 
Santo dd. vitu, matsoi, vitui, 
vitiu, My. bintang, wintang, 
and lintang, Mg. kintana and 
vasiana, Tag. bitoin, Sumbaw a 
l)intoing, Sulu bitohon, Tobo 
toi, Matabello toin, Menado 
bituy, Sanguir bituin, Cajili 
tulin, Mayapo tulu, Gani 
betol, id.] A. dara'a, 7), n. a. 
duruw', to glitter and twinkle 
(a star), durriy' glittering and 
twinkling (star), and dar'ariy' 
glittering and twinkling stars. 

Masoi, or masei, star, is used in pr. 
n., as Masei, Mare Masei, &c. 

Masok, v. i., to be violently 
agitated or enraged, as namari- 
tama i masok, lit. his belly or 
his bowels leaped up : soka 
to leap. 

Masoko, a., true, exact, to the 
point, as nafisan masoko a 
word or speech true, exact, or 
to the point ; as an adverb, 
bisa masoko to speak truly, 
exactly, or to the point, ba 
masoko to go exactly, ba ma- 
soko sa go exactly upon it, 
&c. : soko. 

Masol, v. i., to turn aside, de- 
cline. A. zala, n a. zuwul', to 
decline (as the sun) ; cease to 
be in place, remove ; start on 

masu] 136 

a journey and change one's i 

Masu, s., c. art. namasu, the time 
of harvest, or of plenty of food, 
opposite to sukei, q.v., lit. the 
coming, namasu nafinaga the 
coming of food, as yams, 
taro, bread-fruit, &c. : mas' 
(or masu), v. i., to come. 

Masua na, s., c. art. namasua na, 
the top, crown, or summit (of 
anything) : sua, su. 

Masua, v. i., or a., to be bald. 
A. nazi'a to be bald about 
the temples, manzu''. 

Note. — Sa. tula, My. sulah, 
Mg. sola bald, A. sali'a to be 
bald on the fore part of the 
head, sul'ai place of baldness. 

Masuku-taki. See musuku-taki. 

Masula ki, v. t., to scorch (as the 
skin of a pig in order to its 
being scraped and prepared 
for cooking) : sulu. 

Masusa, ad., for mas, maisa, to- 

Mat', v. i., to ebb; to be low 
water ; hence 

Mat', s., c. art., namat, the ebb ; 
low water; the shore left bare 
at low water. [Sa. masa to be 
low tide ; to be sour ; to have 
an offensive smell ; To. maha, 
mam ah a, to ebb, Pi. mati, to 
ebb, and s., namati the ebb.] 
A. matha to macerate and 
dissolve (a thing in water), H. 
masas, eg., to melt, flow down, 
to waste away. 

Mata (or mwata), a snake. [Sa , 
Fut., Fi. gata, id., Malo moata, 
Santo dd. mata, maura, My. 
ular, id. (Ma. ngata snail, 
slug, leech).] A. ll'ata to creep 


along like a thread (a serpent), 
mah'lt' place of a serpent, 
through which it creeps. 

Mata, s., the eyes, usually mita, 
or meta, q.v. 

Mataisau, s., a carpenter. [Sa. 
mataisau, id.] ; 

Matakseu, d., id. Mataisau is lit. 
the eye (or director %r master) 
of cutting. See (mata), meta, 
and sau. 

Mataku. See mitaku. 

Mataloa, s., a pig with crooked 
tusks, one on each side, that is, 
a mature, full-grown pig. A. 
sala"a and sala"a to have or 
acquire a tooth or tusk on each 

Matata, s., a phosphorescent 
worm (which gleams brilli- 
antly). [Fi. matata to clear up, 
as the weather, the sky.] A. 
S'a'a to shine ; Nm. mos'ui 

Matau, s.,d. na mitau, an anchor: 

Matautau, v. i., to utter sounds 
as one in sickness or pain, to 
groan, moan. A. 'aha, n. a. 
'awh', to say ah ! alas ! oh ! to 
be in pain, (2), 5, id. With 
matautau cf. A. part, of 5. 

Mate, v. i., to die ; and redup., 

Matemate, v. i., to be quiet, soft, 
gentle ; and 

Matien, s., c. art. namatien, act 
of dying, death : 

Matigo na, s., c. art., the grave, 
d. emate n ; tamate. v. i., to 
become calm (wind, wave), s., 
peace, a calm ; also a series of 
feasts or festivals held every 
fifth day (see d. syn. belaki). 
[Sa. mate, My. mati to die, 




Mg. maty, a., dead, matimaty 
lukewarm.] A. mata to die ; 
to become calm (the wind), 4, 
to soften by cooking. This 
word occurs in all the Semitic 

Matiratira, v. i., or a., to be 
shining, bright (as any polished 
surface). See tare. 

Matiu, d., v. i., to sink. See tiu sa. 

Mato, and 

Matoko, v. i., to remain, abide, 
to sit : to, toko. [Mg. raito- 
atra, mitoetra, mitoitra, mito- 
moetra, to reside, dwell, abide, 
sit, rest.] 

Matol, ad., to-morrow : tola. 

Matoltol. See matultul. 

Matu, v. i., to abide, to abide 
standing : tu. 

Matu, s., c. art. namatu, d., 
woman : fatine. [Ja. wedo, 
Sula nifata, Tidore foya, id.] 

Matu ki, v. t., to strengthen or 
support with posts (a fence), 
matu ki nakoro ; and 

Matu na, s., c. art. namatu na, 
post or stake (of a fence) ; the 
backbone, vertebral column, 
the back : fatu. 

Matru, v. i., to be thirsty, to 
thirst, dd. manru, mandu, 
maru. [Sa. galala to have 
intense thirst, Ml. P. meruh, 
Epi mereu, TaSa. maroku, 
Malo madoce, Bugis madoka, 
Santo (Pelia) marara, Marshall 
Islands maru, New Caledonia 
malu, to thirst.] A. "alia, 1, 
1)), and 8, to thirst, "alall' 
thirst, "all' thirsty, ma"lul' 
intensely thirsty, &c. 

Matua, v. i., or a., to be old, ma- 
ture, elder, then (full-grown) 

large, great ; also wise, op- 
posite to busa, as meta matua 
wise, lit. old or mature, i.e., 
experienced eye, bo matua, 
wise, lit. old, mature, i.e., ex- 
perienced heart; te matua the 
aged, or the ancients ; meta 
matua ki to withhold from (a 
person, something); 

Matuatua, redup. of preceding 
word, very old ; 

Matua, s., or ad., the right hand, 
or side : tuai. [Sa. matua 
aged, elder, mature (matuatua, 
dim.), a parent, Fi. matua 
mature, My. mantuwah a 
father or mother-in-law, Mg. 
matoa eldest son or daughter, 
matoatoa a ghost, apparition, 
Malo matua right hand.] 

MatCiki, a. used as s., one trusted 
in, confident, brave, as a 
warrior : tuki. [Mg- matoky 
confident, brave, trusting.] 

Matulu, v. i., or a., to be swollen, 
thick ; and redup., 

Matultul, id. : telatela, telatelana. 

Matumutumu, d. manubunubu, 

Matuna, s., and ad., c. art. na- 
matuna, d. fatuna, something, 
anything, somewhere, any- 
where, somehow ; also a ghost 
or appai-ition, lit. something : 
ma, or fa (the inter, pron. 
used indefinitely), q.v., and 
tuna, dem., te (or tu) with the 
dem. na added to it. See safa, 
or sefa. H. mah anything, 
something, whatever, Ch. mah 
di whatever, what that, that 
which, A. ma' that which, 

Maturu, d. matur, v. i., to sleep, 


bakamaturu ki to put or make 
to sleep. [My. tidor, Ja. turu, 
to sleep, Mg. tory, s., sleep, 
rnitory to sleep, Bugis matinio 
to sleep, Ml. P. nietur, Malo 
inaturu, TaSa. tsuruve, Santo 
dd. chinaru (tshinaru),chinavo, 
chiranu, noro, rontui, An. 
umjeg (umjeng), Fi. moce 
(ruothe), Sa. moe, ps. moea, to 
sleep.] H. yas'en, A. wasina 
to sleep, sina<', H. s'enath, and 
s'enah, sleep. 

Mau, v. i., to recover from sick- 
ness, be well : abu. 

Mail, v. i., a., and ad., to be 
together or all together (as a 
number of men), to be whole 
(of a thing) red up. mamau, id. ; 
nai mau it wholly, or only (of 
a substance), nara mau they 
wholly or only (of a number 
of persons) ; and 

Mau na, s., c. art. namau na, d. 
nabai na covering of it (a bird), 
i.e., its feathers ; na mau the 
bunch of feathers worn as an or- 
nament on the top of the head ; 
na mau nasuma (d. na bau 
nasuma), nakasu, the top of 
the house, of a tree ; mau 
naliati (d. bau naliati) mid-day ; 

Maumau, s., redup., the surface 
of the land or sea. See bau, 
bai. [Epi momou the whole, 
Ha. pau, a., all, ad., wholly, 
Mg. aby all, every one, the 
whole, Ma. hou a feather (see 
under bau sia).] H. 'amain, 
A. 'amma, to gather together 
(see bau sia), to be or become 
universal, to include or affect 
all, to cover wholly (see deri- 
vatives, Lane's Diet.), complete 

138 [mau 

perfect, universal, whole, nu- 
merous, all. 

Mau, or amau, a., true, lo-amau, 
or lo-mau, a true thing, d. 
mauri, or mori. [Tah. mau 
true, Fut. mari, To. mooni, 
Ma. pono, Sa. moni true] ; and 

Mau, a., used as s., one firm, 
intrepid, bi'ave, i.e., warrior of 
such a character, also, in Mau- 
tukituki, pr. n. of a mytho- 
logical hero. [Sa. mau to be 
firm, to be decided, unwaver- 
ing] ; and 

Mau sa, v. t., to come upon, ob- 
tain, find, bamau ria reach 
to. See bamau. [Sa. maua to 
obtain, reach to, Tah. mau to 
seize, take hold of] ; and 

Mau asa, d. mau is, v. t. (to trust 
in), to desire, tea maumauen, 
a thing trusted in, or desired, 
te namauena, id. [Ma. po- 
pono to covet] ; and 

Sera lo-amau asa, v. t., to be- 
lieve on or in (him or it). 
[Ma. whakapono, Fi. vakabau] ; 

Mau, ad., very, indeed, continu- 
ally, as bisa mau to speak 
continually, toko mau abide 
continually, constantly, <fcc. 
[Ha. mau continually] ; elagi 
mau above indeed, in the 
highest place, toga mau very 
far away, malitiga mau very 
near, etaku mau, or mau- 
mau (intensive) behind indeed, 
the last (as the last day), 
male mau ua naga this very 
time, d. mal fa nin (fa for 
mau), bisa mau few indeed, 
very few, d. bisiba (ba for 
mau), sikei mau one only. 


[Fi. dua bau, Sa. tasi pe, one 
only] ; mas (for mau sa only 
one), and sam (for sa mau one 
only), are like sikei mau (but 
without the kei suffixed to the 
numeral sa or se) ; ti bano 
mau did not go indeed [Aniwa, 
Fut., si fano ma, si fano mana, 
id.] ; this mau after a verb 
preceded by the negative is 
very commonly used, but may 
be omitted, and ti bano, ti 
bano mau, are both used, 
though the latter is the more 
common. H. 'aman to prop, 
stay, sustain, support ; to 
carry (sustain) a child ; 'amen 
to be firm, unshaken, faithful, 
A. 'amuna to be faithful, 
'amana to confide in, trust, 
'amina to trust, be secure ; H. 
Niphal to bear in the arms, to 
be firm, to be of long continu- 
ance, continual ; to be sure, 
certain ; Hi. to lean upon, 
trust, confide in, believe ; stand 
firm, still, A. 'amana generally 
the same ; S. 'eman to perse- 
vere, be constant, and, con- 
trarily, to cease, A ph. to 
believe, 'amen, &c, verily, 
truly, certainly, E. 'aman id., 
also truly, and 'amanawi, id., 
'amana to believe ; 

Mau-tia, v. t., to save, to pro- 
tect : mu-tia. 

Maua ki, v. t., to give food to 
(people, as to those who have 
been doing something for one) ; 

Maua, s., c. art. namaua, food, or 
provisions. A. mana to give 
food, mawunai provisions. 

Mau, d. for mafa, swollen. 

139 [me 

Mauaua (mawawa), v. i., to be 
separated. See mafa, bua. 

Maiiori (mauori), v. i., to be 
broken, and redup., 

Maiioriuori, intensive : bori a. 

Mauri, s., as mauri nalagi the 
place where the wind ends at, 
to leeward ; the left hand or 
side, opposite to matua. [Sa. 
muli matagi, To. mui matangi, 
the place where the wind ends 
at, Ma. maui, Malo marao, Ta. 
maul, Epi dd. mali, mau, left, 
on the left hand.] See muri. 
Mahri manghura behind. 

Mauri, v. i., to live, dd. mairi, 
mole, bakamauri make to live; 

Maurien, s., c. art. namaurien, 
life. [Fi. bula, Sa. ola, Fut. 
mauri, My. idup, Ja. urip, Ta. 
murif, Mg. velona, to live, 
Epi d. meouli, mauli.] A. 
'as'a, n. a. 'ais", ma'as", ma'Is" 
to live, 4, make to live. 

Mauri, a., true, tili mauri speak 
true ; 

Mauri, s., c. art. namauri, a 
prayer or incantation, lit. 
what is true : mau true. 

Miius (mawus), d. for malus 

Mauta, d. mautu, s., a rising 
ground ; one's native land : so 
called because (i tu mau tu) it 
remains firm or continuing. 
See mau. [Sa. mauga a hill ; 
a residing at a place (from 

Me, prep., d. ma, q.v. 

Me, or mea, v. i., to make water ; 
also, redup., 

Meme, id., and 

Me, s., urine, me-riki dysuria, 
lit. small or scanty me ; and 


ZNIe, or mea, v. i., to How, wet, 
us i mea the rain pours out, i 
me nakoau it (a fluid, as water) 
Hows upon or moistens the 
pudding ; nai me a flood or 
freshet, lit. flowing water, d. 
naum a stream, lit. flowing 
water; na bisi me semen geni- 
tale. [Mg. mamany to urine, 
amany urine, Ha. mi, mia, inimi, 
to make water.] A. maha 
to have water (a well), leak (a 
ship), 2, to pour water; to wet 
with water ; emit water (the 
ground), ma' juice (of any- 
thing), semen genitale (H. me), 
H. me (of the feet) euphemism 
for urine. See Ges., Diet., 
s. v. ma', who gives a root mo' 
to flow. 

Me, s., c. art. name, d. namai, a 
rope, or string. [Sa. maea, 
To. maia, id., Mg. fehy tied, 
mifehy, mafehy to tie, kofehy 
a cord or string, i.e., that 
which ties.] E. mawaklia, 
contr. moklia to tie, bind, 
mokll a bond, band, rope, 

Me, and 

Meamea, long ; as tali me tuturu 
(see tuturu), a rope long, 
hanging down, i barau meamea 
it is long, like a long streak of 
water running down a tree, or 
the face of a cliff. See me, 
mea to flow. 

J/emi, d., v. i., to be gentle, 
tame : mao, maomao. 

Mela, melamela, for mala, mala- 
mala, fool, foolish. 

Melat, s., c. art. namelat, or 
malat, flower (of a plant), 
then flower (of anything), that 

140 [men A NA 

is, crown or most excellent 
part, as namelat natamole the 
flower of men, the most ex- 
cellent of men. A. warada 
2, to flower, ward' a flower. 

Mele na, s., c. art. namele na, 
the hollow ; as nameleru na 
the hollow (palm) of the hand, 
d. nal'naru na (see alo, aru, 
belly, hand), namele natuo na 
the hollow (sole) of the foot 
or feet, namele gere na the 
hollow of the tail of a fish. 
[Mg. faladia, i.e., fala dia, sole 
of the feet.] A form of the 
word be\e na belly, hollow. 

Melesia,d. melesira. See milesia. 

Meliboi, or melibai, v. i., to be 
bent, as grass by the wind, &c. : 
lifa ia. 

Meliki, d., v. i., to be dilatory, 
slow : malua, and suffixed ki. 

Melita, v. i., to crackle, resound 
(as one's name) : (lot) lita. 

Melu, v. i., d. meliki : malua. 

Melu, s., shade, rag melu time of 
shade, evening, melu na its 
shade, or his shade (protection) ; 

Melu, v. i., to be shady (as the 
day), and redup., 

Melumelu, id. [Sa. malu to be 
shaded, to be protected, malu- 
malu to be overcast, cloudy, 
Mg. malomaloka shady, cool, 
gloomy.] H. 'afel obscure, 
dark (of the day), 'afal to be 
obscure, dark : eg. 'amal or 
'am el. See mali. 

Melu, s., that which, or what 
milu departs or removes (from), 
separates (from) : milu. 

Men, a. See mina. 

Mena na, s., the tongue (of 
animal) ; of fire (flame) ; of 


knife (blade or edge) ; of 
breaker (edge of the wave) ; 
to be the namena, or tongue, 
of anyone is to be his spokes- 
man ; hence 

Mena ia, or 

Menamena ia, v. t., to lick it 
with the tongue, tongue it. 
[Epi mena, TaSa. me, Santo 
(P.) meme, Guebe mamalo, 
the tongue.] A. manmul' the 
tongue, from namala to be a 
detractor ; to creep, climbing 
up (a free), <kc. 

Mer, ad., d. mero. 

Mera (for mara), s., c. art. 
namera, man in general, 
people, as namera ni Efate, 
the people of Efate : mera is 
contracted to fa in fa-fine, 
q.v., and especially Note 3. 
A. mar', mir', a male, or, in 
general, man, Ct. mir'a man in 

Merai, a, used as s., pertaining 
to a male, the male organs of 
generation, virilia : merai gara 
(gara bare) addressed to young- 
boys not yet wearing a waist 
cloth, or naked ; a man is 
sometimes jocularly or dis- 
respectfully spoken of as 
merai tamana the merai of his 
father : mare, q.v., with the 
a. end. i. A. mar'yy' virilis, 
pertaining to a male. 

Mera, s., d. mara, a rippling (of 
water) : meromero. 

Mera, conj., lit. with them, or 
with those : me with, and 'ra 
them or those, as John mera 
Peter John and Peter ; this 
can also be expressed John me 
Peter, and John nara Peter 

141 [merimeki 

(John they Peter) ; with dem. 

Mera uan, dd. syn. manag, maga, 
as John mera uan John and 
his companions, lit. John with 
those there (beside him); mera 
uan can also be used of inani- 
mate things, as fatu mera uan 
a stone with those (stones) 
there (beside it), stones. 

Mera, d. contraction for meraka, 
maraka, for makara, q.v. 

Mera, ad., again, d. for mero, q.v. 

Merafalu, some, as koria mera- 
falu some clogs : me with, and 
rafalu, see lifaru. 

Merafalu, s., c. art. namerafalu, 
contraction of namera rafalu, 
some people. 

Mera gi, d. for 

Mera kia, v. t., to go before, 
leading, to lead. 

Merakien, s., c. art. namerakien 
act of leading, also meramera, 
redup., leading, and namera- 
mei"an, s., act of leading or 
ruling, kingdom, that led or 
ruled, natamole meraki, or 
meramera, leading or ruling 
men. E. marha to lead ; to 
go before. 

Merakolau, s., web-like fat on 
the intestines (of a pig) : mera 
fat (see merei), and kolau, 
q.v., a web (spider's). In An. 
this is called nilvanilva (redup. 
of nilva spider's web). 

Meraroa, v. i., to turn round : roa i. 

Mer ia, v. t., to do, to make to 
work, act, namerien, s., act of 
doing, what is done, conduct ; 
fimeri to be doing something 
to each other, fighting ; 

Merimeri, v., to keep on doing. 

MERBl] 142 

A. 'amila to work, Nm. to 
work, act, be active, practise, 
4, cause to work. 

Merei, s., marrow ; eel ; cater- 
pillar ; medulla of banana 
fruit. H. merf fat. 

Mero, ad., again, dd. mera, mer, 
moro, mro, ro, and mo, m, 
contraction of mero, as i mero 
bano he again went, lit. he 
turned went, d. i mer ler ban 
he again went, lit. he turned 
returned went : roa i. 

Meromero, v. i., hoarse, gruff, as 
i bisa meromero he speaks 
hoarse, gruff. [Mg. barabara 
hoarse, having a rough voice, 
bara-feo a coarse, gruff voice, 
farina hoarse.] A. "ar"ara, 1, 
2, to make rough sounds in 
the throat (whether with the 
voice, or liquor, or the breath), 
"ar"ara£ hoarse sound ; sound 
of boiling water. 

Emeromina, ad., and s., in the 
world, the world, lit. in the 
light, opposite to abokas in the 
under-world, Hades (which is 
dark and gloomy) : e prep., 
and meromina, s., formed from 
mirama, or merama, to shine. 

Meru, v. i., d. for mfiru, q.v. 

Mes, ad., d. for maisa, to-day. 

Mesa, ad., perhaps, expletive 
used at the beginning of a 
clause. E. 'emsa but if, 

Mesau na, v. t., to desire, and 

Mesausau, desire much, be lust- 
ful ; 

Mesauen, s., c. art., desire, will, 
what one wills : sau. 

Meta, v. i., or a., to be raw, then, 

[mil AGO 

unripe, crude, ijreen. [Sa. 
mata, raw, unripe, Mg. manta 
raw, unripe, crude, green, My. 
mantah raw, unripe.] A. 
'anut'a to be raw. 

Meta, s., the eye, the eyes : mita. 

Metita, v. i., or a., to be rotten, 
to be falling to pieces from 
rottenness. A. tha'ita to be 
rotten ; to be falling to pieces 
from rottenness. 

Mi, v., to be, d. for bi, q.v. 

J/i a, redup. mimi a : for gumi a, 

Miel, v. i., or a., to be red, and 

Mimiel, id. [Sa. melomelo, 
memelo, red, My. merah, red ; 
the ruby ; bay colour in a 
horse.] A. ma"ir' reddish, 
'am"aru of the colour of red 

Mihi, d., masiki, q.v. 

Mikit ia, v. t., d. for makit ia, 

Mila, v. i., or a., to be shy, 
skittish, to be wild, opposite 
to malolo. [My. liyar wild, 
untamed, shy.] A. hali'a to 
be uneasy, timid, impatient, 
shy. Hence 

Mila, s., a wild animal ; a 
warrior sleeping out in the 
bush and watching to cut off 

Milau, for malau, q.v. 

Milaba. See laba. 

Milag, s., a part, or half, c. art. 
namllag. Ch. pelag a half, 
A. filag' a part, a half. 

Milago, v. i., d., to be sick, to 
be ill, have a disease. A. 
S'aniya, 2), n. a. s'ana' to be 
ill, to be sick with a latent 


disease, Nm. mos'na' faint, 
languid, moribund. 

Milagoen, s., c. art., the being 
ill, disease. 

Milakesa, or milakisa, v. i., or 
a., to be darkish green : milo, 

M'lame, d., s., c. art. nam'lame, 
dew : mala clear (rainless), 
and mea. 

filiate, dd. malare, milanr, v. i., 
or a., to be cold, cold. [Sa. 
maalili, Tali. mariri, Ma. 
makariri, Fut. makiligi, id.] 
A. makrur' cold, from karra 
to be cold. 

Milate, s., c. art. namilate, cold, 
the being cold, also namilatea ; 
and redup., 

Milauiilati, v., to be coldish : 
milate. [New Hebrides, TaSa. 
makariri, Ml. U. milas, Malo 
macariri, Ml. P. mereus, Epi 
meneni, cold.] 

Mile na, s., place, its place, d. 
for alia na, q.v., and see malo 
a place. 

Mile ki, mile raki, v. t., to seek 
for (as for a pig in the bush), 
milemile ki, id., also mole ki, 
mole raki, molemole ki. A. 
'ala, 2), to go through a place, 
4, to seek for; to desire eagerly. 

Mile, or milei, v. i., or a., used 
adverbially, to be good, good, 
as noa milei a tell good (well) 
it, bati milei a make good 
(well) it, syn. noa uia ki, bati 
uia ki (uia good), dd. mita ki, 
buta ki, as noa mita ki nia, 
bati buta ki nia, id. [Rara- 
tonga meitaki, Tah. maitai, 
Niue mitaki, Fila, Meli, Ma. 
marie, Ha. maikai, to be 

143 [mina 

handsome, good.] A. malih' 
beautiful, good, Nui. melieh 
elegant, good. 

Milesia, v. i., or a., d., and 

Milesira, id., to be faded, dirty, 
mouldy : endings a and ra ; 

Miles, v. i., or a., to be faded, 
drooping, withered : lusiu. 
[Mg. malazo withered.] 

Miles, s., c. art. namiles, the 
forest, the jungle, the bush. 
[My. alas a forest, alasan a 
forest country ; a foundation, 
alas-kaki footstool, Mg. ala a 
forest, a wood, Bugis alok, id., 
Fi. ra below.] A. 'aras'a and 
'arus'a to abound in grasses 
and herbs (of the land) ; 'ars" 
the earth, soil, region, what- 
ever is below, H. 'eres the 
earth, land, country, region, 
soil, Ch. 'Sra' earth ; below. 

Miles, s., a plant with dark 
leaves : les. 

Milo, or miloa, redup. milolo, or 
miloaloa, d. malolo, d. milo, 
v. i., or a., to be dirty, to be 
darkish, of a dark, dirty 
colour : loa. 

J/ilu, v. i., to depart, go away 
(from), remove, namiluen, s., 
the removing, departure. See 
s. v. lu. A. 'ala' ('alw) to 
remove, or go away (from). 

Mini, or mam, q.v. 

Mlmi, s., voc, aunt (paternal) 
See simam. [Fut. moma, id.] 

Mimita, s., a sign, a showing of 
something. See mita, mimita, v. 

Mina, a., sweet, pleasant, nice. 
See kasi. [Tah. mona, mona- 
mona, momona, My. manis, 
Mg. manitra.] 


Minranin, d., ad., now ; mi nra 
nin, mi time, nra nin this 
here ; as to mi compare ma 
clay. E. yom to-day, now, 
this time. 

Mina, tongue. See mena. 

Mini gia, d. minu gia, munu gia, 
d, munuma (munu-ma), v. t., 
to drink, also minu, munu ; 
hence namunuen and na- 
munugien, s., drinking, drink. 
[Fi. gunuva, unuma, Ml. min, 
Malo inu, Epi muni, Sa. inu, 
ps. inumia, s., inumaga, Santo 
o'o-mia, ulu-mia, My. minum, 
Mg. minona.] Ch. s'tha', 
'is'tho', S. s'tho, H. s'atha, 
E. sataya ; and with the th 
changed to k H. s'akah, A. 
saka', E. sakaya, to drink. 

Mira gi, d. for mera kia. 

Mirama, v. i., to be light, to 
shine ; namirama, s., light ; 
emeromina in the light, the 
world ; 

Mirama ni a, to shine upon or on 
it, or him. [Sa. malama to be 
light, malamalama, v., to be 
light, s., light, malama, s., the 
moon, a lamp, torch, Ha. lama 
a torch.] A. lama'a to shine, 

Mirara, v. i., or a., to be light 
(not heavy), slender, small. 
A. rakka to be thin, slender, 
slight, rakaraka to pour out 
not much (water or other 

Mirati, redup. mh'atirati, d. min- 
rat, minratinrat, v. i., or a., to 
be loosed, untied : rat ia. [Ma. 
matara,Sa. matala, matalatala, 
Tah. matara, mataratara, to be 

144 [MiSERr 

Misafe, misafesafe, v. i., to be 
separated (as a cocoanut from 
its branch) : safe. 

Misaki, d. masaki, v. i., to be 
sick, to have fever, to be ill. 
[My. sakit, Sa. ma'i, Fut. maki, 
Ml. P. mesek, Epi dd. msaki, 
miei, id.] And 

Misaki, or misakia, s., c. art., 
sickness. [Put. makiga sick- 
ness.] A. s'aka', 2), to afflict 
(someone, a disease), s'akah 
disease, mas'kuww' afflicted 
with a disease. 

Misal, v. i., or a., to be removed, 
separate (from others). A. 
'azala to remove (one). 5, 6, 7, 
8, to be removed, 8, separate 
(from others), nianzul', separ- 
ated, removed. 

Misal, misalsal, or misali, misall- 
sali, v. i., or a., to be light (not 
heavy). See sail. 

Misaru, v. i., to hang down, pros- 
trated : saru. 

Misei, or misai, miseisei, v. i., or 
a., to be open, cracked : sai. 

Misera, v. i., or a., to be parted, 
disjoined (as joints), separated: 

Miseroa sa, v. t., to desire, covet : 
soroa, sa. 

Miseroana, s., c. art., coveting, 

Miser I, s., c. art., part of a 
woman's dress, consisting of a 
little mat, terminating in a 
bulky fringe, attached to the 
waist cincture and hanging- 
down like an apron. See seri 
A. 'azzara to cover the body 
with the covering or garment 
called 'izar', mizar', a garment, 
covering, Nm. an apron. 

misimis] 145 

Misimis, s., d. masimasi. 

]\Iisiniis, v., d. masimasi. 

Misa, orwisa, v. i.,to be stinking, 
rotten, decayed, wasted away ; 
and red up., 

Misimisi, v. i., to be wasted away 
(of a very old man). Ch. mesa, 
S. msa to be decayed, putrefy. 

J/ it, s., c. art. namlt, a mat ; so 
called because plaited — see bau 
sia, Ml. vij, Epi mbie, to plait 
(a mat). [Ml. devij, Epi 
yembi, a mat.] 

Mita, v. t. (also rneta), to look at, 
watch, observe, view, as i mita 
natai-inlagi he watches or ob- 
serves the cloud (to see if it 
will rain) mita sa, or mimita 
sa, look at, watch it (any- 
thing) ; and mita gita, or 
bakamita gita = leo goro gita 
(see leo) watch, look for, look 
out for (expecting) us : baka- 
mita, v. t., same as mita. 
[Sa. mata to look at, mata- 
mata to look, to view, ma- 
mata, id. (of many), Ha. 
makai, makaikai, to look at 
closely, inspect, search out, 
spy, act the part of a spy, to 
look on, look at, to examine 
secretly for evil purposes, To. 
mamata to look, look at, be- 
hold, discern.] A. 'ana 1, to 
emanate (water), to be a spy, 
2, to flourish, produce flowers 
(a plant), to show, make con- 
spicuous, 3, to see, look at or 
on, 5, to look at malevolently, 
to look at well, accurately, to 
be manifest, conspicuous, 8, 
to look at malevolently, to be- 
come a spy, to view or watch, 
to look out for. 


Note. — Mita is probably 
mu'tan' Mod. A. mu'tan, the 
n. ag. (Participle) of 8. 

Mita na, s., c. art. namita na, 
the eye, that which sees, looks 
at, watches, or observes ; mita 
noai a fountain ; mita the 
beginning ; mita bud, shoot, 
"eye" (as of a potato), bud, 
germ, offshoot (of men) ; mita 
nalagi eye of the wind ; mita 
feagona eye of its end, point 
of its end, end ; mita a win- 
dow, door, or other opening, 
as the eye (of a needle) ; 
i bi mita na to be the eye (i.e., 
guide) of someone ; namita 
nalo the eye (price) of some- 
thing ; mita kita a spy (in 
war), see kita ; mita ni elo 
(or al) the sun (eye of light, or 
fountain or source of light), 
lit. eye of the sun. [My. 
mata, Mg. maso, Sa. mata, 
the eye, <fec, Fi. mata eye, 
source, opening, point.] See 
mita, v. 

Mita, v. i., to bleed, mita ni a 
bleeds on it, as i tumana 
mita ni a, redup. mitamita ni 
a, he bleeds on himself (covers 
himself with blood), used also 
of rust — it rusts (covers itself 
with rust) : ra blood. [My. 
bardarah, Bu. madara, to 

Mita-6ago na, s., end, lit. point 
of its end : mita, s. 

Mita-busa, s., orphan child: mita 
s. (bud, shoot), and busa, q.v. 

Mitaga, and mitagataga, v. i., to 
be heavy : d. miten, q.v. 

Mitailau (mita-i-lau), s., d. syn. 
bile-mita, q.v., lit. germ or 


source of the tribe or com- 
munity. See lamia. 

Mitaki, v. i., to be inclined to 
one side : taki, ta. 

Mitaki, i.e., mitaki, d. milei, q.v. 

Mitakisa, s., blind, the eyes re- 
receding into the head : mita 
eye, and kisa. 

Mitakitik, d. matakitaki, a., last 
or first of a row (as of men) ; 
from closing up, or, as it were, 
binding together the series : 
taki a. 

Mitaku, or mataku, v. i., to 
fear, be afraid ; mitaku or 
mataku ki, usually contr. to 
mitau ki, or matau ki, v. t., to 
be afraid of, to fear ; baka- 
mataku ki, to frighten (one) ; 

Mitakua, s., c. art. fear ; and 

Mitakuen, s., c. art., act of fear- 
ing, fear. [Sa. mata'u, ps. 
mata'utia, My. takut, Mg. 
tahotra, s., fear, matahotra, 
v. i., to be afraid, to fear.] 
A. taka', v. t , to fear (derived 
from waka', 8), takiyyaf fear, 
caution, taking heed, takwa, 
fear of God, takiyy' fearing 
God. See infra, mita-taku. 

Mitamai, or matamai, or miti- 
mai, ad., to-morrow. [Mota 
matava morning, Sa. tafa to 
dawn.] A. sabalia, 4, to be 
morning, to be early, to dawn, 
E. sablia to become light, or 
day, to dawn, A. sabah' morn- 
ing, masball' and musball' 
morning, dawn. 

Mitanielo, s., the sun, lit. eye 
of the sun : mita ni elo. 
[My. mata-ari, Mg. maso- 

146 [mitefutefu 

Mitao, d., v. i., d. mitefe, q.v. : 

tao, roa. 
Mitarau, s., c. art. tribe, lit. 

the bud, or germ, spreading 

out into many branches : mita, 

s., and rau. 
Mitariki, s., the seven stars, lit. 

little eyes : mita, s , and riki. 

[Sa. matalii, Ma. matariki, 

id -]. . 
Mitariki, s., as, lo mitariki to 

look with little (i.e. con- 
tracted) eyes. Same word as 

Mitaru, v. i., to sink down : tiro. 

Mitasabo, s., a stranger, lit. eye 
not knowing : mita, sabo. 

Mitataku, v. t., as, i tumana 
mitataku na he heedfully 
watches himself, he being 
afraid watches himself : mita, 
v. t., and see mitaku. 

Mitau, or matau, v. i., to abide, 
continue : tau. 

Mitau ki, v. t., to fear : contrac- 
tion for mitaku ki. 

Mitaukien, a., dreadful, to be 

Mitausi a, v. t., to look after : 
mita, v. t., and usi, v. t. 

Mitefe, d., v. i., to fall down, as 
a portion of a precipice : tibe. 
See roua, roa. 

Mitefe-risu, v. i., to fall down (see 
preceding word), rushing or 
slipping to a distance : risu. 

Miteftef, v. i., and 

Mitefutefu, id., to twitter, chirp, 
peep (of a bird or fowl), to 
make a whispering noise (of 
men). H. sifsaf to twitter, 
peep, chirp (of birds), to make 
a whispering, peeping sound 
(of the voice of a wizard). 



Mitei, or mutrei, s., c. art., 
breadfruit cheese (salt and 
sour), that is, breadfruit fer- 
mented and preserved. [8a. 
niasi, id., My. masin, salt (as 
water), Mg. inasimasina saltish, 
rano-masina the sea (salt 
water).] A. magi 1 salt (of 

]\litela, v. i., or a., to be broken 
(as crockeiy, or pottery). A. 
thala'a to break (the head), 
muthalla' broken. 

Mitela, s., c. art. namitela, a 
fragment, lit. that which is 
broken, the broken. 

Miten, v. i., d. mitaga, to be 
heavy, to be burdened : tien, 
or tiena, q.v., as also tago, 
tagie. [Mg. entana, s., bur- 
den, voa entana lifted up, 
mientana to set out, taingina 
placed upon (a horse), tongoa 
placed upon, My. tunggang 
to lide, be conveyed by any 
vehicle, tanggung to bear, 
carry.] S. fan to carry, 
Aph. to bui'den, load, ta'no' a 
burden, H. ta'an, Oh. t6'en to 
be laden, A. t'a'ana, 8, to sit 
on a camel, H. sa'an to move 
tents, go forward (as a no- 
madic tribe), A. t'a'ana, id., 
E. sa'na, Sa'ana, to put on a 
horse, &c, and consequently of 
other things where one sits, is 
placed, upon another, Seun 

Miti, v. i., to move rapidly, to 
strive, quarrel, to jump back- 
wards and forwards excitedly 
in a quarrel or a rage, to land 
or remove from a canoe ; miti 
goto depart or go rapidly 


across (as an arm of the sea) ; 
and redup., 

Mitimiti, v. i., to throb, flutter 
(as the pulse). H. nasah to 
fly, Hi. hissah to quarrel, 
maSSah strife : cf. tiri. 

Mitiri a, v. t., to write, to carve, 
cut or make figures ; 

Mitimitiri, a., figured, as cloth 

Mitiri, d. mautsiri, s., c. art., 
writing, figures ; and 

Mitirien, s., c. art., act of writing, 
what is written. [Santo d. 
turi, My. tulis to draw, 
delineate, paint, picture, 
figure, write, Mj 
colour, writing, 
misoratra to be 
printed, of different colours, 
and soritra, misoritrato mark, 
engrave.] E. sa'ala to paint, 
figure, A. Sara, 2, to figure, 
paint, 5, to be formed, musaw- 
wir sculptor, painter, Nra. 2, 
to form, draw, trace, paint. 
The radical idea is that of 

Mitiri, s., a kind of locust or 
grasshopper (so called from its 
mode of moving) ; 

Mitiri, v. i., to leap flying (as a 
grasshopper) : tiri. 

Mitroa, v., to think, mitroa ki, 
v. t., to think of or about, 
dd. miroa, mitoa, mintoa, 
minroa; redup., 

Mititroa, d. minintoa, v. i., 
be thoughtful, sensible ; 

Mitroan, s., c. art., act 
thinking, thought : ro, roro, 
trotro, rara or trara, romi or 
rumi. [Mg. eritra, eritraritra 
cogitation, mieritra, mieritre- 




ritra, Fut. mentua, To. nia- 
natu (Sa. manatu), to think.] 
S. 'etra'i to think, Ethpa. of 
r'o', Ch. re'ah to think, H. 
ra'ah, (3), to delight in, rea' a 
friend, lover, one loved, 
thought, will, Ch. ra'yon 

J/Itu (mwito), v. i. or a., to be 
short, red up., 

Mitemlto, id., d. buru, burufuru. 
[Tah. mure, muremure, Ma. 
poto.] H. liasar to cut, kaser 
to be cut off, to be short, short, 
A kasara to be short, 3), to cut 
(hair), to make short, maksur' 

Miu, v. i., to be wet : eg. mea. 
A. mai' fluid, ma'a to flow 
gently on the surface, 4, to be 
dissolved in liquid. 

Miura, s., c. art., dew : miu, and 
ura, q.v. 

Mo, ad., contraction of mero. 

Mo, d. for bo, dd. fo, uo, o. 

Mb na, s., father or mother-in- 
law, son-in-law. See buruma, 
s. ; hence, 

J/o-naki, v. t., to be related to 
(one) in this relationship : 
buruma ki. E. ham father-in- 
law, son-in-law, A. ham', hamo, 
ham'o, &c, father-in-law or 
kinsman of the husband or 
the wife, Nm. hamou father- 
in law, hamaya mother-in-law, 
H. ham, Assy, emu, father-in- 
law, Samaritan, a son-in-law, 
also, one espoused. " The 
proper signification of the 
word lies in the idea of 

Note.— E. Mai ma = Ef. 
mo, Fila ma, brother-in-law, 

148 [momoa 

vuguna (vungona, nearly pro- 
nounced like vumona = (in 
meaning) Ef. buruma ; in 
Tah. momoa to espouse, to 
contract marriage. 

Moa, d., verbal pron., 1 dual, 
excl., pi. bu. 

Moas, d. for mafasu. 

Mobu, d. m'bua, v. i., to sink : 
bua ii. 

Mofa, s., when the blood of men 
or animals has been shed, and 
forms a pool on the ground, 
one feeling the smell of it, or 
of any similar thing, says i 
naio mofa it smells mofa ; 
taumofa (tau mofa) to make a 
sacrifice or offering to the 
natemate. See taumofa. A. 
ma'haba£ a small pool. 

Mok, s., water flowing from the 

Mokemok, v. i., to flow from the 
eye (of water), to water (of 
the eye) : eg. miu, mou. H. 
mug to flow, flow down, dis- 

Mokot, d., s., tongs : mikit ia. 

J/ola, v. i., to yawn. [Ma. ko- 
whera to open, gape.] H. 
pa'ar to open the mouth with 
a wide gape, S. f'ar, A. 

Mole, d. 6alo, v. i., q.v. 

Mole a, or mole ki, molemole ki,. 
d. mile a, mile ki, q.v. 

Moli na, s., d. batoko na, q.v. 

Moli, v. i., d. mauri, to live ; 

Molien, s., c. art., d. maurien, 

Momoa, or momo, d., v. i., to 
yawn. [Tah. mama to open 
the mouth, Sa. mavava, Fut. 
mava, to yawn, Mg. vava the 

momoa] 149 

mouth, vavana talkative, vava I 
opened, mi vava, v. i., niavava, 
v. t., to open, vavatra spoken.] 
H. peh mouth, A. fah' mouth, 
faha to speak, fawiha to have 
a wide mouth. 

Momoa, v. i., d. for amoamo, 

Monamona, v. i., or a., to be 
yellow. [Ma. pungapunga 
yellow colour, Mg. vony, s., 
yellow, Amboyna poko, d. 
apoo, Ceram poko, yellow, d. 
uninim, My. kilning, id.] A. 
faka'a, n. a. fuku', to be 

Monam, d. monau, s., c. art., 
grass (of any kind). A. nama' 
to grow, namaya vegetation, 
manma', place of (a tree's) 
growth. The word " grass " 
is connected with "grow." 

Mono ti a. See munu ti a. 

Mori, d., a., true, tili mori speak 
true : mori true, used like 
loamau, lesoko, also amori : 
mauri, mau, true. 

Morese na, s., d. borakese na, 

Moro, ad., d. mero, q.v. 

Moru, v. i., to sink, or be 
covered with water, as a canoe 
in the waves ; 

Moru aki, v. t., to sink, over- 
whelm (a canoe), as, nabeau i 
sera moru aki rarua the waves 
rush, sinking, or covering, or 
overwhelming the canoe ; 

Morua, s., c. art., the deep, i.e., 
the deep sea ; 

Moru, s., any deep place, as a 
hole, pit, grave ; hence imrum 
(d. imrau) inside of a house, 
i.e., moru nasuma, or moru 


uma, the hole, i.e., the inside, 
of a house. A. "amara to 
cover (a thing with water), 
"amar' much water, deep (of 
the sea), Nm. to overwhelm, 
drown, "anira deep water, 

Mos ia, for amos ia, q.v. 

Muso, s., the entrance to a har- 
bour; a space or tract of 
country, as that between two 
mountains; pr. n. of the village 
and district on the northern 
end of Deception Island, at the 
boat entrance to Havannah 
Harbour, and in Ro-Moso, 
name of an inland village and 
district. H. mahoz a sea- 
port, coast, Ch. id., also a 
region, A. ha'z' border, side, 
region, hence also a port. 

J/ota, s., c. art., and redup., 

Motamota, id., rubbish, refuse, 
as leaves of trees fallen on the 
ground, &c. [Sa. ota rubbish, 
Ma., Tah., ota, Ha. oka.] And 

J/ota, v. i., or a., to be covered 
with rubbish, dirty. [Sa. 
otaota full of rubbish : a. end- 
ing a.] A. "ota' rubbish, 
refuse, husks, leaves, and scum 
mixed together, "ata' to have 
rubbish mixed with scum (as 
a river). 

Mot ia. See mut ia. 

Mot, s. See mut, s. 

Mot, or motu, s., c. art. namot, 
as nataku namot back of the 
land, or island ; lit. what is 
broken oft", hence a district or 
place. [Sa. motu islet, dis- 
trict, motu to be broken oft", 
ps. motusia, v. t. motusi, s. 
motusaga, v. i. motumotu, s. 


motuniotuga, My. putus to 
break, Mg. rnaito broken 
asunder, snapped, maitoito 
broken in pieces, otosana being 
cut, broken, snapped.] A. 
makta' a place. See the verb 
under koto-fia. 

Mou, moumou. Same as niiu, 

Blu, verbal suf. pron., 2 pl. v you, 
d. kama. 

Mu, v. i., to coo (as a dove), to 
hum — see fu. [Tah. mu, a buzz, 
mumu to make a confused 
noise, as of a multitude of 
persons talking together, Ha. 
mumu, id., Sa. muimui, to 
murmur, Put. mu to buzz, Mg. 
moimoy hum, murmur.] H. 
hamah coo, hum (as a multi- 
tude), A. hamhamah to mur- 
mur, &c.,Nm. to whoop, drone, 
sing lullaby. 

Mu nia, v. t., to take out (a 
thing, as out of a basket;. 
[Mg. voaka, mivoaka, to go out, 
mamoaka to drive out, take 
out.] See under bua in. 

Mua, v. i., to flow out, flow (of 
the tide) ; hence 

Muana, s., c. art., the flood tide, 
as opposite to the ebb ; and 

Mua-goro, s., c. art., dd. fuagoro, 
mkgoro, a spring of fresh 
water on the shore that is 
covered (goro) by the sea at 
high water : bua in. 

Mubu. See mobu. 

Muku ti a, v. t., to cover or en- 
close in leaves (as bananas, to 
ripen them) ; to rub, wipe off; 

Mukumukuen,s.,c. art., the doing 
so. [Fi. moko-ta, to embrace, 

150 [mulu na 

to clasp round with the arms, 
Ma. mukumuku, muku, to 
wipe, rub.] A. liaka to sweep, 
cleanse by sweeping ; to rub ; 
to suri'ound, embrace, enclose. 

il/uli a (mwuli a), v. t., to work 
into a round mass, as dough 
or clay ; to gather rubbish into 
a heap ; to clasp a pig (or 
man) round with the arms ; and 

Mulimul, v. i., or a., round. 
[TaSa. molmol, Ml. P. moro- 
mor, Fi. momocpliqili, My. 
bulat, Mg. boribory, round.] 
This word radically means to 
roll as to roll dough into a 
mass ; to roll rubbish or 
pebbles into a heap ; to roll or 
clasp the arms round one. H. 
'agal i.q. galal to roll, revolve, 
'agol round, and is eg. to gulu 
tia, itc. 

Mulu sia, v. t., to strip off the 
skin, and 

Mulu, v. i., and tamulu, to cast 
the skin (as a snake, a crab, a 
scab, men in myths), redup. 
mulumulu ; and 

Mulu na, s., c. art., the skin 
which is cast ; then, the lower 
rank which a chief casts oft" 
on his being promoted to a 
higher. [Fi. kuli skin, kulu- 
caka to strip off the skin, Mg. 
hoditra skin, manoditra to strip 
off the skin, hedirana being- 
flayed, skinned, Ef. kuli, d. 
uili (wili) and uli, skin, mulu 
si a to skin, mulu, also tamulu, 
to cast the skin, i.e., to be 
skinned, or to skin oneself or 
itself.] A. gild' skin, galada, 
1,2, to skin, to strip off the 


Muluen, s., c. art., act of casting 
the skin ; namulusien, s., the 
act of stripping off the skin. 

Mulua, s., a grove or clump of 
trees : ulua. 

Mumii, a., saving, protecting, 
preserving : inu-ti a, or mau- 
ti a. 

Munu gi a. See minu gi a. 

Munu-nia, d. niunu-gi. 

Munu ti a, v. t., to close up (as 
a wound, a hole in cloth, ifcc.) ; 

Munuai, or munue, s., a sacred 
man (natamole tab) who by 
his natabuen, or magical 
power, closes up, or heals, 
wounds received by men in 
battle : bunu tia. 

Muri n, v. t., d. for mesau na ; 

Murien, s., c. art., d. for mesauen. 

Muri a, v. t. (d. busi a), to 
return (as a thing borrowed), 
to repay, recompense, requite 
(for work done), to return (an 
injury), repay (a person, for 
an injury), redup. murimuri; 

Murien, s., c. art., the act of 
returning, repaying, pay, re- 
quital, recompense, retribution. 

Muri na, s., c. art., the after part 
of a thing (as of a stream, that 
is, the place to which it flows 
and where it ends), opposite to 
namita na the fore part of a 
thing (eye), beginning, source. 
[Fi. muri-a to follow, also to 
imitate, Ma muri rear, hinder 
part, Sa. muli end, back or 
hinder part, rump, mulimuli to 
follow after, To. muli, mui, Ja. 
buri, the back, rear, behind, 
after, My.burit the fundament, 

151 [MUSB 

Mg. vody the posteriors, stern 
(of a ship), voho the back, fodv 
returned, sent back, namody 
to return the thing bought, 
verina returned, sent back, ma- 
merina to return, send back.] 
See also mauri, busi a, bisi na, 
bui na, kui na, kusu na, kiln 
na, fua na, bua na, gere na, 
uri na. A. 'ah'h'ara to be be- 
hind, after, Nm. mo'weh'h'ar 
placed at the end, mouh'ir 
stern, hinder part, 'eh'ir, end, 
'uh'ur' behind, after part, H. 
'aliar to be after, behind, 'aliar 
after, behind, hinder part, ex- 
tremity, 'ahor hinder part, rear, 
meahor from behind, behind ; 
also in Arm. and E. 

Mutasa, d. marasa. 

Muru, v. i., to laugh, muru ki to 
laugh at (one). See bukaru. 
[Motu kiri to laugh.] A. 
kahara to laugh. 

Murubua, s., a bat : moru, bua ; 
from its dwelling in deep 

Musa gi a, v. t., to take on 
board a canoe or ship (men or 
things) ; redup., 

Musamusa ; and 

Musagien, s., c. art., and 

Musamusoen, s., c. art., the act of 
doing so ; and 

Musi a, v. t., to put or drag 
immersed in the water (a 
thing, as a log) ; and 

Musu, v. i., to dive (as a man), 
to set (the sun) ; elo i musu 
the sun sets, or has set. A. 
"amasa dip, submerge, to set 
(as a star), and K amasa dip, 
plunge, dive, and maRasa im- 
merse in water. 





.Musi a, v. t., to remove a child 
(from the breast), wean it ; 

Mus (ki susu), v. i., to be re- 
moved (from the breast). H. 
mus' remove, take away. 

Mus ia, v. t., rub, smooth, natter; 

Musatnus ia, id., redup. : mos ia. 

Musuku taki, v. t, to abhor : 
siki naki. 

J/ut, v. i., to slip or fall out, as a 
rope out of a block. A. ma'ata 
to take a sword out (of its 
sheath), 8, 'amma'ta, id., also, 
to fall out (as hairs). 

Mu-ti a, v. t., d. for mau-tia, to 
save, keep, preserve, protect. 
A. 'amana, 4, render secure, 
protect, give security to (some- 
one). Hence 

Mutien, s., c. art., act of saving. 

Mut ia, and mot ia, v. t., to 
bind : ut ia, ot ia ; and 

Mut, s., c. art., a bond, rope. 
A. makata, 6), bind, mukt' 
bond, rope. 

JVlutui, v. i., to sneeze. [Sa. 
mafatua, to sneeze.] A. 
nafata (cf. 'afata, 2) to sneeze. 

±\| a, ad. of assent, and interj., 
d. syn. ko : dem. na. H. na 
indeed, &c. 

Na, d., dem., this, as mal na 
this time : in. 

Na, sometimes a, also In, nl, 
n, la (in lausu ), the article. 
[Mg. ny, Epi na, Fi. na, a., 
8a. le, the article.] A. al, 
hal, H. ha, A. a (the 1 being 

assimilated to certain letters). 
In Mod. A. al is pronounced 
al or el, and 1'. In South 
Arabia am was (and even still 
is) used for al. A. al (and 
H. ha) is sometimes used as 
a relative pronoun ; so in 
Efate : see nig, agi. 

N', a particle expressive of past 
time, in nanum, nasa, nanoasa. 
[Mg. n', Sa. na, sign of past 

Na, d. n, and na or nia (in si- 
kina, or sikinia), nom. suf. 
pron., 3 sing., his, her, its. 
[Sam. na, sing., Mg. ny, pi. 
and sing., My. nia or na, pi., 
and sing.] See nai, note. 

Na, d. n, verbal suf., pron , 3 
sing., him, her, it. See nia 
and nai, note. 

Nabatl na, s., tooth, teeth; seed, 
also the shoots from the roots 
of a banana, and the shoots or 
roots of taro. [Ml. ribo, Epi 
livo, Sa. nifo (whence nifoa), 
Fut. nifo, Mg. nify teeth.] 
See also bati, beti, bitia or 
fitia. A. nab', pi. nubub', &c, 
tooth, teeth, naba, 2, 4, to put 
forth roots (a plant). 

Nafte, s., d. mbat, club. Nm. 
nabboud and nabbout, id. 

Na6e, or na6ea (nakbe, or 
nakbea), d. nakima, s., a hol- 
lowed log, set up in the middle 
of the malala or mala, used as 
a drum or musical instrument 
in the dances of the intamate, 
and on which the face or other 
symbol of the natemate (the 
deceased) is carved. [Sa. nafa, 
To. nafta, Fut. kafa, a drum, 
Ml. U. nambwi, id.] H. 

xabis] 153 

nekeb a hollowed thing, that 

which is hollowed, used as a 

musical instrument (Ezekiel 

xxviii. 13), English Version, 

"pipes:" "thy tablets and thy 

pipes;" from nakab to hollow 

Nabis, s., end, the last, d. nakis : 

bisi na. 
Na6o, or naioa, d. tamo, v. i., to 

smell ; and 
Na6on, s., smell. [Sa. namu to 

have a bad smell, To. namu 

odour, either good or bad, Fut. 

namu.] See boa,. A. faha, 6, 

to emit odour. 
Nabua, s., a road, path. A. 

nabiyy' and nabiy', id. 
Nafete, d. sefete, d. nefeha, 

d (te)uase (wase), inter, pron., 

what ? which ? M.S. mudi, A. 

mada, Nm. made, what? Na- 

fete is na art., and fete, and 

sefete, se dem., and fete. 
Naga, or nag, dem., this, that : 

na, dem., and ka dem., changed 

to ga. 
Nag, or naga, s., dd. lag, rag, 

nrak, ran, time. A. 'an time, 

and art. al, 1'. 
Nagasa, inter, ad., when? i.e., 

naga sa ? lit. what time? also 

indefinitely, when, whatever 

time. Ml. U. seve-lig = Ef. 

d. sefe-nag = what time 1 = 

naga-sa ? 
Nago, pers. pron., 2 sing., you, 

dd. ago, ag, nigo, keiga, keina, 

Nagore na, s., nostrils, nose. 

See gore na. 
Nai n, d. for nani n, child. See 

nei n and ani. 
Nai, pers. pron., 3 sing., he, 

[nakonakoa ki 

she, dd. cnrji, or inia, ga, 
niga, kinini. [My. iny;i, 
or inia (Ef. inia, sing.), pi. 
and sing., they, he, she.] 
M.S. ani (also enehe, anyaha), 
'ni, na they, those (also enya 
these), also ignorantly used for 
sing, sometimes, S. hanun 
(hanen), anun (anen), they, 
these, verb. suf. enun (enen), 
nom. suf. hun (hen). 

Note. — Nai is na dem., and 
i (for ni); niga is ni dem., and 
ga (for na) ; ga is for na, which 
is nia in inia, and na in nom. 

Nai, s., water, d. for noai, nifai. 

Nai, i.e., n art., and ai s., side 
board of a canoe to keep the 
waves out, a protector or 
defence of a place (a warrior 
who keeps out the enemy) ; d. 
a fence. [Sa. ai a fence, a rail- 
ing, ai to fence in, To. a 
fence, Ha. pa, v. and s.] See 
under baka, s. 

Naita natuo, s., d. for ua-nate- 
natuo the calf of the leg, hence 
nalake naita natuo n the 
ankle, lit. the base of the calf 
of the leg. 

Nakate, s., d. syn. nete, q.v., lit. 
the that that. 

Nakima, s., d. na6ea. 

Nakis, s., d. nabis : kusu na, 
kihi (or kisi) na. 

Nakis, or nakisa, or nakes, s., 
green or blue paint : kesakesa. 

Nako na, s., the face. See ko : 
n. art., and ako ; hence 

Nakonakoa ki, v. (formed by a, 
a. ending, from preceding 
word) to assume the face, or 
appearance of (ki) someone; 




Nakonako ki, v., to face (some- 
one), i.e., front (him). A. 
wagaha, 5, id., to front or 
face each other. 

Nalu, or nalua, an arrow. A. 
nabl' arrow. 

Namu, s, d., mosquito, d. na 
mamamami (d. batirik = 
small tooth). [Sa. mamu, 
Tah. namu, ramu, Fut. namo, 
My. namok, Bu. namok, Mg. 
moka, MI. U. num, TaSa. 
moke, Malo mohe, Ta. kumug, 
An. inyum, Motu namo, id.] 
See mu, v. The n in namu is 
the art., and namu is the 
buzzer or pinger. 

Nanoa na, s., the neck, i.e., n' 
art., and anoa neck, eg. manu 
na, q.v. [Santo d. alo, d. 
ralo, Bu. olong.] A. 'unk', 
'unuk', 'anlk', neck. 

Nfmua, s., necklace, beads, i.e., 
n' art., and anua. H. 'anak 

Nanofa, ad., d., yesterday, and 

Nanoasa, ad., d. nasa, the day 
before yesterday, and 

Nanu, ad., d. nanofa, and 

Nanum, ad., d. nanu, yesterday. 
[Fi. e na noa, Santo nonovi 
(pwanovi to-morrow), Epi 
niobo (bani = maisa = to-day).] 
Nan-ofa, nan-u, nan-um, con- 
sist of ofa, u, urn, day (see 
ma, s., day), and (Fi. e na 
noa, e in or on, na the ; noa 
past day = nu, num, nofa) 
nan', i.e., na the art., and n' 
particle expressive of past 
time, as in nasa, infra. 
Nanoasa (for nanofasa) has sa 
(for rua, sometimes ra, 2) : 
hence na nofa, lit. the past 

day, and na noasa the second 
past day, Nanoasa, nasa. 
[Epi nua, d. niaha, Ta. d. neis, 

Nao, s., d. noa, q.v. 

Naob, s., lime, d. noba, q.v. 

Nara, pers. pron., 3 pi., they (for 
nai 'ra), d. gara, or nigara 
(ga 'ra), d. inira (inia and 'ra). 
See ra, ru, and nai. 

Naro, d. for nalo. See lo a 

Naroa, s., na, art., a cui'rent 
(of water, especially in the 
sea) : so called because i roa 
tui'ns (itself). See roa. 

Nasa, ad., the day before yester- 
day, d. nanoasa : nasa is 
without the article and for 
noasa (in nanoasa). 

Nasafa, inter, pron., also nasefa t 
and nesefa : na, art., and safa, 
or sefa, q.v. 

Nasaga, s., na, art., a stretch of 
sea between two places. See 

Nasu na, na art., s., juice, what 
flows out, or exudes. [Sa. su 
to be wet, sua juice.] A. 
nazza to exude, nizu flow, 

Nata, a person. See ata. Nata 
na, or nate na, soul, spirit ; 

Natamole, a living person, 

Natamate, or natemate, a dead 
person, a ghost, a demon, an 
object of worship. See ata, 
moli, mate, atamole, atamate. 
Natara, s., n art., and atara a., 
a virgin, young woman ; na- 
guruni atara a young woman ; 
and naturiai a young man, bia 
aturiai young men. [My. 
dara, Ja. rara, a maid, virgin.] 




A. 'a(|ara to be a virgin 
('adera' a virgin), 2, to cir- 
cumcise ; to begin to have a 
beard (young man), 'icliir' a 
beard, hence with a. ending 
aturiai bearded, or beginning 
to be bearded, a young man. 

Nate, or natse, s., the banana, 
or plantain, plant and fruit : 
n art., and atS, or fuse. [Ml. 
P. nevij, Ml. U. navits, Ero. 
nobos, Epi vihi, Am. nohos, 
Ml. dd. navis, abus, Paama 
ahisi, Fi. vudi, Ulawa huti, 
Put. vuji, Fila butsh', Aniwa 
hutshi, Niue futi, My. pisang, 
Ceram fudi, phitim, Sanguir 
busa, Mg. ontsy, d. hotsy, id.] 
A. muz', Amh. muz, id. 

Nati-kuru, s., dried, withered 
banana leaves. See kuru, a. 

Natemate, for natamate. See 

Natoara, s., n art., a kind of 
grass (sword grass). H. liasir 
grass, A. li'a.s'ira to be green. 

Naturiai, s., aturiai, a., young 
man. See under natara. 

Nau, s., reeds; Pan's pipes; for 
nausu : na art., and usu, q.v. 

Nau, v. i., usually nu, q.v. 

Nau ia, v. t., to rub, wipe off. 
See nu ea. 

Naiia (nawa), n art., and aiia 
(awa), q.v. 

Ne a, for noi a, v., to dwell, or 
be, beside (someone) : the verb 
no is intransitive, and i is the 
t. prep. [Fi. no to lie (of 
things, not persons), Sa. nofo 
to sit, dwell, remain, Ma., Tah., 
Ha., noho.] H. navah and 
naah, to sit down, to rest, to 

Ne, clem., here, there, this, that, 
uane, kine, netu. See in, na. 
[Sa. nei this.] 

Nei n, or nai n, s., his child, d. 
for nani n. The n of ani, q.v ^ 
is elided : nai for nani. 

Ntgo, pers. pron., d. for nagu, 

Neko (for naiko), s., n art., and 
eko the wooden mallet for 
beating native cloth (in 
making it). [Sa. i'e, To. igi, 
id., Ha. ku, kuku, to beat 
native cloth.] A. waka'a to 
beat, 7), to sharpen, make thin 
a knife, 8), make slender, &c, 
wahi' sharp, thin, slender. To. 
igi means also small, Ef. iki, 
kiki, id. ; and kie also belongs 
here, the leaf being rubbed 
and split into slender threads. 

Neinei a, v., as boka neinei a 
beat it soft, beat making it 
soft (or weak). See maneinei. 

Neru, naru, and nieru, war, lit. 
arms : art., and aru, q.v. 

Net, d. for binet, banotu, q.v. 

Nete, s., a thing, anything, 
something, d. syn. nakate : 
art., and te, dem., lit. the 
that. Nete ra their thing, 
also ara te, id., agu te my 
thing, ama te thy thing. 

Netu, dem., this, that: ne, dem., 
and tu, v., lit. this or that 
standing out or up. 

Netua, d. nerua, s., twins, art. 
andtua, or rua, 2, lit. the two. 
[Fi. drua, icl. ; also double, a., 
as a double canoe, a double 

Neta ki, v. t., to throw, net ia 
to throw upon, hit with a 
thing thrown. A. nada' to 




throw, H. nadah, Pi., to cast 

Ni, prep., of (genitive), to, 
belonging to, also i, in, on, at, 
with art. ani, q.v., t. prep, 
after verbs, as mesau ni au 
<lesire me (also mesau au, d.), 
ri, as soka ri join on to, and 
li, as taka li, d. taka ni, thrust ! 
•on to, also ra in raki, q.v., as 
toko raki remain, or abide for, 
i.e., wait for, or wait upon, 
and i, as in no i, Arc. [Fi. ni, 
1, or e, of, in, t. prep, na, ra, 
raka, laka, Ma. i of, belonging 
to, &c, and t. prep., Battak 
ni, Bu. ri, Holontalo li, Tag. 
ni, Mg. ny, n', any, of, be- 
longing to.] A. li, H., Arm. 
16, E. la, T. nS, id. 

Ni, art., also na, in, n. [Mg. 
ny, id.] 

Ni, same as na, ad., and interj ; 

!Ni, verb, suf., 3 sing., d. nia, 

Nia, verb, suf., 3 sing., same as 
na, q.v., once (in sikinia, and 
sikina, his one, he alone) nom. 
suf. (which usually is na). 
See nai, inia. 

Niba ki, v. t., to throw away, 
make to go away. A. nafa' 
drive away, expel, hurl away 
(as a torrent, rubbish, the 
wind, dust). 

Nifai, s., water, dd. nai, noai : 
ni art., and fai water. 

Nife ni, a., v. t., to fan, t. prep, 
ni, lit. to wave, or brandish, 
on or to ; 

Nifenife, v. i., to fan, to wave 
or brandish, as the branches 
of a tree in the wind ; 

Nife, s., a fan. H. nuf to wave 

up and down, Hi. henlf to 
wave, to shake. 

Nig, d., prep., of (gen.) for 
(dative), ni art., and g (for 
gi), i.e., ki, q.v.), dd. nag, 
nagi, nagki, and, art. with- 
out its n, agi, d. agki (gk 
for k). 

Niga, d., pers. pron., 3 sing. : ni 
art., and ga. 

Nigara, d., pers. pron., 3 pi.: niga, 
and ra. 

Nigita, pers. pron., 1 pi., inch : 

Nikenika, v. i., to be silent, 
quiet, or noiseless, or stealthy ; 
also to move quickly along a 
sharp ridge (of a mountain), 
or along a log across a stream. 
[Ha. nihi to walk very softly 
and quietly, as on tiptoe, to 
do a thing quietly or secretly, 
nihinihi standing up on edge, 
narrow ridged, or edged, Ma. 
ninihi to move stealthily.] A. 
naga' to hasten ; communicate 
a secret, 3, act, or speak, 
secretly (with someone), naga' 
branch of a tree, higher part 
of land, nagwa£ higher part of 
land, a secret. 

Niko na, s., the spine (ridge) of 
a cocoanut leaf. See preced- 
ing word. 

Nin, dem., d., this : n art., and 
in dem. [My. nun that.] 

Ninita, or nininta, d., obsolete, 
for nigita, niginta, pers. pron., 
1 pi., inch, we (and) thou, dd. 
keigita, igira, akit, nikit : art. 
ni, and nita (ni we, ta thou). 
[An. inta, verb, pron., id., 
Santo d. niti, or inti, separate 
pron., id., Ml. d. ante, id., 



the cocoa- 

niu, Er. 

My. nior, 

kula, Ms. 

My. kita, Mg. isika, Sa. 'o i ta 
(tou), id.] 

Niti a, or nit ia, v. t., to plane, 
shave (wood). A. nahata, 
n. a. naht', id. 

Niu, s., c. art. naniu 
nut palm. [Fi. 
noki, An. neaig, 
Ceram niula, Ml. 
nihio, Sa. niu, id. ; niu piu 
fan palm (therefore niu is 
a general name for a palm) ; 
niui to sprinkle with the juice 
of the cocoanut, Ha. niu to 
whirl about.] A. nah'lu palm 
(gen. name), nali'Tlu (coll. 
name), nah'ala to sift, to pour 
out or sprinkle (snow, as the 
clouds), Nm., 7, to drizzle. 

No, contr. n, in bano, ban, 
banotu, &c. [Fi. yani, Sa. 
ane, To. angi, directive ad., 
Mg. any there, in that place.] 
Prep, n (ni), and dem. o. 

No i a, or noi a, d. ne a, noi, d. 
ne : hence redup. noinoi, and 
r. binoinoi, d. binofinoi. See 
ne a. 

Nono, v. i., no (in no ia) redup., 
to abide, as mala nono abide 
senseless. See also binoinoi 
to abide with each other, and 
binofinoi, or bunofunoi. 

Noa ki, v. t., tell, lit. say to, dd. 
ni ki, ti ki, nofa, q.v. ; noa i, 
v. t., say or tell it ; binoa to 
speak about each other. 

Noai, s., d. nifai water ; for na 

Noa, s. (for na ua), d. nao, a 
swell, or wave. See uaua. 

No&a, s., c. art. nano&a, d. naob, 
lime (ashes of coral) ; and 

No&ano&a, v. i., or a., to be 

dusty, become dust, fly in the 
air (dust). See abuobu. [Sa. 
navu lime, Ma. nehu dust, 
nehunehu dusky, whakanehu 
reduce to powder.] 

Noba nia, v. t., to wrap in leaves 
with hot stones and cook, to 
cook, d. tuma nia ; and 

NoAano&a, v. i., to be cooked, 
soft. See also manubunubu,. 
and d. tomo or tumu, tumu- 
tumua, matumutumu. [Ha. 
nopu thoroughly cooked, soft, 
plump, fat, swelled out, and 
nopunopu spring or swell up 
(in the mind), swell, be large, 
round, spring up.] A. taballa, 
n. a. tabh', to cook, roast, to 
ripen, 2, to grow up, 7, 8, to 
be cooked, tubbali' pi. of 
tabih' fatness, tabih' cooked. 

Nobu, s., flood, d. tobu. A. 
tiif to flood (Ct.), tawwafu a 

Nof, d. for num, v. i., q.v. 

Nofa i, v. t., d. noa i, q.v., to 
tell. A. naba', 6), 2, show, 
declare, announce, tell. 

Nono. See ante, no, nono. 

Notlnoti, v. i., or a., to be 
spotted (as an animal). H. 
nakod spotted (as an animal), 
Nm. nokta a spot, monakkat 
spotted, H. nakad, A. nakata, 
to mark with points. 

Notu, d., contraction for banotu, 

Nu, v. i., d. num, q.v., hence 
manua, manunu. 

Nu e a, v. t., to wipe, rub off; 

Nunu ea, id., and 

Nunu, s., a wiper, rubber, and 

Nunu-tafe, s., the wrist, lit. snot- 

anjANUA] 158 

wiper. [Sa. nunu to grate 
down, nuaga a grating down.] 
A. thamma, 4), to sweep (a 
house, or place), 5), to rub, 
wipe off. Of. nu, A. tamma. 
•See num. 

Nuanua, v. i., to wave about, or 
to and fro (as the branches of 
a tree) ; nuanua ki, v. t., to 
wave, make to wave, or shake 
•(anything). H. nu'a to move 
to and fro, wave to and fro, 
Hi. move to and fro, shake. 

Nua na, s., n art., and ua, q.v., 

Nub, s., d. rub, q.v. 

Nubu na, d. tumu na, s., c. art., 
the soft swelling protuberance 
of anything (as of a yam) 
growing. See no&ano&a. 

Nubu, v. i., d. num. 

Nuf, v. i., d. num. 

Nugnug ia, v. t., d. luglug ia, 
q.v. : hence manugnug, q.v. 

Numnum ia, v. t., d. for nugnug 

Nugnug, v. i., to be careless, 
heedless, maturu nugnug to 
sleep and be devoid of all care 
or thought, be utterly heedless. 
A. numa£ heedless, careless, 
nama to sleep, doze, be quiet, 
tranquil, 2, deaden (as pain). 

Num, v. i., to be finished, com- 
pleted, dd. nu, nau, nubu, nuf, 
nof ; ru nau, nu, num, nuf ban 
they all have gone, a bat ia i 
nu I have done it, it is finished. 
See manua, manunu, binunu, 
manubu, manubunubu. A. 
tamma, n. a. turn', &c, to be 
all, whole, finished, completed, 
at an end, and, transitive, to 
complete, &c. 


Nura, s., syn. miura, q.v., for 
ne ura : ura. 


, sign of vocative, interj., as 
temanami o, O our father. 
[Ml., Santo, Malo, o, id.] E. 
o, id. 

O, dem., io, ao, ore, or iore, q.v., 
and in otaki, q.v., also in ko 
dem., and in bo (mo, fo, uo, 
o), q.v. [Fi. o in oqo, Tah. o, 
Mare o, Motu o, dem.] See 
ua. M.S. hau, pronounced o, 
dem., and egg., that is, the 
Semitic pers. pron. 3 sing, 
used as a dem., and as a verb 

O, verbal suf., 1 sing., me, d. 
for au. 

O, v. i., contr. for oni, q.v. ; also 
in bao. 

Ob, s., d., c. art. naob, d. noba, 
lime (ashes of coral) : noba. 

Of, s., dd. urn, ubu, ua, cooking 
oven : ban ia. 

Ofa, in taliofa, dd. taliaba, tali- 
eba. See tali. Ofa to whirl 
round. [Tah. ohu (also = 
kofu, q.v., supra) to whirl 
round, Ma. koumuumu, My. 
ubang, mubclng.] E. kabab 
to whirl round. 

Ofa, i.q., afa to swim, be above, 
float on ; and 

Ofa ia, i.q. afa ia, q.v. 

Of ia, or Ofi a, v. t., to be near 
to, alongside of, d. afi a ; 

Ofiofi, v., a., near to. [To. ofi 
near to, at hand.] A. wahafa 
n. a. wahf, to draw near to, 
approach near. 


[Ulawa ilula, 
lelu, Maklay 
iur, id.l A. 


Ofa ki, v. t., i.q. afa ki ; nalia 
ofakien a place of burial, to 
be buried in, naofakien act of 
burying, burial. 

Ofa, a., high, tall, as a tree. 
[Mg. avo high, lofty, eminent, 
proud.] H. gabah to be high, 
as a tree, gobah height (as of 
trees), pride, gaboah, high, 
lofty, proud. 

Ola, s., a spear. 
New Ireland 
Kiiste (N.G.) 
'alia*', pi. 'alal', 'elaP, id 

Oli a, d. uli a, q.v. 

On, s., sand, d. aran, q.v. 

Oni contr. o, d. ani, q, 

_ abide, be. 

Ore, d. or, ad., yes, that's it : o 
dem., and re, or ri, dem., cf . iore. 

Or, d., s., c. art. naor, or na uor. 
See uoi'a. 

Ora na, s., sprout, shoot, or vine 
(as of a yam) ; 

Oraora na, id. : bora, uora. 

< >ran, and orain, d., s., sand : aran. 

Oraorana, a., na a. ending, varie- 
gated. [Tah. purepure spotted, 
chequered, of diverse colours.] 
E. liubur variegated, of various 
colours, Ch. liabarbar spotted. 

Ore, i.q. aure, q.v. 

Ori a, v. t., to rub, grate, ori, v. i., 
to make a creaking, grating- 
noise (as the branches of trees 
rubbing against each other) ; 

Ori, s., d. kiri, the rubbing stick 
in producing fire by the 
friction of two sticks. [Tah. 
oro, Sa. olo, to rub, olo a plane, 
My. urut, to rub, kukur to rasp, 
Mg. otra rubbed, orina being- 
rubbed.] H. garar to scrape, 
sweep, saw. Cf. the cognates. 

159 [ra 

Oro, v. i., to grunt (a pig), to 
growl, snarl (a dog), and with 
transitive prep, oro-maki to 
hark at (a person or thing), 
bioro, v. r., to make a con- 
fused murmuring noise (as a 
crowd of men all speaking at 
once) ; and 

Orooro, id., redup., cf. uru, uru- 
uru. [Ma. nguru, to sigh, 
grunt, rumble, ngengere to 
growl, ngeri to chaunt (in 
launching a canoe, <fec), 
ngengeri to grunt, My. kurkur 
to grunt (a pig), Mg. erotra 
to snore, erona, mierona, to 
growl, snarl, roar.] A. nah'ara 
Nni. to grunt, h'ara to low, 
ll'arh'ara snort, snore, harra 
to growl, snarl (a dog), to 
creak, harhara£ murmur or 
sound of copiously flowing 

Oro, d., v. i., or a., to be barren: 
d. for bara, q.v. 

Oroa, v. i., or a. Same as ora- 
orana, to be coloured, varie- 
gated : a. ending 'a, d. contr. 
oro ; hence 

Oroa, d. oro, s., a species of 
grasshopper, so called from its 

Otaki, d. uataki, s., native tongs: 
o dem., and taki a. 

Oti a, i.q. moti a, uti a, muti a, 


d. nra, dem., this, that. See 
Ra, s., a depressed place, damp 
or watery : ruku. 


Ra na, s., branch. [Sa. la, Ma. 
ra, My. daan, Mg. rahana, 
rahaka.] A. s'agna^, s'agan', 

Ra, or tra (ta), del. ta, nra, s., 
blood, inita to bleed. [Er. 
de, TaSa. rai, Malo dai, Motu 
rara, Sa. toto (redup.), Ja. ra, 
My. darah, Mg. ra blood.] 
H., E. dam, S. dein, A. dam', 
blood ; damiya to bleed. 

Ra, v. i., vociferate, in rasoso, 
rafioso. H. ru'a, Hi. vocifer- 

Ra, verb, and nom. suf., 3 pi. : 
nara, they. 

Ra, num., two : rua. 

Ra tan ia, rara tan ia, trara tan 
ia, tara tan ia, v. t., to forget, 
lit. to think burying or cover- 
ing it. See mitroa and tun ia. 

Raba na, s., side (of a river or 
valley). A. s'affai' id. 

Rabaraba, v. i., to flap the wings. 
A. rafrafa, id. 

Rabaraba kaf (or kai), v. i., 
to be bent with hunger or 
famine ; and 

Raba, s., hunger or famine, in 
li raba goddess, or she demon 
of hunger (a "sacred stone "). 
H. ra'eb, E. rehaba, to hunger, 
H. ra'ab hunger, famine. 

Rabag, see tabag, 

Rafalu, d. lifaru, q.v. 

Raf ea, v. t., to weave a reed 
fence ; hence 

Rafena, s., a reed (woven) fence, 
d. rofe ; and 

Rafeen, s., c. art., the act of 
weaving a reed fence. H. 
'arab to weave, intertwine, A. 
'araba a knot, H. 'aruball 
interwoven work, or network. 

160 [raite na 

Raf ea, v. t., to go through (as 
through a hole in a fence, the 
eye of a needle) ; and, c. t. prep., 

Rafe aki, v. t., to make to go 
through. A. thakaba, n. a. 
thakb', to perforate, bore 
through, to go through (as 
through the eye of a needle). 

Rafioso, v. i., to call out as when 
in terror or danger : ra v. i. , 
and bioso. 

Rafite na, s., wall or side of a 
house. E. arafete partition, 

Raga-elo, d., v. i., to warm or 
dry oneself in the sun (elo) r 
raga is transposed for gara, as 
baragai for bagarai. 

Rag, s., time, c. nom. suf. ragi 
na its time : d. ran, rani na, 
dd. lag, nag. A. 'an' time, c. 
art. al, 1'. 

Rago, s., c. art., thorns, prickles, 
a mass of thorny or prickly, 
or rough and spiky, or jagged 
matter (as twigs, &c.) ; 

Ragoa, and ragorogoa, v. i., or 
a., to be full of rago, as a reef 
full of jagged, sharp rocks. H. 
sinnah a thorn, seninim thorns, 
prickles, from sanan, i.q. 
s'anan, to be sharp, to prick. 

Rago, s., rollers on which a 
canoe or boat is hauled up. 
Der. uncertain. [Ma. rango, 
id., also a fly, Ef. lango.] 

Rai, d. re, s., forehead, aspect, 
face. [To. lae, My. dai, Ja. 
rai, id.] E. rey sight, aspect ; 

Rairai, d. tairai, v. i., to be in 
good countenance. See baka- 
rairai, and lo, leo. 

Raite na, or reite na, d., s., 
mother. See ani na. 


Kaka, v. i., to be willing, and 
maraka ; also, redup., 

Rakaraka, id., and marakaraka, 
id. ; also, 

Rakana, s., the willingness, 
readiness, tuga fat ia rakana 
sikeimau let us do it, the 
readiness or willingness for it 
one only, i.e., with one mind 
or will. S. regag to desire, 
to will, Ethpael id., rega 
desire, will. 

Rakaf ia, and rakof ia, v. t., to 
cleave to, and 

Rarako, d. tarako, as toa i rarako 
sits on, cleaves close to (her 
eggs). [My. lakap to adhere.] 
S. nliaf, etnakaf, to cleave to, 
eg. E. lakaf. 

Raka ia, v. t., to lift, raise up, 

Raka tia, id. A. rakiya, 2, raise 
up, make to go up. 

Rakei a, v. t., to adorn, dress ; 
turnana rakei a adorn or di*ess 
himself ; and 

Rakei, d. raki, s., c. art., dress, 
adornment. E. sargawa to 
adorn, dress ; this sa- is not 
radical, and the original root 
begins with rag, or raq (Dill- 
maim, E. Gr., §72). 

Raki, double t. prep., ra and ki, 
raki na ; or 

Raki nia, also d. raki te na 
[Fi. raka, Maiwo lagi, Mota 

Raku sa, v. t., redup. raraku sa, 
and taraku sa, and d. taku 
tia, to remove anyone's things, 
as in a flitting ; i raraku he is 
doing so, or is removing to 
another district, or flitting. 
H. 'athak and Hi., to remove 

161 [rasoso 

away, take away, break up a 

Rakua, and, dd., 
Rakum, rakoma, s., a crab : art. 

ra. | Epi lakum, Fi. qumu- 

qumu.] A. h'umh'um' a crab. 
Rales, a place in Hades, lit. dark 

pit, swamp, or depressed place : 

ra, and les. 
Rana, dem. and num., those two: 

ra, 2, and na dem. 
Rana, and redup. rarana, v. i., 

or a., to branch out : ra, and 

a. ending na. 
Ran, rani na. See rag, ragi na. 
Ran, d., s., water : r' art., and 

an. [Fi. drano, Sa. lanu, My. 

danu, J. ranu, Mg. ranu.] A. 

'a'n' fons, and art. al, 1'. 
Rarua, d. raru, s., a canoe, boat, 

or ship : r' art. [My. prahu, 

Ml. ndrav, Segaar rai, Ta. 

laou (laau), An. elcau, Er. 

lo.] A. markab. See borau, 

Ras, d. nras, dem. and num., 

these two : ra, 2, and s, 

Ras ia, v. t., d. tas ia, to shave 

(the beard or chin), shave (or 

strip) off (as fruit from a tree, 

shave or strip the tree). E. 

las'aya to shave. 
Ras, or res, d. tas, redup. reres, 

or teres, v. i., to rustle, crash 

(as the foliage of plants, or 

waves of the sea, moved by 

the wind, or men in a tumult). 

H. ra'as' the primary notion 

lies in noise and crashing : 

used of the rustling of grain 

moved by the wind, ra'as' 

noise, tumult. 
Rasoso, v. i., see rafioso ; rasoso 

RAT IA] 162 

to vociferate, calling (for help) : 
ra, and soso. 

Rat ia, v. t., d. tat ia, d. nrat, to 
loose, untie. See niirati. [Sa. 
tala, tatala, Tah., Ma., tara.J 
H. nathar, Hi. hitir, to loose. 

Rau', and ndau', v. i., d., to go. 
Ct , rawah to go. 

Rau, redup. rarau, v., to grope 
for with the hand, seize, snatch 
out or away. See birife, rifu. 
[Ma. harau grope for with the 
hand, Ha. lalau extend out as 
the hand, Ma. rau catch, lay 
hold of, gather, Ha. lau seize, 
take out of a place, To. lau 
nip, pinch] ; and 

Rau, s., leaves (for food to be 
cooked, and for putting food 
on, as on a plate, when cooked). 
[Mg. ravina, My. dawun, Sa., 
Ma, lau, rau, Fi. drau] ; and 

Rau, s., as rau nasuma eaves of 
a house, rau mita lashes of the 
eyes, eye-lashes ; a tribe, group, 
bi rau in parties, rau a fruit 
that grows in clusters. [Ma. 
rau 100, Ha. lau 400] ; and 

Rau, in bakarau to divide, dis- 
tribute ; and 

Raua, rauraua, a., hairy, as a 
rope, nakasu rauraua a tree 
full of branches. [Mg. ravi- 
ravy hanging over, suspended] ; 

Rau, in barau, i.e., ba to go, and 
rau speak violently and re- 
proachfully. [Sa. lau speak, 
abuse indecently] ; and 

Lau, in launa, a community of 
people living together. [Ha, 
launa friendly, social ; lau to 
spread out, be broad, as a leaf.] 
H. 'araf to pluck, to seize, to 


pull ; A. "araf leaves, "arafa 
to pull out (as hairs), 'arf 
mane of a horse, "urfa£' part 
of collected hair, braid of 
hair, rafu herd or flock, 
warafa to be extended, broad, 
rafa' to sew (from the plucking 
motion), to make peace, con- 
cord, warafa, 2, to part, 
distribute, H. haraf, 3, to 
carp at, scorn, A. rafraf 
sides of a rope, branches of 
trees hanging down, skirt, 
vallance. These words are 
all cognates, the radical part 
being raf, which has the sense 
of " seizing and plucking." 

Rea, s., d. for reko, bisa ki rea 
ki nau speak as a pauper to 
me : reko. 

Rea ki, d. nre a, d. roa i, roi a, 
to twist, wring, strain out 
juice by wringing, rei a, re- 
rei a, or terei a, d. roroi a, to 
moisten the pudding (nakoau) 
with lor (the rich oily juice 
of grated cocoanut). A. ra'a, 

2, to moisten bread with fat, 
ra"a, 2, id., 1, to bend, turn, 

3, wrestle, 5, roll itself (an 
animal), 6, wrestle. 

Rei, s., c. art. nerei, a band of 
men ; a clump of trees. A. 
ra'a to grow, luxuriate, 2, be 
congregated, ri'aZ' a band, a 

Rei, d. rea, d. reko, q.v. 

Rei, d. tei, v., rei natano burrow, 
or cover itself with earth, as 
the white ant (futei, furei) 
does. A. damma, 2), to cover 
its hole with earth, diimna£' 

Reko (see rei, rea, farea), s., a 


pauper, poor. H. rek empty, 
vain, impoverished, poor. 

Reluko (or raluko). See taluko. 

Here, rerea, v. i., to break rush- 
ing upon the sand or shore (of 
waves), also tarere. Ch. re'a' 
to break in pieces, H. ra'a', id. 
S. etra're', id. 

Res, reres, teres. See ras. 

Ri, trans, prep., ra in raki. See 

Ri, verb, pron., 3 pi., dd. ru 
(eru) eu. 

Ria, verb, pron., 3 dual, d. ra. 

Ri a. See tl a. 

Ri, or re, dem., eri, &c. : arai. 

Riu sa, d. tuma ia, to point out. 
See tiu. 

Riu sa, riuriu sa, also tiu, or tu 
sa, q.y. 

Ribu, riribu, to sound (with a 
trumpet), ribu aki baigo sound 
a trumpet, taribu to sound 
trumpets alternately (of two 
men). See rubua. 

Rifalu, d. lifaru, q.v. 

Rifu, d. rife, d. lifu mita, s., eye- 
lashes, and see birife or birifu 
to snatch, pluck away, plun- 
der. [Cf. My. rambiya, rambu, 
rambut, Mg. rombo, rombotra, 
rombitra, rombaka, My. ram- 
pas, rabat.] See rau. 

Rigi, ririgi, or tirigi, v. i., to 
make a tremulous groaning 
noise in suffering pain, birigi- 
rigi. A. ranna vociferate, 
utter the voice with weeping, 
make a noise, twang, tinkle. 

Riki, a., small, kari-riki, uarik, 
batik ; 

Riki, s., c. art. neriki, child, little 
one. [Ha. lii, Tah. rii, Ma. 
riki.] E. dawik to be small. 

163 [roba 

Riki, s., triki, nriki (d.), pud. 

mul. A. rika', id. 
Rikit, v. i., to be small : kita. 
Rikitclag, d. for koroatelagi : 

koro, atelagi. 
Riri, in buariri (Hades), for tiro 

to sink. 
Riri, v. i., to fly, d. for tiri. 
Riri, s., a spark : tiri. 
Riri-mita, s., tears : tuau, tu- 

turu. [To. tulu he mata.] 
Risu, v. i., to move, shift : rosa. 
Ro, ad., again, d. mero. 
Roa i, v. t., to turn. See rea 

ki, re a, mero, ro, meraroa ; 

Roa-leo, and roaroa-leo, s., echo. 
Roa, or roua (rowa), or troua, 

v. i., to fall, dd. ro, rbuo, 

touo, tibe (ndi&e), tao, mitao, 

mitefe. [An. erop, My. ru- 

buh, marubuh, rabah, mara- 

bah, ribah, maribah.] H. 

rafah, S. refo', etrafi, to cast 

down, to sink, or fall down. 
Ro na, rorona, s., thought, mind, 

also trotro na, and d. nro n ; 

Roro, or trotro, v., to think, rara 

(&c.) tan ia, d. totu ; and 
Ro-mi a, roro-mi a, v. t., to think 

upon, delight in, love. See 

Rbuo (rowo), i.q. rau', to go. 
Ro, v. i., to fall, c. prep, ro bei a 

fall upon it. 
Ro5a, s. , affluence ; and 
Ro&a-leba, s., great affluence, a 

rich man. A. raf " affluence. 
Roba gi a. See toba gi a. 
Roba, roroba, or toroba, d. nrob, 

v. i., or a., to be insane, 

senseless. A. raba, 2), to be 

insane, stupefied. 


Robei a, d. oro-bei a, v. t., to 
snarl, snap, bark at or on : ro 
for oro, and t. prep. bei. 

Rfifa, s., a red or purple dye or 
colour. A. sohba£ a red or 
reddish colour. 

Rofarofa, or tofarofa, v. mid., to 
cover oneself with cloth, clothe 
oneself, be clothed. H. 'ataf 
to cover, be covered, be clothed. 
S. 'taf, id. 

Rofe, s., d. for rafena. 

Rogo, rog ia, v. t., d. togi (ndogi), 
d. nrog, also trog ia, to hear, 
obey, to feel, know (as grief or 
pleasure), rogo na&on to per- 
ceive or feel or smell the odour 
(of anything), rorogo, or torogo, 
v. i., to be still, s., a species of 
divination (in order to know 
what is to be done) by a 
certain movement in the 
muscles of the arms or legs, 
rogorogo ki to make heard, 
report, rogoan, rogorogoan, s., 
c. art., report, taki rogo-saki 
bend or incline oneself hear- 
ing (a person), saki t. prep. ; 
bakarogo, q.v. ; marogo, or 
matrogo, or manrog, v. i., to 
be idle, amuse oneself, marogo 
ki to amuse oneself at the ex- 
pense of (someone). [Sa. logo, 
My. dangar, Mg. reny and rea.] 
A. 'adina to hear, to know, 
to feel the smell of, 2, cause 
to heai', make known, pro- 
claim, H. 'azan, Hi. he'zin to 
hear, listen, to obey. 

Rogo, trogo, in sera-trogo, s., any- 
thing : rogo is r, art., and A. 
hano a thing. [Santo sonu, 
TaSa. kinao, Ml. nanu, a 

164 [rua 

Roko, v. i., d. lako, d. nrok, to 

Ror, s., oil, also same as lor, the 
oily or fatty expressed juice 
of grated cocoanut used to 
moisten or fatten puddings : 
ro ia, roro ia, rei a. 

Roro na. See ro na. 

Roro ia. See ro ia, rei a. 

Roroa, v. i. See toroa. 

Roro-fi a. See toro-fi a. 

Rosa gi a, v. t., to drag, haul, 
make to move, shift, t. prep, 
gi ; and 

Rosa, v. i., to move, shift, trosa, 
dd. nros, nrus, tosa, also rusa, 
risu ; and 

Ros, s., c. art., a breaker or 
wave that sweeps up upon 
the sand of the shore. [Sa. 
toso, tosotoso, to drag.] A. 
ra'asa to move, shake, drag, 4, 
id., ra'asa, ra'as'a, to tremble. 

Rot ia, or trot ia, v. i., to em- 
brace clasping to the breast, 
to embrace or encircle. [Mg. 
trotro to embrace, to embosom.] 
A. Sadara, 2, to girth (a camel), 
Sadr', Nm, sadr, the breast 
(bosom), My. d - ada,Mg.tratra, 
An. riti, Fi. sere. Hence 

Rot, s., anything going round 
another as a band or girdle 
(as an ulcer round one's leg, 
ifcc.) ; and 

Rot ia, as ta rot ia, ta rotirot ia, 
or rutirut ia, cut a band or 
girdle round (as in barking a 

Ru, verb, pron., 3 pi., they : 
eru, d. ri. E. 'ellu those. 

Rii sa. See riu sa, tu sa, tiu sa. 

Rua, num., two. See also tua, 
ra (and sa, in uasa), d. nru. 


[Sa. lua, My. clua, Ja. roro, 
Mg. roa.] H. s'ne, &c, Mahri 
tharo, Soc. tarawah, M.S. 

Rub, s., d. roba, d. nub, d. 
raba, s., q.v. 

Ru&a, s., additional wife taken 
by a man already married. 
• TaSa. narau a wife, Mg. 
rafy one of two or more wives 
of the same husband ; ad- 
versary, opponent ; rafitra 
joining together, contention, 
strife.] See rau. A. rafa' to 
join, sew together, make peace, 
2, to utter a formula of bless- 
ing or prayer to a new spouse, 
rafa', 2, id. (" May est thou 
live with concord and with 

Ruiaki, s., a big flat nakoau. A. 
ra"if, round thin cake baked 
on the hearth. 

Rubua, d. rufua, s., clamour ; 
noise, tumult (as of mourners 
in wailing). S. rhab make a 
noise, uproar, tumult, utter 
lamentations (Mark v. 38, 39), 
eg. H. ra'am, v., to make a 
noise, thunder, s., uproar, 
clamour, tumult. 

Ruku, s., a hole, cf. ra ; edible 
clay found in holes, syn. tano 
ra ; a bribe secretly given, or 
given underhand to procure 
the death of one hated, nafaka- 
ruku hollow or hole under 
anything, as a cellar under a 
house, si ruku to go under 
(through the hole or hollow 
under) anything ; and 

Rukua, d., s., a hole, pit, a hole 
or hollow with water in it, cf. 
ra. A. raka' to dig (the 

165 [sa 

ground) ; to revile (someone), 
rakiyyatf a pit, rika' pud. mul. 

Rum a na, s., c. art. nam ma na ; 
n art., and ruma, or aruma, 
and kuruma (in lita-kuruma, 
q.v., the breast, bosom.) [Sa., 
Ha., uma, Motu geme, id.] 
A. ha'zum' the breast, bosom. 

Ruma, dd. bara, oro, v. i., or a., 
to be barren. H. 'arab, E. 

Ruma, and tiima, s., a pool of 
water, d. transposed marou. 
A. 'arlm' a hole, trench, or 
hollow in which water is col- 

Ru-mi a, ruru-mi a, v. t., same 
as ro-mi a, also trutru-mi, tru- 
mi : mitroa. Hence 

Rumien, s., c. art., and rum- 
mien, thought about, love. 

Ruru, redup. of ru, riu sa. See 
tiu, tu sa. 

Ruru, v. i., to tremble. 

Ruru, s., c. art., an earthquake. 
[Tab. ruru, to tremble.] S. 
r'el to tremble. 

Ruru, s., a cluster. [Tah. ruru 
to congregate.] See rei. 

Rusa, see rosa ; rusa gi, see rosa gi ; 

Rusarusa gi, redup., d. nrus, 
nrusa gi. 

Rutirut ia. See rot ia. 

Rumo, d. ruma, pool. 


kja, interrogative, contr. of safa, 
sefa : s. dem., and a (fa). 

Sa, or se, or s, dem., this, here. 
H. zeh, E. ze. 

Sa, d. for ta, neg. ad., only in 
prohibitive clauses. 


Sa, si, s. num., one, in gis (or 

gisa), sam, mas, latesa, sikei, 

Sa, s' (and see si), verbal suf., ?> 

sing., with particle s, as in si, 

q.v., him, her, it, d. a, as ti ki 

nia sa say to him it, d. ti ki 

nia a, id. : sa is s, t. prep., and 

a, verb, suf., 3 sing. 
Sa, s., d. ta, d. seat, q.v. 
Sa, caus. pref. See sarafi, sabera, 

sagalugalu, sagara, sigiri. [My. 

sa, Tah. ta.] H. sha, Arm. 

sa (Shaphel, Saphel). 
Sa, v. i., or a., to be bad, evil, 

sasa, intensive. [Fut. sa, My. 

jahat, Pi. ca, Malo sat, Ta. ra, 

Mg. ratsy.] A. sa' to be bad, 

evil. Hence 
San, s., c. art., the being evil ; 

also the being ill, sickness, 

misfortune, misery ; and 
Sasana, v. i., or a., to be ill, have 

a disease : -na, a. ending, and 

sa redup. 
Sabe, inter, ad., where ? sa, and 

Sabe li a, v. t., to bind, tie, d. 

tami sia. H. samam, eg. A. 

zamma, &c, to bind. 
Sabe li a, v. t., to beat, slap. 

[My. tampar, Ja. tampel, Fi. 

saba-laka.] A. safa 'a to beat, 

Saberi-ki, v. t., to scatter, break 

asunder or to pieces, scatter- 
ing, d. sabura ki. 
Saberik, v. i., to be broken to 

pieces, fallen or parted asunder. 

[My. sibarkan, sabar.] See 

bera, tabera. H. s'abar to 

break to pieces : Gesenius 

compares parar. 
Sa&o, v. i., or a., ignorant, to be 

166 [safari 

ignorant, sasa6o to be ignorant, 
to not know (his way), sabo- 
naki, v. t., to be ignorant of 
or about, dd. sub neki, sbuni ; 
see also tasabo ; nasa6o (for 
nata sa&o) a stranger (not 
knowing the place), meta-sa/;o, 
id. A. safoha to be ignorant, 
6, id. 

Safa, sefa, or sofa, v. L, to pant, 
redup. sofasofa to hasten, to 
run ; 

Sufa, s., consumption, hard 
breathing. [Mg. sefosefo, 
sevosevo, sevoka, in haste, 
bustling, to hasten.] H. 
s'a'af to breathe hard, pant ; 
to hasten. 

Safa, sefa, sefe, inter, pron., 
what 1 c. art. insefa, nasafa, 
what 1 Without the art. it is 
used adjectively as sefe 
nakasu what tree or wood ? 
With the art. it is used sub- 
stantively, as i tili nasafa 
what does he say? Safa, is 
sa, derm, and fa, inter, pron. 
what 1 Compare nefe-te. H. 
mah, A. ma, Himyaritic ba, 

Safana, c. art. nasafana, what 
that, what (is) there ; safa, 
and na, dem. : contr. sana. 
[My. apa, mana, Sa. o le a (a 
as in Ef. sa), se a, le fea, se 
fea, Fut. tah a, tefe, tehe ; 
rufe (dual), takafe (trial), efa 
(plural), Ta. nufe, nufena, &c, 
Epi ava-kai, vai, Malo sava, 
savana, An. inhe, Santo nine, 
Mg. ino, inona.] 

Safaki, pr. n. Ma safaki, name 
given to a man who had 
buried a relative ; a sea 


animal, so called from burying 
itself in the sand : afa ki. 

Saf ia, or safi a, v. t., to pluck 
or gather fruit ; to scrape, safi- 
safi natano (with a hoe), sati- 
safi-raki scrape, pluck off the 
husk from (reeds), safi-nauot 
to excel ; the chief ; safisafi 
big, so bisab ; bisif excelling ; 
misafe to be separated (as 
fruit from a tree). See also 
sifa, sift [Fi. sivi-a, uasivi, 
excel.] H. 'asaf gather (as 
fruits), assemble, draw back, 
take, take away (as breath) ; 
radical meaning to scrape, 
yasaf to add, to increase, to 

Saga, or sega, s., a crotch, fork 
(as made by two branches). 
[Fi. saga] ; and see nasaga ; 

Saga-fi, v. t., to take hold of 
with a crotch or forked stick. 
[Fi. saga-va take hold of with 
with tongs.] See sega. A. 
s'akka, 2, 5, to be sundered, 
split (wood), s'ikka£ half of a 
thing, part, distance. 

Sag, ad., d., there. [My. sana.] 
Sa, and g, dem. 

Sagalugalu, d. syn. galugalua : 

Sagara, sa, v. t., to rub, grate, 
ground on, as a canoe or ship 
on a reef. [Ha. ili.] Gar ia, 
and sa-. 

Sago, s., a trumpet (conch). H. 
thaka', E. takwa to blow a 

Sai, v. i., to come forth, go forth 
into the open (as men), saisai 
to assemble, sai to shoot forth 
(of a plant), buka sai (of a 
blossom expanding into a 

167 [saki 

flower), sesai shoot forth (as a 
serpent), misai to be opened, 
cracked ; 

Sai ki, v. t., make to go forth or 
out (as the tongue, hand, any- 
thing) ; 

Sai a, v. t., to cleave, split, 
open it (as a secret, &c), tili 
sai a tell it out, Ac. ; 

Saisai, v. i., assemble (come 
forth of many) ; also to be 
associated together, or have 
in common, ru saisai isa, 
saisai ki make to assemble ; 
so or soa a follower, com- 
panion, associate ; si to blow 
(with the breath), to shoot 
(with a gun), si to blow (the 
wind), d. sui, or si a to rest, 
or spell (one), to help ; esei in 
the open, an open space ; bisai 
ki to put forth, to show ; 

Sai, s., c. art. nesai, a scented, 
white-leaved plant. A. s'a'a 
(y) to become open, be di- 
vulged ; c. prep, bi to make 
open, divulge ; to leave un- 
divided ; to follow, 2, to roast ; 
to blow (with the breath), 3, 
follow each other ; to aid, 4, 
make open, s'ai' associate, 
follower, s'aya' common (to 
many, see saisai), s'ai' com- 
mon (to many), not distri- 
buted ; made open, open ; s'I'a£ 
a band, assembly, s'ayu' a fire- 

Saka-fe, s., first ripe fruits or 
yams. [Ha. oo mua.] See 
maso, and bea. 

Sakau, s., a reef ; d. a branch. 
See kasau. [Fi. cakau, Sa. 

Saki, v. i., to ascend, go up, 


bisaki a, v. c, to put up, to 
appoint (raise up) a chief ; 
sakesake to be up, to sit upon, 
tasaki, id., sakei ki to shout a 
person's name, attributing 
something (to him). [Sa. a'i, 
Ha. ae, To. hake, Ma. eke, 
whakaeke.] H. nasak, Arm. 
nsak, imp., sak, id. 

Saki, t. prep, sa, and ki. [Sa. 
sa'i, Fi. caka, My. skan.] 

Sala, s. See sela. 

Sali, v. i., to move lightly, easily, 
to dance, to float, drift ; sali 
aki, v. t., to send afloat (a 
canoe, or anything), to send 
adrift, misal, misalsal, d. salsal, 
light (not heavy), moving 
easily, lightly. H. 'azal to go 
quickly (spin along), A. 'azala. 

Sali a, v. t., to weave. [My. 
saring,] H. 'azal, S. 'zal, A. 
"azala to spin, weave. 

Sali a, v. t., to deceive; and re- 

Salisali, to deceive. H. s'alah, 
Hi. to deceive. 

Salube, d. saluke, v. i., to be 
ignorant, not to know. A. 
sarafa, 3), to be ignorant, not 
to know. 

Sam, a., or ad., one alone, only : 
sa 1, and m for mau. 

Samben, d., ad., there : san (sag), 
and ben, v. i. 

Sama ia, v. t., to rasp, scranch 
(sugar cane, in sucking its 
juice). [Ml. U. tsumwi, Ml. 
P. jimue, Malo samai] ; hence 

Sama na, s., dregs, shreds, as of 
sugar cane with the juice 
extracted, sawdust, «fcc. ; hence 

Sama, v. i., or a., dreggy, 
shreddy: -a ending. H. s'afah 

168 [sarafi 

to scratch, scrape, scrape off, 
S. s'fa' to file, s'ofltha a filing, 
paring : H. Pual to become 
bald, bare, naked, exposed (as 
one's bones). See infra, sema, 

Samit ia, also samat ia, d. sumat 
ia, v. t., to beat, chastise. 
[Fi. samu-ta, My. chamiti, 
chamati, a whip or scourge.] 
H. s'amas to thrust, to hasten 
(see infra, sumati), s'amat to 
smite, strike, A. s'amasa to 
impel, thrust, s'amisa to hasten, 
speak hastily, s'amat, Nm., to 

Samura, s., a thing or word of 
no consequence, that falls to 
. pieces, as it were : for sabura, 

San, ad., there, here, esan, also 
esanien. [My. sana.] Esanien 
is esan there or here, and ien 
it is. See am, v. i. 

Sante, s., d. seate na, q.v. 

Sao fi, v. t., to look upon, see, d. 
sa fi, sao kiana look about (in) 
his place or plantation. H. 
s'a'ah, and s'a'ah to look, to 
look about. 

Sar ia, or sari a, v. t., to saw, 
also seri a to cut with a sawing 
motion, sara a saw. [Malo 
sarosaro to saw, isaro a saw, 
Fut. seria to saw.] H. nas'ar, 
Arm. nsar to saw, A. nas'ara, 
was'ara', as'ara, E. was'ar, 
wasar, H. sur, to saw, rub, 
sweep, &c. 

Sara gote fi, to saw asunder. See 
sera, seru, seri, sore, soro, 
sar ia. 

Sarafi, used as ad.; bat sarafi a 
did it hastily, i.e., badly, con- 




fusedly, incompletely. See 
marafi, and cf. tere ti, su- 

Saria, v. i., to look around ; saria 
kiana look about, or go about, 
(in) his plantation. [Fi. sara- 
sai'a, v. i., to survey, sara-va, 
v. t.] H. s'ur (2) to look 
around or about, (1) to go 

Saru, v. i., to hang down pros- 
trated (as the broken branch 
of a tree, or a broken arm), 
misarn, id. A. Sara 'a to 
prostrate, sari' prostrated. 

Saru, v. i., to be loud, noisy, 
speak aloud, saru goro speak 
aloud or be noisy, drowning 
the voice (of someone) ; and 

Saruru, v. i., to roar, resound 
(as the sea, or a waterfall.) 
[My. daru, Ja. saru, sru.] A. 
Sarra, Sarir' to make a noise ; 
to sound, to cry out vehe- 
mently, make a great clamour. 

Sas, esas, ad., here : sa, dem. 

Sasana. See sa. 

Sati na, s., the shrivelled and 
worthless seed yam when the 
new yam has sucked all the 
substance out of it : sa. 

Sau-fi, v. t., to scoop, or shave, 
the surface oft' water ; to cut 
or shave off the surface of 
wood, sau-baba, an adze, lit. 
plank shaver or cutter — see 
mataisau a master cutter, 
carpenter ; to strip off", peel 
off (as clothes) sau lua i. 
[Sa. mataisau, saufono, Ma. 
hau, Tah., Ha., hauhau.] H. 
s'a'ab to draw water. The 
primary idea lies in taking off 

the surface, eg. sahaf to 
sweep, scrape off, hasaf to 
strip oft', A. saliafa to scrape, 
peel, or rub off, to shave. 

Sau, v. i., to blow (wind) ; 

Sau, s., c. art. insau, gentle 
breeze, cold air, as in the 
morning and evening, dew. 
[Ha., Ma., Tah., hau, Sa. sau.] 
H. nas'af to blow, nes'ef the 
evening twilight, when a 
colder gale blows; the morning 

Sau, v., to desire, mesau na, v. t., 
desire, tumana sau ki nia to 
boast, speak well of himself, 
praise himself (lit. desires 
himself), sau roa i to mock 
such a one by pretending 
maliciously to join with him 
in such boasting, insau a gift, 
sau toga, id., a free gift, hence, 
as ad., for nothing ; sau uia. 
[Fi. sau vinaka] liberal in 
giving, sau sa [Fi. sau ca] 
stingy, sau mitaki, d., syn. 
sau uia ; sau sera greedy 
(desiring everything). A. 
s'aha' to desire, 2, to say I 
will give what you desire, 3, 
to be like (someone), 4, to 
give to one what he desires, 
5, 8, to desire (a thing). 

Sautoga, s. See preceding word. 

Sau-taki, v. t., to place upon, as 
food upon food already in the 
oven, or as a speech upon a 
speech by another previously 
spoken ; 

Sau roa ki, or sau rouo ki, v. t., 
to place (their voices) with 
accuracy together, as giving a 
shout all together : sau, and 
rouo or roa ki to cast down, 


or make to fall. H. sura (sam) 
to put, to set, to place. 

Sftua ia, v. t., to fix (as upon a 
shelf, in a fork of a tree, &c. ) 
See soa ki (for saua ki) ; 

Saua ia, v. t., to shoot with an 
arrow called saua ; 

Saua (sawa), s., a pronged arrow 
(which adheres tenaciously). 
A. nas'aba to stick, inhere, 
be fixed tenaciously, 2, make a 
thing be so, 4, id., nos's'aba^ 
an arrow, Nra. nas'ab, 2, to 
shoot, squirt, fie, into. 

Se, or s, dem., this, here. See sa. 
S6 is the common form. 

Se, inter, ad., where 1 See sa, 

Se a. See so ia. 

Sea, sesea, or seasea (redup.), v., 
to forget, be forgetful, sesea 
gor ia forget him. See maga- 
seasea. A. saha to forget, be 

Seara, d., some, a few. S. z'ura 
small, pi. z'ure' a few (Gen. 
xxix. 20.) 

Seatg, s., a firestick (by which 
the fire can be rekindled), dd. 
sante, ta, sa. See sai. 

Sefa, sefe, or sift. See safa what 1 ? 
This inter, is sometimes used 
indefinitely in the sense of 
whatever, however, as a belake 
namanuka sifi naga I have 
received, or I carry, a wound 
however now (or here), fatu 
sefa a stone however, or what- 
soever. A. ma qualiscunque. 

Sega, s., or saga, q.v., a crotch, 

Sega, s., a part ; it takes the 
nominal suf., as segamu a part 
of you, segara a part of them 

170 [sela Tr 

or some of them, any part of 
them, one or more of them. 
See saga. 

Sei, d. fei, inter, pron., sing., who? 
pi. se mai, d. se mani, d. kihe 
(for kise) maga. [Sa. 'o ai, 
Tah. o vai. Ma. a wai (pi. a 
wai ma), To. ko hai, a hai, Er. 
me, Ta. ba (pi. niba min), Epi 
kei, d. sie, Malo isei, My. 
siapa, siyapa, sapa, mana, 
Mg. zovy, iza.] H. mi who? 
Note. — Sei is for sefei : se 

Seka, v. i., to sit ; seka ki to sit 
about, or on (someone, or 
thing, consult about it or him) ; 
biseka, v. r., to sit with some- 
one, or with each other. H. 
s'akan (A. sakana, H. sakan), 
s'aken to set oneself down, to 
lie down, to rest, to abide, 

Sek e a, ske a, v. t., to raise up, 
set upright : saki. 

Seke-mau, v. i., to swear, s6ke, 
and mau true : a man who 
swore, as in denying a charge, 
often tore off" his loin cloth, 
and imprecated all kinds of 
calamities upon himself if he 
were not speaking the truth. 
A. sahaga to peel, scratch, 
comb the hair, sahug' fre- 
quently and rapidly swearing. 

Sekof ia, v. t., to catch rapidly 
with the hand (a thing 
thrown). A. zakafa to take 
rapidly, snatch, 8, to take with 
the hand, snatch quickly. 

Sela ti, v. t., to bear, carry ; d. 
sola ti ; selasela (of many) ; 
sela bear (a child), bisela v. r., 
to bear, bring forth, nafiselan 


child-bearing, childbirth, d. 
bisol. [Fi. cola-ta.] E. sawar 
to bear, carry. 

Sela gisa na, v. t., to call his 
name (so and so) ; sela ki, 
v. t., attribute to (one, some- 
thing) ; sela go, as sela tera 
ki go after (one), sela butuaki 
go between two points, be of 
two minds ; 

Sela, s., road, path ; landing- 
place of canoe ; a portion of 
time (cf. mal place, time). 
[My. salekan to call, saleh 
proceed, saleh a road.] A. 
s'ala' to proceed, 4, to call. 

Sel ia, v. t., to bind. [Fi. soli-a.] 
H. 'asar to bind, S. 'sar. 

Sel sa, to be unable, selu bia be 
able, sele atai naio na be able 
to know his mind, d. for sili 
atai na6o na, lit. to know 
(how) to enter his mind, i.e., to 
understand his secret views : 

Seloa, s., a flat wooden dish. 
[Mg. soliaka, flat, as a dish.] 
H. selalia, pi., pans, such as 
were flat and broad, not deep, 
A. zuluh' large pans, E. sahl, 

Sema, sesema, v. i., to be bare, 
sticking out (as one's bones), 
or as the point of an auger or 
piercing instrument : sama ia. 

Semasema, v. i., to rejoice. H. 
samah to rejoice. 

Sema ni, v. t., to praise, glorify. 
S. s'abah, Pa., to praise, glorify, 

Semanien, s., c. art., praise, glory, 
also act of praising. 

Samasamana, or semasemana, 
v. i., or a., disgusting : -na, a. 
ending. A. zahuma, H. zaham, 

[sera ia 

to stink, become rancid, filthy, 

Semam, e., paternal aunt, ana 
semam his aunt : susu, mam. 

Semen, or saman, s., the out- 
rigger of a canoe, or, more 
accurately, the part of the 
outrigger, shaped exactly like 
a canoe, which floats in the 
water. [An. jmaig, i.e. jimaig, 
Ta. timen, TaSa. tsama, Fi. 
cama, cama kau a canoe whose 
outrigger is only a stick (kau), 
in distinction from a double 
canoe ; To. hama the smaller 
canoe of a double canoe, My. 
sampan a small boat, Mg. 
sambo a ship.] A. safinaf, 
safln', H., S., sefina, ship, 

Note. — The Tongan hama 
suggests that the semen or 
saman was originally not a 
mere log fashioned into the 
shape of a canoe, but a real 
canoe, and that the outrigger 
canoe of Oceania is a degen- 
erate form of the " double 

Semani, s., the rudder, or steer- 
ing oar of a canoe, d. uose- 
man. [Paama seman, TaSa. 
lamani.] Se in semani is 
contr. for uose, q.v., oar, and 
mani is manu, a bird, a figure 
of which (a bird) was carved 
on the stern of the canoe 
where the steering oar is held 
firmly in steering : hence the 
rudder was called uose-man 
the oar of the bird. 

Sera ia, v. t., to bind, fasten on, 
as the handle of a basket on 
a hook, sera ki, id., sera-goro- 




bau a hat, lit. fasten upon the 
head. H. s'arar to twist, be 
firm; S. s'rar to be firm, s'arar 
to make firm, stable, Aph. 
'as'ar to firmly believe. Hence 

Sera loaman, seralesoko, believe 
true ; 

Sera lo&alo, sera teamole, believe 
worthless, despise ; 

Sera tea sa, sera tea uia, believe 
bad, believe good ; 

Sera masika, make firm desire ; 

Sera sog, make firm sog, q.v. ; 

Sera gor ia, make firm upon, or 

Sera ia, v. t., to sweep (as a 
house), tea sesera, a sweeper, 
broom ; 

Sera, v. i., to run (water, stream, 
which sweeps its bed). See 
under sar ia, saw, rub, sweep, 
&c. Hence 

Sera guru-maki, v. t., sweep 
gathering together ; and 

Sera kuruk, v. mid., id. ; and 

Sera taua ki, v. t., sweep into 
heaps ; and 

Sera lo tua, v. t., sweep things 
giving (them) to (someone), 
used of men telling an evil 
doer of his misconduct and its 
consequences. Hence 

Seralotu, v. mid., to repent ; and 

Sera tua, v. t., to sweep (to- 
gether things] giving (them) 
to (someone), as a peace offer- 
ing ; and 

Sera biri ki. syn. gura biri ki, 
to startle ; and 

Sera makoto ki, id. See sar ia. 

Sera gisa na, d. for sela gisa na ; 

Sera usi, v. t., to call (pronounce) 
after (one, as in learning to 
read) : sela, and usi. 

Sera lua, v. t., to remove (cloth- 
ing, &c, from one ; also cere- 
monial uncleanness, sera lua 
namam), make to go out, or 
away. A. sar a, 2, remove, 
make to go ; sar', and sair', the 
whole, every, part, some, any. 

Sera, any, some ; sera-rogo, sera 
nalo, something, anything ; 
every, sera natamole every 
man; the whole, all (with 
nom. suf.) sera ra, serasera ra, 
the whole, all, of them, every 
of them, sera bakauti era 
every of them all ; every 
(kind), sau-sera greedy, ba 
sera going every (where), a 
vagabond ; also, d., i nuf sera 
it is finished all [Fi. sara, 
ad.] ; bisera, biserasera of 
every kind (i bisera, i.e., i bi 
sera it is (in) every (kind, or 

Sera ia, v. t., to rend asunder, as 
the two branches of a forked 
stick ; misera rent asunder. 
A. sara, 3), wrench asunder. 

Sera, or sere ia, or serei a, v. t., 
to importune, entreat. A. 
nazara to ask importunately, 
to entreat pressingly. 

Serab, v. i., to flow out (as of a 
vessel, run over). A. sariba 
to flow (of water), sarab' 
flowing out. 

Sere ra, v. t., dwell among, near 
them, bisere to be among, 
near, bakasere a, and masere, 
q.v. A. 'asara, 3, to be near, 
6, to be near to each other, 
'isr' love, &c. 

Seri, v., to be unable to do a 
thing (from old age and infirm- 


ity) ; seri nalo forsake, leave, 
abandon a thing - , bakaseri a, 
to loose (a prohibition, or 
tabu). [Fi. sere-ka untie, un- 
loose.] H. s'arah, Ch. sera, to 
loose, Pi. s'ereh to loose, to 
desert, leave. 

Seri a, v. t., to speak of, decide, 
consult about ; make a sign, 
show. A. s'ara, 2, 3, &c, 
make a sign, show, consult. 

Seri a, v. t., to strain ; sari is 
strain with it, nakalu sari 
straining cloth. S. slal (sal) 
to strain. 

Seri a, v. t., to hollow out (as a 
canoe). H. sur to hollow out. 
See sar ia. 

Seri, v., as seri taku-ra, to cover 
their back, seri namaseri, or 
namiseri, put on the miseri, q.v. 

Seri a, seri goto. See sar ia. 

Seritau, s., the cutter-up of a 
human body for the oven, 
Seritau, or Saritau, or Sara, 
pr. n. of a demon who is lord 
over the entrance to Hades, 
and whose helpers are Mase- 
asi, Faus, and Maki. See sar 
ia, and tau. 

Sere, as nakasu i tuba sere 
nakalu the stick thrust tear- 
ing the cloth, masere torn : 
sar ia. 

Sereserea, or seriseria, v. i., or 
a., to be hairy, hirsute ; a. 
ending a. A. s'a'ira to be hairy. 

Sesere, d., rub, grate. Same as 

Sera mimi, d., syn. sera bakauti; 

Serume (sera 'me) : sera, and me, 
or mimi, contr. of mau, mamau. 

Seru ea, v. t., rub, wash (clothes, 

173 [siel 

<fcc), seseru, rub (as oil on the 
head). Same as sesere, sesera: 
sar ia. 

Seru, s., a comb. [Fi. seru, Sa. 
selu, My. sisir, syn. garu.] 
Sar ia. 

Ses, d., to be small : sos. 

Si, v. See su finished off. 

Si a, v. t., scrape, cut (si nabora 
na scrape the cheeks with a 
shell removing the skin) ; sisi 
a, reclup. A. saha', n. a. sahy', 
scrape off, with the notion of 
cutting. Nin. also to harrow 
(the ground). 

Si, sisi, to blow (wind, breath) ; 
si a, v. t., to blow (a thing, as 
the fire), to shoot (with a 
gun) ; si-ruku : sai. 

Si a, d. sui a, to help : sai. 

Si, particle after verbs (t. prep.), 
as libi si ; sa in saki, as rogo- 
saki. [Sa. si, Fi. ca, My. s, Mg. 
zi.] Assy, sa, prep., originally 
dem., Mahri sh', prep. 

Siba ia, d. suba ia, v. t., to break 
(as a yam), redup. sisiba 
and sibasiba ia ; masiba, ma- 
sibasiba to be broken, na 
masiba a fragment. [Fi. 
sove, kasove, Mg. somba, 
simba.] Ch. s'ibeb to break 
in pieces, s'iba a fragment. 

Sibu na, s., feathers (short) on 
a bird's back. A. ziffu small 
feathers (of a bird). 

Sieg, v.i., to hang on the waist 
cloth (of a woman) ; and 

Sieg, s., c. art. nasieg, a woman's 
waist cloth. A. was's'aha, v., 
id., wus'ah', s., id. 

Siel, a., red. [My. serah.] A. 
s'ahila to be of a dark reddish 
(&c.) colour. 

sifa] 174 

Sifa, v. i., to depart, withdraw; 
sifa ki, v. t., make to depart, 
toss, throw away, sifesife, 
redup. ; sifa, v. i., to assemble. 
See safi. 

Slfanua, s., a cannon, lit. shoot 
the land : si fanua. 

Sifili, and sifili ki, d., transposed 
for sili fi, sili fiki. 

Sifiri, s., parrot. A. safara to 

Sig, v., redup. sigsig, v., to be 
rebellious, disobedient; sigsig- 
leo (leo thing, or voice) to be 
disobedient, to sin, sigsigleo ki 
to be disobedient to (one), 
nasigsigleoen disobedience, sin, 
bisig, v. r., to be disobedient 
to someone or to each other. 
[Mg. odina rebellious, miodina 
to rebel.] A. 'asa' to be re- 
bellious, disobedient, 'isyan' 
rebellion, disobedience. 

Sigir ia, v. t., or c, to strengthen : 
gara, and caus. pref. si. [Cf. 
syn. My. mangkras kan, My. 

Sikara, v. i., or a., prickly, spiny, 
and of hair standing on end : 
ending -ra. A. s'aka, 2, to be 
spiny, hirsute, s'akai' spiny. 

Sik e a, v. t., d. siko e, to 
avenge : soka ria. 

Sik e a, or sek e a, to raise: saki; 

Sike-rau, d. si-rau ki, or sie-rau 
ki, to raise or lift up a leaf 
(rau), presenting cooked food 
to one to be eaten. 

Sike, to be swearing, and 

Sike-mau (see seke-mau), to swear 
true ; and 

Sike, v. t., to comb (the hair) : 

[siko ti 

Sike ti, v. t., redup. sikisiki, to 
grasp with tongs, or with a 
forked stick ; hence 

Esike, s., tongs, syn. uataki. 
H. liazak to hold fast, stick 
fast (A. liazaka), Hi. to take 
hold of, seize. 

Sikitau, s., only child : sikai, 
sikei, totau. 

Sikai, or sikei, num., one, d. siki- 
tika (redup.) : tesa (in la-tesa, 
q.v., d. la-teha), also in mas- 
iki, d. mihi, also in gisa, mas, 
sam ; and 

Siki, with nom. suf. (translated 
in this case as nominative, as 
in H. and A.), as siklna (his 
one) he alone, sikira (their 
one) they alone, &c. In i 
siklna uia (and similar express- 
ions) the meaning is he alone 
is good, i.e., he is incompar- 
ably good ; and 

Sikiskei, one (by) one ; sikiski 
gisa one by one together, and 
see bakasikei. H. 'aliad, Mod. 
S. llda, &c. 

Note. — The ki or kei in 
siki, sikei is non-radical, as ka 
in Mg. isaka, iraika. [Mg. 
isa, iray, also isaka, iraika, 
My. asa, sa, Sa. tasi.] 

Siko e, v. t., to avenge, d. sik e a : 
soka ria. 

Siko sa, v. t., to gaze at ; siko 
mau isa to gaze continually 
(see mau) at, redup. sikosiko ; 

Siko, s., kingfisher, lit. gazer 
(because it sits gazing into the 
water for fish). H. sakah, Oh. 
seka', to look at, to contem- 

Siko ti, or siku ti, v. t., to 


adhere to (someone), continue 
or dwell with. A. 'as'ika to 
adhere to (someone). 

Siki-naki, v. t., to abhor, loathe, 
abominate, d. masuku-taki, or 
musuku-taki. A. zahak, Nm., 
to take disgust for, loathe. 

Sila ia, v. t., as ta sila ia chop, 
peeling or shaving off, chop or 
cut a thin shaving off; hence 

Masila na, s., a shaving, chip ; 
and masila, masilasila, to be 
thin. [Mg. silaka and silatra 
to peel, bark, skin, chip off.] 
A. sahala to peel, bark, shave, 
or scale off, mashul' small. 

Sila, v., to crack, as thunder, 
boro silai a, buru masila, id., 
silasila, redup., ta silasila, id. 
[Sa. faitilitili, Ma. wbatiri, 
Ha. hekili.] A. salla, salsala, 
to sound, to crack (thunder), 
musalsil' braying (an ass). 

Sila ia, v. t., to help, aid, support, 
strengthen, tasila (dd. tasiga, 
ahika) helper, supporter, sil 
wall plate (supporter of roof), 
tua-sil givers of support (to a 
chief, as giving food or other 
aid when he is making a feast, 
&c.) A. 'azara, 2, to aid, help, 
strengthen, support, make firm, 
H. 'azar to help, aid. Hence 

Sil, s., wall plate (supporter) of a 
house, help (tua sil give aid or 

Sila ia, or sela ia, d. sol ia, sila- 
sila ia, v. t., to rub, as to rub 
(oneself with oil, &c.) [Fi. 
sola-ta rub, Sa. soloi wipe, Ma. 
horoi wash, Ha. holoi wash, 
wipe, brush, Mg. soroka 
sweep.] Cg. sera, seru, &c. See 
sar ia. 

175 [si.MBOLO 

Sili ki, or sila ki, v. t., make 
to shake (anything ; if water, 
to sprinkle), silisili ki, id., to 
pour out, shake out, throw 
away, throw down, ru sili ki 
fisera they flee in different 
directions (those overcome in 
battle), lit. they throw (them- 
selves, shake out, or scatter 
themselves) in different (or 
every, or all) directions. H. 
zalal to shake, make tremble, 
pour out, shake out, A. zalzala 
to shake, make to tremble. 

Sili, v. t., to enter, sila isa enter 
it (a house), enter him, that is 
enter under his protection ; 
sili fi a enter into him (as a 
spirit or demon into a man) ; 
sili-faki, or sili-fiki make to 
enter into, also thrust or throw 
into (anything into anything). 
[Sa. sulu thrust into, take 
refuge, sulu-fa'i, and sulu-ma'i, 
My. julok thrust into, Mg. 
joloka enter, Fi. curu, curu- 
curu, curu-ma, curu-maka, 
enter, push, or thrust into.] 
A. daliala, n. a. duli'ul', to 
enter (a house) ; take refuge 
with, 2, make to enter, 4, 
make to enter, thrust, &c, in. 
This word is used much with 
t. prep, bi or fi, as in sili-fi, &c, 
and to denote among other 
things the entering into a man 
of a spirit or demon. See 

Simi-ki-leo, or sima-leo, d. suma- 
ki-leo, s., echo, lit. sound of 
the voice. A. ziimatf vehement 
sound, and leo. 

Simbolo, s., d., a basket. Cf. A. 
zibbil', zirnbiP, id. 


Sina, or sine, v. i., to shine, be 
clear, us i sine the rain clears 
up, Fi. uca sa siga. [Fi. siga 
sun, clay, My. siyang clay, 
clear.] A. Salia', E. saliawa, 
H. Sahali, to shine, be clear ; 
sun, clay, in derivatives. 

Sinu, sisinu, v. i., to be hot, 
burn (of the grass on the hills, 
yearly), to be inflamed (of 
one's face) nako na i sinu his 
face is inflamed (with passion) ; 

Sinu, s., c. art., the burning of 
the grass on the hills ; a place 
on which the grass has been 
burned : see also tunu, bitunu, 
d. bitsin. [Sa sunu.] A. 
sah'ana, n. a. suh'un', to be 
hot, sah'una and sah'ina to be 
hot, 2, to heat, suli'n' and 
Sull'n' hot, H. s'alian, S. s'lien, 
to be hot, inflamed (sore), heat 
oneself at the fire. 

Siora, s., a pipe for drawing oft* 
water from one place and 
pouring it out at another ; 
said to be for sie rau (for 
sike rau, lit. lift up, dist- 

Sl-rau, or sierau, contr. of sike- 

Sirak, a., used as s., for sitaki, 
i.e., si taki blow, heeling over 
(a canoe), a squall or high 
wind : si to blow, and taki to 
incline over. 

Siri ki, v. t., to scatter, sprinkle, 
of seeds, water, siri kia ki, 
i.e., siri ki uia ki scatter or 
sow well (seeds) ; and 

Sirisir ia, v. t., to scatter (or 
sprinkle) on him (as water or 
blood spirting on one) ; 

176 [siua 

Siri, v. i., to sprout, shoot (of a 
plant) ; and 

Siria, d., v. i. (-a, ending), to 
sprout, shoot ; and 

Sirina, s., c. art., a shoot, sprout ; 
and used of men, offspring ; 
hence in proper names of 
children and men, siri (seed, 
offspring) as siri fakal, &c. 
H. zara' scatter, disperse, 
especially to scatter seed, sow, 
bear seed (of a plant), zere' 
seed, offspring, A. zara'a 
scatter seed, to produce plants. 

Sisi a, si a, redup. ; hence 

Sis, s., a shell used for scraping. 

Sisi, v. i., redup. of si to blow ; 

Sisi, s., a gun ; si fanua a cannon. 

Sito, v. i., cacavit, A. s'aljata 
8), cacavit. 

S'iu, s., a pricker, or awl (a 
sharpened bone). [To. hui, 
needle or pin (of bone).] A. 
s'i'a' a prick, spike. See sui. 

Siua (siwa), v. i., to hunt for 
fish, or shellfish (on the reef), 
siue a (siua ia) v. t., hunt (fish, 
or shellfish, on the reef). A. 
safa (u) to examine or explore 
the ground by the smell, hence 
to hunt. 

Siuer (siwer), dd. suuara, surata, 
v. i., to walk, proceed, go away, 
sisiuer, redup., walk about. 
[Sa. savali, savalivali, sava- 
liga.] A. safara, 3, n. a. 
sifar', to make a journey, go 

Siua, or sua, cl. siuo (siwo), v. i., 
to descend. [Sa. ifo, To. hifo.] 
S. s'bab, s'ab, part, s'o'eb (Acts 
xi. 5) to be let down, to 

so e] 

So e, d. se a (for so ia), v. t., to 
call (one) ; 

Soso, v. t., red up., to call, sos ia 
(for soso ia) call him : also in 
bioso, rasoso, rafioso. E. saw'a 
to call, H. s'ua', Pi. 

Soa, s., c. art. asoa na, com- 
panion, follower, or neso (art. 
ne), especially of the opposite 
sex, hence tauso, q.v. : sai. 
[Fi. sa.] 

Soi, d., v. t. See si a, to scrape. 
[Fi. so-ya, soi.] Hence 

Soi, or soia, s., the hole scraped 
out for the yam to be planted 

Soa ki, soiia ki. See saua ki. 

Soa ni, or soe ni, v. t., to mock. 
A. haza' to mock. 

Soar ia, or souar ia, v. t., to 
abrade, scrape, scratch, as rago 
i souari rarua the roller 
scrapes, scratches, or tears by 
scraping, or abrades (the bot- 
tom of) the canoe, souasouar 
ia, redup., and soara, or souara, 
v. i , to split open (as a ripe 
seed, pod, or banana), i.e., to 
be abraded, or uncover or 
abrade itself. S. safar to 
shave, to abrade, H. safar (to 
scratch, polish), to write, A. 
safara to sweep, uncover the 
face (a woman), to shine (the 
dawn), H. s'afar (scratch, pol- 
ish), be bright, beautiful, Ch. 
s'efarpara, S. s'afra the dawn. 
See ante, asouara, or asoara 
the rainbow, i.e., the beautiful, 
or brilliant. 

Soata, v. i., to slip. A. dahas'a 
to slip, E. dehas'a. 

Sobu, v. i., to spring up ; also to 
spring up, arise (of the first 

177 [soK 

beginning of anything), and to 
begin, or be the first to do some- 
thing. See futum (bisobu, 

Sobe na, s., c. art., the nape or 
back of the neck. E. zaban 
id., A. zabbunai neck. 

Sofa, sofasofa, v. i., sofa, s. See 

Sog ia, or sogi a, v. t., d. sug ia. 

Sogo ni a, v. t., to press upon, 
compress (one, as by crowding 
upon him), to straiten, sogo- 
sogo ni, redup. ; 

Sog, or sogi, s., what straitens, 
compulsion, force, constraint, 
&c, as i meri sogi au makes 
or uses constraint or force upon 
me (to compel me to do some- 
thing), i tili sog soko ia he 
declares force or compulsion 
upon him (to make him pay 
a fine, or to suffer death, 
as the case may be). [My. 
sasak straitened, sasakkan to 
straiten.] H. suk, Hi. (A. 
S'aka, 2), to straiten, compress, 
press, urge upon, force, compel, 
H. Soli distress. 

Soga, s., c. art., d. nasok, dust, 
rubbish, a lot of things 
(belonging to one) ; 

Sogasoga, id. ; hence 

Soga-leba, s., a rich man, lit. big 
lot of things ; and, d., 

Sogoa, v. i., or a. (ending, 'a), rich; 

Sok, d. soga, s. ; 

Soksok, d. sogasoga, s. ; 

Sok-leb, d, soga-leba ; also 

Sok, s., d., c. art., a cloud. H. 
s'aliak dust, a cloud, A. 
sah'k' ; the verb signifies to 
rub, hence dust (from being 
rubbed small). 




Note. — Sogoa lit. signifies 
full of dust, dusty, dust being 
taken in the sense which is 
given it in the vulgar English 
phrase " to come down with 
the dust." 
Soka, v. i., to leap, jump, go 
swiftly ; to be violently ex- 
cited, inflamed with anger (of 
the belly) ; soka ia, v. t., to 
spear ; inivit mulierem ; soka- 
ba, v. i., to go swiftly away, 
hence, s., what goes swiftly 
away, a worthless or lost thing 
or person; soka-ba ki, v. t., 
throw away, make to be soka- 
ba ; soka ki, v. t., make to 
soka, throw. A. zak'k'a, 4), 
leap, 2), inivit mulierem, 5), 
go with vehemence, 6), to be 
angry, burn with rage. 
Sok, s., c. art., what stops or 

blocks, as a dam : suk ia. 
Soka ri, v. t., to join on to (one 
thing on to another), then to 
repay (one thing by another, 
the one thing being regarded 
as joining on to, or touching, 
the other), to avenge (one 
slain, by slaying another, also 
sike a, d. siko e) ; soka-soka 
ri, redup. ; 
Sokarien, s., c. art., a joining, as 
a splice ; repayment, retribu- 
tion, vengeance ; 
Soka-taki, v. t., to join on to, to 
meet, tumara soka-taki ra 
meet together. H. nas'ak (A. 
nasaka), to join, 2), kiss (join 
mouth to mouth), join on to 
each other, meet (of two 
things), Hi. to join on to (one 
thing on to another). 
Soko, v. i., or a., to be true, 


true, as naleona i soko sa his 
voice (prediction) is true as to 
or about it (thing predicted, 
as is known when it takes 
place as foretold), le- or lo- 
soki, a true thing, truth, tili 
lesoko to speak truth, d. tili 
mori speak true, d. tili lo- 
amau speak truth. See also 
masoko. [Sa. sa'o straight, 
correct, right, My. sungguh 
true.] A. sadaka, n. a. sadk', 
to be true, H. sadak to be 
straight, right, just. 
Soli a, v. t , rub. See sila ia, id. 
Soli, sosoli, v. i., to creep (i.e., to 
rub or sci'ape along the ground, 
cf. karafi) ; 
Asolat, s., a worm : a, art. [Sa. 
totolo, ps. tolofia, Fut. toro, 
Ha. kolo, TaSa. tari, Malo 
nsalansala, to creep, sulati a 
worm.] H. zahal to creep, 
Sore, v. i., to lie, be untruthful, 

d. bisuru ; 
Soresore, id. H. zur to turn 

aside, A. zara tell lies. 
Sor ia, or sori a, v. t., to give (a 
thing). [Fi. soli a give, My. 
sarah and srah to submit, 
sarah kan to give.] A. s'ara'a, 
1, to submit, 4, to give. 
Soro, v. i., to burn, flame, soro 
fi, v. t., send a flame on to, 
also to treat with violence, to 
rush violently and with savage 
rage upon (as a wild pig- 
charging a man), bakasoro- 
soro fi, v, c, make the fire to 
burn up. [Mg. doro, sa, tolo, 
matoro.] A. sa'ara to kindle 
(a fire, war), 2, to rage (of a 
camel), 3, to treat with cruelty 



[.SU NA 

and rage, so'r' blaze of fire, 
rage, insanity, sa'ir' flame of 
fire, fire bursting into flame. 

Soroa sa, v. t., to covet, desire; 

Soro, a. used as s., a covetous 
person, and see miseroa. A. 
s'ariha to covet. 

Soroa, d., v. i., to be sick, ayn. 
sasana. A. s'arro fever, and 
a. ending, from s'arra to be 
bad, as sasana from sa. 

Soroa, s., c. art., d. tiroa. 

Sore a, v. t., to saw (one, of the 
breakers sawing one on the 
reef) ; and 

Soro aki, v. t., to make a man's 
body saw on the reef (of the 
waves or breakers) : sar ia. 

Sos, v. i., to shrink, become con- 
tracted, as cloth when wet, 
india rubber, &c, to be small 
(syn. mito), d. ses small, little. 
A. 'aza', 4), to be contracted, 
made small, also 'aziya, 3), to 
be contracted, 2), to contract, 
4, to diminish. 

Su, sua, v. i., to rise up (tobu i 
tubu sua swells up) as ground 
in which the growing yams 
are swelling (cf. lua) ; another 
form of this word is tu to 
stand up ; 

Su raka ti, v. t. (to take up, 
lift up), to startle ; 

Sua i, v. t., to take up, lift up, 
then to take, receive, obtain, 
acquire, as i su naleo he 
obtained something ; and to 
bear, as i su nafolofolon sa 
anena he bore his sin, i.e., 
he received its punishment; 
and to meet, as i sua nata 
he met a person, bisua, v. 
r. ; su-naki to carry on the 

head (of women), su-ni to 
put on (clothes), hence susu 
clothed (having clothes upon 
or carried or borne by one) ; 
to meet or take up the (odour 
of a thing) su rogi na&on. 
The notion of meeting is in 
that of lifting oneself or rising 
up against (one) ; and a 
swelling in the skin is said to 
sua, i.e., raise itself up, it rises 
up ; su (nasuma), s., the upper 
part (ridge-pole) of a house, 
and masua, s., the highest part 
or top of anything. Su or sua 
is also used in proper names 
of children, as Sua ragoa, &c. 
H. nasa' to take up, lift up, E. 
nasa' take, receive, A. nas'a' 
be exalted, grow, to bear, 
carry, to bear one's sin, that 
is, to receive its punishment. 
H. si', se'eth height, a raising 
or lifting up, a rising up in 
the skin, A. nas'a' to grow up, 
to be raised, high, 4, to pro- 
duce, 10, perceive or feel the 
odour (of a thing), nasa' sprout 
or shoot (of a plant) — sua (in 
pr. names), young people. 

Su, d. si, v., finished off, as i nu 
su, it is ended or completed, 
finished off, i bati su e a he 
has finished off doing it ; i 
bano su he has gone, he has 
finished oft' going, completed 
going. The word thus forms 
with any other verb a com- 
pleted tense denoting that 
what is expressed by the first 
verb is finished off. See under 
maso to be done. 

Su na, s., c. art., highest part (as 
ridge of a house, or top of the 

BO na] 180 

head), cf. inasua na top (of 
anything) : su, or sua. 

Su na, s., c. art. nasu na, q.v., 

Sua, for suua (suwa), siua, siuo. 

Sua, s., brother. See tai. 

Suasua, v. i., to be willing ; and 

Sua ki, v. t., to impel, order, 
send. Seebisuaki. A. s'ayaya, 
1, to be willing, to will, 2, to 

Suara, or suuara (suwara), 
susuara, d. siuer, q.v. 

Suara, v. t., to meet (as a head 
wind, any obstruction in one's 
way) : sua, and ara, v. t. 

Suer, v. i., d. suerai. 

Suerai, v. i., to put out rai, i.e., 
tai, q.v., dung, cacavit : sui, 
see si, v.t., and tai. 

Suer ia, v. t., to vituperate, d. 
sur. A. zara to vituperate. 

Suba ia. See siba ia. 

Su6e, v. t., to place, determine, 
appoint, constitute, syn. to- 
naki, as i su&e biri a he 
appoints it over again (and 
differently), syn. to-naki biri a, 
as to appoint a day of meet- 
ing, <fec, and afterwards to 
alter the day, appointing 
another ; i su6e roa au he 
appoints me, changing, changes 
or alters (roa to turn round, 
to alter) the appointment be 
made with me, as having first 
appointed me a certain day, 
he afterwards changes the 
appointment to another day ; 

Su&e, s., what is placed, fixed, 
redup. susu&e, as upright 
stones firmly planted in the 
ground, nafera susu&e a row 


of such stones, su&e such a 
stone, a statue, an idol, or 
saci'ed stone ; a thing fixed 
firmly, as a plank firmly 
nailed, a stone firmly fixed, a 
wind continuing firmly in one 
quarter, nalagi i be su6e the 
wind is firmly fixed (in some 
quarter) ; also, custom, as a 
thing fixed, suie nafanua 
custom of the country, su6e 
na its or his custom, also the 
fixed nature, custom, or dis- 
position, sube nig Atua i leg 
the nature, custom, or dis- 
position, or fixed character of 
God is righteous ; su6e i to- 
naki nafanua the fixed, or 
constituted, or established — 
fixed, established, or con- 
stituted the country. In this 
last sense it is a general term 
used to denote either the first 
or early or ancient inhabitants 
of a place (the original settlers 
of a district), or, which is the 
same thing in another form, 
the persons who figure in 
Efatese myths, or the spirits 
of such, now being natemate. 
Su6e is also used as a proper 
name of men, as Mariki Suie, 
or Ma Su6e, Mr. Su6e (the 
present Christian chief of the 
village of Moso, in Havannah 
Harbour), and of women, as 
Li Su6e, Mrs. or Madam Su&e. 
(See ma, and li.) [Ma. tupu 
firmly fixed, Sa. tupua a stone 
supposed to have been a man 
petrified, an image, Fi. tovo 
habit, nature, practice.] H. 
nasab, i. q. yasab to set, put, 
place, Hi. hissib to make to 

subu] 181 

stand, place, erect, set up (as 
a column), fix, establish (as 
bounds), Ho. to be fixed, 
planted, yaSSib firm ; A. 
nasaba to place, fix, set up, 
declare, appoint, constitute ; 
nasb' a thing set up, a statue, 
what is worshipped besides 
God, i.e., an idol ; naslb erect- 
ing, setting up ; nasibal stones 
placed or fixed round a water- 

Subu. See sobu, v. i., and d., 
s., child, offspring. 

Su-bua, v. t., to lift up, or 
ascend, bursting or breaking 
through (the ground, hence 
subua (natano) a demon or 
demons who do so), syn. su- 
bora, ia, and sua-sai a : su or 
sua to rise, or lift up, and 

Sub-neki. See sabo-naki. 

Sug ia, v. t., to kiss, d. sum ia. 

Sug ia, v. t., to block up, d. 
suk ia. 

Sui a, v. t., d. si a, q.v., to help ; 
to blow upon ; also (see sai a) 
to make holes in (as a moth 
in cloth) ; also to burn with 
heat, as elo i sui a the sun 
burns him ; and redup., elo i 
tera suisui, the sun shines 
burning (hot) ; and 

Sui, s., heat ; sui ni elo heat of 
the sun. See sai. 

Suk ia, v. t., d. sug i, to block 
up, obstruct. A. s'akka, 2), 
3), block up, obstruct ; 

Suk ia, v. t., to cause to stoop, 
suki lifa ia (a burden) makes 
him stoop, bending him ; to 
still, as suki namaritana still 
the commotion (of passion) 


within him, suki namaieto 

stills the anger ; and 
Suki, v. i., to be patient, firm, 

quiet, still, sink (subside). H. 

s'akak to stoop (A. s'akka), 

subside, be appeased, Hi. to 

still ; 
Suki a, v. t., make fast, firm, seli 

suki a, bisa, tili (&c.) suki a 

tie firm, speak making it firm 

and sure, meri sukisuki a make 

firm, turi suki a nail firm. 

A. s'akka, 3), adhere, cohere 

firmly ; 
Suki a, v. t., to stick, stab. A. 

s'akka, 7), transfix (with a 

Suka, v. i., to draw back, recede, 

sukasuk, redup. ; hence 
Sukei, or sukai, s., c. art., the 

receding (of food), the annual 

time of scarcity of food, opp. 

to namasu. [Fi. suka, cf. 

cuqa.] H. nasag, sug, to draw 

back, retreat. 
Suku ti. See siko ti. 
Suku ti. See sike ti. 
Sula, v. i., to rise up (as a rising 

ground) ; 
Sula, s., a rising ground. H. 

salal to lift up, cast up a bank. 
Suli na, s., shoot (as of a banana), 

offspring (of man) ; hence 
Sulia, v. i., to have shoots (as a 

banana). [Sa. suli a young 

banana, son of a chief.] H. 

neser a sprout, shoot ; offspring. 
Su-lua i, v. t., to bring up (a 

child) : su, or sua, and lua. 
Sulu ea, v. t., to scorch with 

flame, illuminate with a torch 

(ne sulu), and see masula ki ; 

Sulu, s., c. art. nasulu, a torch. 


[Sa. sulu, v. and s., Ja. suluh.] 
A. s'a'ala, 1, 2, 4, to kindle (a 
tire j, 8, be kindled, 10, light 
or kindle (a torch), s'u'ulu 
flame of tire, mas''al' a torch. 

Suma, s., c. art. nasuma, house, 
d. uma, see also katema, im- 
rum : the s' in suma is a dem. 
or art. [My. rumah, Ja. 
umah, Ml. im, TaSa. ima, 
Motu ruma.] A. k'a'maf, pi. 
him' &c, house. 

Sum ia, v. t., to kiss, dd. sug i, sog 
ia. [An. aijumnyi, to kiss, 
8a. sogi rub noses, salute, 
sogisogi to smell, My. chyum 
to smell, to kiss.] A. s'amina 
to smell. There is no trace of 
this meaning in sum ia. In 
E. sa'ama is to kiss. 

Sum ia, v. t., to suck, as fat. 
My. isap, An. admoi to kiss, 
lick, suck, as fat. A. saliab, 
Nm., suck in (liquid or air). 

Sume li, v. t., to make a sucking 
noise to (to attract one's atten- 
tion). See preceding word. 

Sumi li, v. t., d. sumo li, to shut, 
close (as a door), to patch up, 
repair (as a hole in a mat) ; 

Suinili, s., a thing like india- 
rubber in a clam shell which, 
when touched, causes the shell 
to close ; an ornament (shell) 
which stops up a hole pierced 
in the septum of the nose. A. 
samma, 4), to stop (as a bottle), 
6), to patch up, repair (a thing). 

Sumat ia, v. t., to beat, d. samit 
ia ; d. sumanr i to beat, also 
used as an ad., hastily, con- 
fusedly, ineffectively, as lo 
sumanr i, brig sumanr i, &c, 

182 [su-rua 

see, do hastily, confusedly, 
ineffectively (cf. sarafi, tere 
ti). See samit ia. 

Sur, v. i., to go (of a departed 
spirit going to Hades), to 
writhe and twist with pain. 
H. sir to go in a circle (eg. 
s'ur to go, journey), sir hinge, 
writhing pain. 

Sur i, v. t., d. suer ia, q.v. 

Sura ia, v. t., to root up, extir- 
pate (as the things growing in 
one's plantation). E. sarawa 
to root up, extirpate. 

Surata, sursurata, v. i., d. for 
suara, to walk, go on a jour- 

Suru ki, v. t., make to suru, i.e., 
to be covered, as by inserting 
an arrow head into the (reed) 
shaft ; and 

Suru faki, v. t., make to be 
covered, as by thrusting a 
thing into the dust or earth ; 

Suru goi a, v. t., to cover drain 
out (as the milk of a cocoa- 
nut) by covering the aperture 
of the nut with the mouth 
and draining out the contents. 
For goi see go ia. Tasuru ki 
to conceal, suruoli, dd. suruili, 
suruauli (see uli, auli), to take 
the place, or assume the form 
of, hiildenly or stealthily, and, 
s., a demon, or demons, who 
do this to destroy men. [My. 
suruk to conceal, Mg. sarona 
to cover.] E. sawara to cover, 
tasawara to be hidden, secret, 
to hide. 

Su-rua, s., upper of the two 
ridge-poles of a house : su na, 
and rua two. 

suku ea] 183 

Suru ea, v. t., to allure, tempt 
(deceiving), lit. to deceive ; 

Surusuru ea, id., redup. See 
sore, bisuru. 

Suruk, i.e., su-ruk, also si-ruk, 
and sai-ruk (see sai, and ruku) 
to go into the ruku (of any- 

Surut ia, v. t., to scarify, make 
fissures on the surface of any- 
thing. A. s'arata to scarify. 

Susu, s., the breast or breasts; a 
calabash (round like a breast): 
susu na, d., his mother, lit. his 
breast, or mamma ; hence 

Susu, v., to suck the breast. [Sa. 
susu the breast, to suck the 
breast, Fi. sucu the breasts, 
to suck the breast, My. susu, 
Mg. nono, the breasts.] H. 
s'od, A. thidy', pi. thudiyy', 
breast, breasts. 


J. a, passive or reflexive passive 
prefix to many verbs. [Fi., 
Sa., My., Ja., Mg., id.] A., 
E., ta, reflexive or reflexive 
passive prefix to verbs. 

Ta, nom. and verb, suf., 3 pi. 
(very common), for ra. 

Ta, s., for ata man, person. 

Ta, neg. ad., not, dd. ti, tu, and 
see sa. [Sa. le, My. ta, Mg. 
tsy.] H. lo, le, li, Ch. la, A. la. 

Ta ia, v. t., to chop, cut, also to 
speak or utter (as it were 
making a chopping noise), 
redup. tata. [Fi. ta-ya, My. 
tatah, Sa. ta, Mg. tatana.] A. 
ha(l(la to cut quickly ; utter 
speech quickly. 


T', conj., that (because), ta that 
I, te that he, te ku that you : te. 

Ta, ad., now, dd. syn. uo, ko, i, 
as i ta toko, i uo toko, i ko 
toko, he yet (now) remains : 
ta, dem. 

Ta, verb, pron., 1 dual inch 
[An. intau, Sa. ta, for taua.] 
The ta of nigita, or ninita, 
and -a, for rua two. 

Ta, tra, or ra, d. nra, q.v., blood. 
Originally ta, as in mita to 

Ta, s., d. sa, d. seate, q.v. 

Ta na, s., friend, companion. 
[Cf. Fi. tau, to, Ma. ta.] A. 
Salii, contraction of sahib', 
friend, companion, ya sahi 
(cf. Ma. e ta !) O friend, com- 
rade ! saliaba to be a friend or 
companion, to take with one 
as a companion, 3, to accom- 
pany (someone), 8, to be com- 
panions to each other. Hence 
bita, and bita-naki, q.v. 

Ta-atuta, v. and s. : ta cut, speak, 
utter, and atuta, s., a fixed or 
appointed time ; ta-atuta ki 
appoint a time and place (of 
meeting) to (someone). H. 
'adad, A. 'adda, to number, 
especially days, time, hence 
S. 'acl'da, same as H. mo'ad, 
a set time, appointed time, 
eg. H. ya'ad, A. wa'ada, 3, to 
appoint a time and place (of 

Ta-bau, s., syn. tagoto-bau, a 
cap, or hat, lit. cut-head. 

Ta, v., to bend, bow, incline, 
extend, as ta bau bend the 
head, bow, ta tuba strike^ 
turning aside, deflecting (a 
spear, &c), ta gor ia extend 


over it (of time, so many days), 
ta gor ia extend over (or 
cover) it (the day in the 
past named). H. natah, fut. 
yitteh, to extend, to incline, 
to bow, to turn. 

Tab, d. tiba, neg. ad., not : ta not, 
and ba for ma as in Assy. 
aama not, i.e., H. mah, A. ma, 
used indefinitely. 

Ta6a na, d. tauba na, s., side, or 
shore (as a side). [Ma. tapa.] 
A. tatf side, shore. 

Taba ia, d. tama ia. 

Taba, v. t., to be like, tabale to 
be like that thing (taba le), 
so, also tabalai, tabalan, 
tabalas, tabalo uai (taba, lo 
or 1' (thing), and uai, n, s, 
i, dem.) to be like that or this 
thing, tabalo uanaga, id. ; also 
tabale sa 1 tabale safa ? to be 
like what thing 1 to be how 1 
[My. dama-kiyan so, Mg. 
mitovy.] H. damah to be like. 

Taba, s., property given away in 
payment of a fine for miscon- 
duct : ta to cut, and ba (away) 
as in soka-ba. 

Ta&a, v. i., to turn, bend, taia lo 
sua, or lo saki, bend looking 
down, or up, ta&a kai bend 
contracting the stomach (as 
to avoid a spear), bitelo ta6a6a 
to be bent with hunger, also 
tama, as tama-lu, d. tumalu, 
to bend rising (in setting forth 
or out), ta&a soka to bend, 
leaping (as in climbing a tree), 
d. tama or tuma soka, also, to 
leap aside. A. dafa', 6, to 
turn hither and thither, dafa' 
bending, 'adfa' bent, curved (of 

184 [tabe 

Tabaraba, for rabaraba. 

Tabag, v. t., to slap. [My. 
tapuk, Ja. tabuk). A. safaka 
to slap. 

Tabalaga, v. r. (see balaga ti), to 
raise itself off, as a scab, &c. 
Reflexive causative. 

Tabalas', or tabalasoa, v. i., 
tabale, and aso to burn, to 
peel itself off after a burn (of 
the skin) : tabal' is the reflex- 
ive of bale si, or bala si ; 

Tabales, v. i., reflexive of bale si, 
to peel itself off, as the skin 
of one's lips ; and 

Tabales, s., husk (as of cocoanut, 
chestnut), finger nails. 

Tabara, v. i., to be burned. 

Tabara ki, v. t., to burn : bara. 

Tabare, tabarebare, v. i , reflex- 
ive of 6ora ia, to be split, split 
open, to be open. 

Ta6are, s., a male animal. Com- 
pare E. taba't mas, a male. 

TaAaro, ta6aro6aro, v. i., to be 
heedless, careless, disobedient : 
reflexive of &aro ; and 

Ta&aro, d., s., senselessness, sin. 

Ta'^asuli, v. i., to be detached, 
broken oft*: reflexive of basu 

Tahau sa, v. t., to cover, to be over 
(surpass, be above another) : 

Ta6elu, v. i., reflexive of 6elu, 

Tab ea, v. t., to take ; and 

Tabe, s., c. art. natabe, a freshet, 
lit. that which takes, or 
carries. [Fi. tabe-a, Mg. 
taba.] S. nsab to take. 

Tabe, v., to lean or incline, 
tabe to osa lean abiding on it, 




tabe ki lean upon, truat in (a 
thing) ; 

Tabitab, s., a thing leaned upon, 
or trusted in. [Fi. ravi, My. 
arapi.] A. safa, 4, to make 
to lean or incline (a thing 
towards a thing), 1, be the 
guest of someone. 

Tabei a, v. t., to desire or pur- 
pose setting the mind on. A. 
bayya, 5, id. 

Ta6eti, v. i., to adorn oneself. 
Ch. Sabet to adorn, Ethpa. 
adorn oneself, 

Tabera ki, v. t., to make to be 
tabera scattered, taberafera, or 
taferafera, to be scattered, 
taberafera ki make to be so : 
bera, berafera. 

Tabes, s., axe: ta to cut, and bt-s. 

Tabisa, v. i., to speak ; 

Tafisafisa, v. i., to pray : bisa. 

Tabilakigon, d. tabilagon, v. i., 
to stumble, d. tabila kon, id. 
lit. to strike, or knock (the 
foot) by mistake (hastily) fast 
(that is, the foot caught fast) : 
ta, bila, or bile, gon, or kon. 

Ta6ora ia, v. t., to cut, splitting 
(a thing) ; 

Ta6orai na, s., c. art., the body 
where it forks oft' or is divided 
into the two legs : ta, bora, ia. 

Ta6os, v. i., compressed, narrow : 

Tabu, s., naked people, people 
of other islands of the New 
Hebrides, so called by the 
Efatese : ta men, and bua I. 

Tabu, tab, v. i., or a., to be 
forbidden, prohibited ; to be 
sacred ; 

Tabua, s., c. art., sacredness ; 

Tabuen, s., id. A. dabba, n. a. 
dabbu, to prohibit. 

Tabua, v. i., to be split open, 
cracked, also mafua : bua. 

Tafa, s., c. art. natafa, a hill, lit. 
that which goes up or is high ; 

Tafa (d.), ad., high, above. [Fi. 
cabe.] T. dayaba to go up. 
E. diba above. 

Tafagka, tafakaka. See baku. 

Tafakarua ki, i.e.,ta utter, and ba- 
karua ; to repeat a thing, as a 
slanderer's words to the person 

Tafar. See taiar. 

Tafasi, v. See fasu, eyebrows. 

Tafe, s., c. art., d. tabe, freshet. 

Tati na, s., and c. art. a, atah, 
follower, successor of a chief 
(next in rank), that is, his 
present helper and right hand 
man, and who is his recog- 
nized successor. A. tabi' 
follower, helper. 

Tafea, d. for tofe, q.v. 

Tafera, s., c. art., breaker, 
breakers ; and 

Taferafera, v. i., to break, as 
waves, Ch. tebar, H. s'abar, to 
break, mis'bar breakers. See 

Tali a, v. t., to be near. A. 
tafia to be near. 

Tafiti, v. i., to be involved, en- 
twisted : fiti, hsi. 

Tatiloga. See bulo ki, and bol- 

Tatilo, tafolo, taifolo, and 

Tafulus. See bulo ki, bulu si. 

Tatirohro, to be twisted (crooked) : 
biri a. 

Taga, s., basket, d. toga, q.v.; d. 
stomach. [Sa. taga, taga 'ai.] 


Tagal, s., a hook for hanging 
things on : tageli. 

Tagaragara, v. i., or a., strong : 
gara, garagara. 

Tagaru, v. t., to grasp : kar ia. 

Tagau, s., a hook, so called from 
seizing ; 

Tagau, tagaugau, v., to grasp, 
seize ; 

Tagau lua, select, lit. grasp or 
seize, lifting up or out : gau, 

Tagatag, s., a mist, or mass of 
clouds : tagotago. 

Tageli, tageligell. See takel. 

Tagi, v. i., to wail, cry, ring, 
sing, clank, hum, tfec. (as a 
drum, <fec.) ; tagi si, v. t., to be- 
wail, tagitagi, redup., natagien 
wailing, sounding (in various 
ways). [Sa. tagi, My. tangis, 
Mg. tany, a cry, tomany, 
mitomany to cry.] A. tanna 
to tinkle, cfec, Nm. to clank, 
ring, hum, tanien din, tantun 
to tinkle, jingle. 

Tagia, v., d. tine (ndine), to hoist 
the sail on a canoe, tagi aki 
rarua. See under miten and 

Note. — The idea is that of 
making the sail mount on the 
canoe as a horseman mounts a 
horse, or a burden mounts, or 
is placed upon, the back. 

Tagiegi, v. i., to be slow, dilatory. 
A. 'aka, 5, to be averse, to 

Tagotago, v., to be placed one 
thing above or upon another, 
as the stories of a house, banks 
of clouds (see tagatag), genera- 
tions of men ; and 

Tago na, s., such a thing, or 

186 [takani 

things, as the story of a house, 
a generation of men, leaves of 
a book (which lie one upon 
the other). See under miten 
(and cf. tiena, tagi aki, 

Tago fi, v. t., to beg, ask (a 
person for a thing), tatago sa 
beg, ask for (a thing) ; bitago, 
v. r., to be asking, begging, 
earnestly (from others). [Mg. 
hataka.] E. tayaka (so Amh., 
T., Luke ix. 45) to ask, 
tatayaka to ask earnestly. 

Tagoto, s., tomahawk, axe : ta, 
goto ; and 

Tagote fi, v. t., to cut with an 

Taguia, s., a heap (of stones) : 
guru, kuru. 

Tai or tae a, v. t., d. for ata ia, 
or atai a, to know. H. yada' 
to know. 

Tai, s., excrement, filth. [Sa. 
tae, My. tai, Mg. tay.] H. 
Seah excrement, filth, from 
yasa' to go out. 

Tai na, s., d. ke sua, brother's 
brother, or sister's sister. 
[Fi. taci, Malo tasi, Ml. tesi, 
Bauro asi, Epi tahi, Motu 
tadi, My. ad-ik, Bu. anri, Mg. 
zandry.] A. sinw', or Sunw', 
brother, and art. ta. 

Taiar, a., d. tafar ; fatu taiar, or 
tafar, crumbling stone : bera, 

Taifolo, d. tafolo. 

Tairai, d. rairai. 

Taka, a., such as, like, such like : 
S. da'k, id. ('a'k, and d') talis ; 

Takani (takan uan, takana uai, 
tfec, putting any dem. after it) 
like this, that, &c. ; so, in this 



way, La that way, thus, <kc. ; 
also, interrogatively, how 1 
S. da'k hana (for da'k see 
preceding word), such as this, 
like this. This S. word is 
composed of d' (clem, or rela- 
tive pron.), a', or ai (inter.), 
k', as, like (ad.), and hana, 
or 'na this ; without the d', 
S. 'akana how 1 

Taka ni, v. t., to thrust on, or 
into (a thing), to thrust (a 
thing), taka sila ki thrust 
making to shake or fall. H. 
dabah, A. dalia, &c, to thrust. 

Takal ia, or tikal ia, d., v. t., to 
carry ; hence 

Tak'amo, or takaamo, to carry 
on a stick across the shoulder: 
takal and amo. S. s'kal to 

Takara, s., the crowd, lit. men 
(ta) gathered together (kara) : 
ta, kuru, guru. 

Takara, s., c. art. natakara, that 
which seizes, or grasps, or lays 
hold (of one), as the conse- 
quence of some act, &c. See 
kar ia, tagaru. 

Takari, v. i., to hasten, go swiftly, 
sail swiftly (as a canoe) : kari. 

Takel, takelkel, v. i., or a., to be 
crooked, then unrighteous, d. 
tageli, tageligeli. H. 'akal, 
'akalkal, A. 'akila, 5, &c, id. 

Takes, d. for nakes, or nakisa : 

Tak ia, or taki a, v. t., to fasten 
(as thatch on a roof, a rope on 
a log, anything on anything), 
and see mitakitaki ; to fasten 
the tongs on an oven stone (to 
lift it), bitaki a, uataki, otaki ; 
and matuki trusted in, conti- 

[taku xa 

dent, brave ; and taki, s., a mass 
of anything, as of yams grow- 
ing together, as it were firmly 
bound together. A. wathika 
to trust in, be firm, steadfast, 
confident, resolute, 4, to fasten, 
to bind. 

Taki, s. See under preceding 

Ta-ki, v. t., to incline, to pour 
out (anything by inclining a 
vessel) ; takitoincline(oneself ), 
taki mita incline watch, taki 
torogo-saki incline, hearken 
to, lo taki look inclined, look 
round or back, mitaki to be 
inclined, lean over (as if ready 
to fall) ; see si-rak, i.e., si-taki 
a squall, lit. blow, incline (a 
canoe, or cause it to heel over 
on its side). H. sa'ah (A. 
Sa"a') to incline (as a vessel 
which is to be emptied) ; to be 
inclined, bent, stoop. 

Taku, v. i., to be after, behind, 
d. nruk ; or itaku, inruk ; 

Taku na, s., the back ; etaku or 
itaku at the back, behind 
(d. inruk), also outside (the 
village), also the (time) behind, 
or after (as opposite to the 
time before, the past), as te 
naliati etaku some day after, 
as he died, sela itaku ru afa 
ki nia some time after they 
buried him, generally tau 
itaku, naliati itaku, the years, 
or days after (i.e., hereafter), 
naliati itaku man the last day, 
day of judgment. [Sa. tua, 
Malo tura, Epi taka, Motu 
dolu, the back.] A. t'ahr' the 
back, E. dalir posterior part, 
dahari the last, dellara after, 


behind, daliara to be after, 

Takutaku, v. i., to speak in an 
unknown or foreign tongue. 
A. thakthaka to speak with 
foolish or senseless words. 

Taku, s., brothers-in-law, sisters- 
in-law, syn. tauien. A. 'aha, 

5, to treat or act as a brother, 

6, to be brothers and friends 
to each other. E. ta'lia 
agnatio, or cognatio, also 
agnati who are as brothers to 
each other. 

Takuer, or takuwer, s., a big 
man, a strong man : ta man, 
and kuwer. A. kabura to be 
great, of big body. 

Takus ia, or takusi a, v. t., to be 
like, similar to, also, with k 
elided tausi a, id., and to 
follow, also rausi a (t to r), 
v. t., to follow, from usi a, 
v. t., to follow, and also (in 
rafe-kusi a) kusi a, id. See 
usi a, and bausi a. A. kaSSa 
to follow ; to narrate, and 5, 
8, to follow ; 1, to be near, 
10, to ask. 

Taku ti, d. raku sa, q.v. 

Talakolako, v. i., to whisper, i.e., 
to conceal what is being said 
(from someone) : ta utter 
speech, and lakolako. 

Talekabu na, d. arekabu, q.v. 

Tale is, v. t., d. tele is, to search 
for. [Mg. tady.] A. dara, 2, 
Nra., to rummage (vulgar), lit. 
to turn over (things, in search 
of something) ; 

Tale, s., c. art., a belt, also a 
rope, string ; and 

Tale ki, v. t., to make to go 
round (as a yam vine round a 



stake), tale is to coil round 
something (as a snake), tale 
ki maro (see roa) to whirl 
round (as the eyes in dizzi- 
ness), tale ki to twist round 
one (crooked dealing, to injure), 
talo round, around, taltal 
round. [Mg. tady, mitady, 
to twist, tady a rope, My. 
tali a rope, string, bandage, 
&c] A. dara to go round, 
whirl, turn ; be dizzy, 2, make 
round, 4, turn round, da'ro orb, 
around, dairo round ; circuit, 

Tale, s., c. art., the taro (so called 
because round.) [Sa. talo, 
My. talas, id.] See preceding 

Taleaba, and taltaleaba, v. i., to 
whirl round (as a wheel), 
taleaba ki, v. t., to make to 
whirl round, to turn round 
(as a grindstone) : tale and 

Talebaga, s., d. syn. kalebaga, 
bow-string : . tale, and baga, s. 
(the tree from which the string 
is made). 

Talefa, s., a side region, circuit : 
tale, and fa (ba) to go. 

Talefan, s., the circuit of the 
horizon : tale, and fan to go. 

Tale-firi, a., all round (as round 
an island, <fcc.) : tale, and firi 
or biri. 

Talle, or tal'le, v. i., to turn aside 
(as from a path) ; and 

Talele, id., talele ki to turn aside 
or away from (a person or 
thing.) See lele. 

Taleuor, s., a side, circuit : tale, 
and uor, or uora. See bora ia. 

Talemat, s., plantation, enclosed 



[tan I a 

and cultivated field. Cf. H. 
s'edernoth and s'eremoth id. 

Taliali, v. i., to be slow, delay : 
aliali. [Cf. Sa. tali, tatali.] 

Talibo (see libo), to hide, be hid, 
hide oneself. 

Tali-si, v. t., to prize up, wrench 
up (as the side of a flat stone). 
See tila ia, or til ea. 

Taliga na, s., c. art. nataliga na, 
d. liga na, and nallga na, the 
ear or ears : ta, art. [Ml. P. 
ririga, Epi dd. tiline, seligo, 
An. tikga, Motu taia, Sa. 
taliga, Fut. tariga, My. talinga, 
Mg. tadiny.] H. 'ozen, du., 
used also as pi., 'azt-naim, 
'azene, S. 'adna, Ch. 'uden, 
'udena, A. 'u(|n', pi. 'atfan', 
and 'udun'. For the verb, 
see rogo. 

Tftlo, taloalo. See alo-fi. 

Talo, a., round, and ad., round 
about : tale. 

Talokuloku ki. See taluko. 

Taltal, a., round : tale. 

Taltalurai, s., a sea snake covered 
with round strips or bands. 

Talu, or taliilu, s , a crowd, herd : 

Taluko, or taluku, and taluko- 
luko ki, v., to conceal oneself 
from ; atu taluko baki nia turn 
away from, or conceal oneself 
from : lako. 

Talu&aki, v. i., to be spilt, poured 
out, to pour itself out : lubaki. 

Talug ia, d., and 

Talum ia, d. See tulum ia. 

Tarn ia, v. t., to add to, dd. tarn 
ia, taum ia. A. s'amma to add. 

Tama ia, d. taba ia, v. t., to 
cover (as fruit, &c., covering 
the ground, being abundant), 

and see atarna that which 
rubs, syn. ore. A. tamma to 
cover with abundance (Nm. 
smother, overwhelm), 2), to 
scrape or shave. 

Tama na. See tema na. 

Tamaliam', v. i., to delay. A. 
mahala, 5, to delay, and H. 
mahah to delay, linger (pi'op. 
to refuse, turn back). 

Tamalu, v. i., to bend, rise (to 
set out), to go or come forth, 
set out : taba, lu. 

Taiuate, v. i., to fall calm, be 
calm (as the sea, the wind), 

Tamate, s., c. art., peace (oppo- 
site to war), a calm, silence ; 
also, the festivals in honour 
and worship of the dead, at 
which the people of different 
villages assembled : mate. 

Tamisal, or tamusal, s., an un- 
married person : ta a person, 
and misal. 

Tamaras, reflexive of maras, q.v. 

Tami sa, d. sabe li, q.v., to tie. 

Tamo, v. i., d. na&o, to smell, 
see nabo. 

Tamon, s., smell, d. nafon. 

Tamole, s., man : ta man, and 
mole to live, living. [Fi. ta- 
mata, Sa. tangata, My. orang- 
idup, Mg. olombelona, id.] 

Tamtam, a., dusky ; ragi tamtam 
(syn. rag melu), evening, lit. 
time dusky, or of dusk. A. 
'atama to be evening, dusky, 
'atama< dusk of evening. 

Tamulu, v. i., syn. c. mulu, q.v. 

Tanekabu, s., d. arekabu. 

Tan ia, v. t., to earth it, to 
cover with earth, then with 
anything (tun ia) ; 

TANU Ml] 190 

Tanu mi, v. t., to cover with 
earth, put into the ground ; 

Tanu maki, id. ; hence 

Tano, s., d. tan, earth of any 
kind, soil, clay, ground, and 
etan, ad. and prep., on the 
ground, below. (Sa. tanu, 
ps. tanua, and tanumia, My. 
tanam, tanainkan, tanuman, 
Sa. tanuma'i, tanuga, tanu- 
maga.] A. tana to cover 
with clay ; to cover, tino, 
dialect tano, earth, clay. 

Tanoabu, d. tanoafu, d. tanoau. 
s., ashes, lit. earth or dust of 
the fire : tano, kabu ; 

Tanonon, or tanoonon, s., level 
ground, d. ten : tano, and on6 

Tanotanoa, a., soiled with earth : 
tano, and ending a. 

Tanu ea, tanua, v. t., to spit, 
dd. tani, taniu ; and 

Tanua, d. taniu, s., c. art., 
spittle. [Sa. anu, ps. anusia, 
Motu kanudi, ps. kanudia, Fi. 
kanusi.] A. 'antha'a to vomit 
(tha"a, 7, to come out and be 
ejected from the mouth). 

Tao, v. i., to fall, d. for roa 
(rouo, touo). 

Tao s, d., v. t., to lay down, 
leave, permit, &c. A. wada'a 
not used in perfect, fut. yada'o 
imp. da', to lay down, leave, 

Taosi, d. tausi a. See takusi a. 

Taos, v. i., d. maosa, q.v. 

Taoti na, s., bone, bones, weapons 
made of dead men's bones. 
[My. tulang, Mg. taolana.] 
A. 'at'm', Mahri (m elided) 
'atait (Von Maltzan), athath 


(Carter), H. 'esem, pi. 'asa- 
moth, id., often of bones of 
the dead. 

Tari a, or tar ia, v. t., to rub, 
wipe (it), tari isa rub, wipe 
with (it), d. tara ia rub or 
scrape off (it), baka tar ia 
gather. [Sa. tele.] See terafi, 

Tara, taratara. See tera to be 

Tare, v. i., or a., to be pure, 
clean, white, tartare whitish, 
matiratira polished, bright, 
shining. A. tahara, to be 
clean, pure, H. taher to shine, 
be bright, clean, pure. 

Tare, v. i., to cry, call out (of 
men) ; to call out, i.e., crow 
(cock). A. saralia and Saril' 
to cry, call out, sarlh' a crying 
or calling out, a cock. 

Tare re, v. i., to break on the 
shore with noise (of breakers) : 

Taroa, s., a pigeon. [My. dara.] 
A. tair' id. 

Taru si, or taro si, v. t., to pray 
to (the natemate), tarotaro, 
redup. [Sa. talalo, talotalo, 
ps. talosia, Ha. kalokalo, Tah. 
tarotaro.] A. sala', E. Salaya, 
Ch. Sela to pray. 

Taru&a, v. i., to be thrown down, 
to fall ; taru&a ki, v. t., throw 
down, make to fall, d. tarubik, 
v. i., and 

TaruOa, s., c. art., sticks thrown 
on or laid across the rafters of 
a house. H. ramah to cast, 
to throw, S. remo', id., etremi 
to cast itself or oneself. See 
under eg. roa. 

Tas, s., c. art., the sea. [My. 

TAS IA] 191 

tasik, To. tahi, 8a. tai.l A. 
ta's' the sea. 

Tas ia, or tasi a, v. t., to shave : 
ras ia. 

Tas, v. i., for ras, teres. 

Tasafio, v. i. See sabo. 

Tasiga, s., d. for tasila. 

Tasike, v. i., to lift, raise (the 
head) : saki. 

Tasila, s., helper, assistant : 
sila ia. 

Tasmen, s., salt : tas the sea or 
salt, and men or mena, 
pleasant (so called because it 
makes food pleasant tasted). 

Tasuru ki, v. t., to conceal : 

Tasuki, v. i., to bow : suki. 

Tata, s., voc, maternal grand- 
mother. [TaSa., Ml., tata, 
father, Ml. and Malo tata 
paternal uncle.] See ani na 
(atene na, &c.) 

Tata, redup. of ta to chop, cut. 

Tatau fi, v. t., as bisa tatau fi to 
speak, diverting or taking the 
attention : tau. 

Tata-gasi, v. t., tata same as 
tatau (in preceding word) 
redup. of tau, and gasi to 
(wipe) stroke, smooth, flatter. 

Tatalai, redup. of talai, also 
tilai, titilai, v. i., to warm 
oneself (at the tire). [Fi. 
tatalai, Mg. mitolo (boho).] 
H. dalak to burn, Hi. to heat, 
Ch. delak. 

Tatamares, tamares with ta-, 

Tatia or tati a, d. for rati a. 
[Sa. tala, Tah. tara.] 

Tatok, or atatok (or natatok, s.), 
a., resident, native : ta man, 
and toko. 


Tatu, s. (see tui), a stake, post 
(of a fence), then tatu nafanua 
lord or chief of the land. A. 
watada to fix, stake, make 
firm, watadu stake, post, H. 
yated pin, nail, then prince. 

Tasilasila, v. i., to make a clear 
startling sound (of men), to 
crack (of thunder) : ta chop, 
&C, and silasila. See sila. 

Tau, tautau, v. i., or a., to be 
pure, clean, white. [Ma. tea.] 
A. nasa'a to be pure, white. 

Tau, v. i., also mitau to be fixed, 
abide, as i tau suma he abides 
(in) the house, i tau nara 
nakasu it is fixed or abides 
(on) the branch of the tree 
(as a bird or fruit), na6ona i 
tau isa his heart is fixed on 
(the person or thing), i tau 
isa it is fixed, abides, or 
(as fruit) hangs on it (the 
branch) i tau ki nuana makes 
to tau, as a tree makes fruit 
to tau, yields (fruit), nakasu i 
tau the tree yields (fruit), tau 
isa to hold firmly (with the 
hand), tau gi to grasp firmly 
with the hand, to pluck off (as 
a fruit), tau nata take hold 
firmly of a person (taking him 
to one's house as a guest), tau 
e a ; mamitau, matau, d., an 
anchor (what holds firmly), 
tau ri to take hold of firmly, 
or be fixed firmly to, to marry 
(a woman), tau lua to attach 
or be fixed firmly (to one), 
bringing out one (as from 
bondage, or from her rela- 
tions), to redeem ; to marry ; 
tau raki to attach firmly to, 
as a boat to a ship to be 




towed, bitauri, v. r., to be 
attached firmly to each other, 
to be married ; tau asa, to 
measure (it), toii gi and ton 
ni to measure, to weigh, and 
to-naki (for tau naki) to place, 
set, fix firmly, appoint, deter- 
mine, establish, tau, s., a 
measure, also to, toto, and (t 
to r) boroaki to give commands 
to one's family, to make one's 
will, to commission (anyone 
to do something), tau, redup. 
tautau, v. t., to commission 
(one to do something), hence 
fitaua, c. art. na-fitaua one 
commissioned, a messenger, 
also a commission or message 
(syn. fakaua, q.v\), also tau, 
tautau to divert or amuse the 
mind (of one), to fix his atten- 
tion (as of a child to make 
him stop crying), then to 
deceive, to take up a man's 
attention deceitfully conceal- 
ing your real aim, belaki tau- 
tau sa to lead one, diverting 
his attention or soothing his 
mind (with a view, when he 
is off his guard, and in a 
suitable place, to tomahawk 
or otherwise kill him) ; bitau, 
bi tautau, v. r., to invite (as 
to a feast), taua a heap, also a 
crowd (of men or a herd of 
animals), from the things or 
people being firmly compacted 
together or attached to each 
other ; tau a season, a year, 
from tau in the sense of to 
bear fruit (of a tree — see 
above) ; tau to be fixed, to 
abide firmly, is also used 
and may be used before any 

verb, like toko or to, anl, tu, 
to denote continuous action as 
i tau bat ia he continues 
fixedly doing it. (So Fi. tau, 
or dau, Sa. tau.) [Ma. tau to 
light, rest, be anchored, be 
suitable, &c. ; Sa. tau fixed, 
to fit in, be anchored, pluck 
fruit with the hand, buy (see 
tau lua), taula'i to anchor 
with, hang up with, hang on 
to (tau-raki), taula an anchor; 
Fi. tau-ra take hold of, seize, 
tau-vata equal (tau, or to, 
equal), Ma. taua army, Tah. 
taura a herd or flock, also a 
rope, Sa. tau a season, a year, 
Mg. taona a year, season, also 
gathered, collected (cf. taua) ; 
also enticed, allured, attracted 
(tau, tautau), mitaona to 
gather in, collect, entice, draw, 
My. taun a season, year.] 
H. sawah to set up, place 
(S. So'), Pi. sivah (A. waSSa', 
see boroaki) to constitute, 
appoint, to decree, to charge, 
to command, to commission 
(delegate anyone with com- 
mands), to give last commands 
to one's family, to make one's 
will (Rabb. sava'ah a will), 
eg. s'awah to be even, level ; 
equal in value, equivalent, be 
fit, suitable, be like, resemble, 
Pi. to make level, then to 
compose, calm the mind ; to 
put, set, s'ivah peri to yield 
fruit (frucht ansetzen) ; fol- 
lowed by ace. and k', to make 
one like anything. Hi. to 
liken, compare (to-naki, infra). 
Taua, s., a heap, a crowd, a 
herd : preceding word. 

'■• -"■] 

Tau, tautau, v. t., to commission. 

[Fi. tatau-naka, id., My. titah, 
to command, order, decree 
(to-naki, infra.)] See tau. 
Tail ni, or tao ni, v. t., to cook, 
to bake (in the oven). [Sa. 
tao, ps. taoa, taoina ; taona'i 
to bake food the day before 
giving it j To., Ma., tao.] A. 
taha, n. a. tahw', to cook. 
Tao, s., c. art., leaves for cooking 
which are put into the oven 
along with the food to be 
cooked. [To. tau the cooking 
leaves, Tah. tao leaves and 
stones put into the inside of a 
pig to be cooked.] 
Taueru isa, v. t., to haul, drag, 
tau place, fix, and eru, i.e. aru, 
the hand, lit. fix the hand on 
(to drag) as to drag a man to 
Taul a, v. t., to twist, wring (as 
to wring clothes after washing 
them), to milk (as a goat) 
squeeze, or wring (the milk 
out). A. tawa' (E. tawiy, H. 
tawah) to wring, twist. 
Taulen, or towien, s., a sister's 
husband, a wife's brother, that 
is, brother-in-law ; but, d., a 
general name for reliable 
friend, brother, or sister, and 
in another d. the word is 
applied to father-in-law and 
son-in-law. [Fut. safe, Aniwa 
nosafe, Ta yafuni, d., c. art. 
nevun.] A. safiyy' a friend 
of a pure and sincere mind, i.e., 
a real friend, safa', 3, to be of 
sincere and pure affection 
(towards someone), 4, to show 
sincere love, 6, to live in 

193 [tai so 

mutual sincerity of friend- 

Taubora, s., an ornament that 
hangs or is fixed on the side 
of the head : tau, bora. 

Taulalo, v. or s., to hang, or In- 
fixed or what hangs or is fixed 
in front of the belly, nasieg i 
taulalo : tau, lalo. 

Taunako, s., a thing (like the 
peak of a cap) worn or fixed 
over the forehead. [Cf. syn. 
Sa. taumata] : tau, and nako. 

Taumako, s., the wild (edible) 
yam that grows on the hills : 
tau, and mako for which see 
aka, ako. 

Taumafa, d. taumofa, v. i., to 
give an offering (to the nate- 
mate), taumafa sa give an 
offering of or with it (some- 
thing), taumafa ki nia offer 
it (something), taumafa tua i 
make an offering, giving to 
him (a natemate). [Ml. P. 
tomav, Ha. kaumaha to offer 
in sacrifice, to offer a gift upon 
an altar, s., a sacrifice, Tah. 
taumaha a portion of food 
offered to the gods or spirits of 
the dead.] Tau (to place) and 
mafa, or mofa (q.v.), a gift or 
offering. A. ma'haba^ a gift 
H. habhabim (Hos. viii. 13) 
offerings (to God), A. wahaba, 
H. yahab, to give. 

Taumi a. See tami a. 

Tauruuru, v. i., to grumble, mur- 
mur, mutter : ta, and uruuru. 

Tausi a, v. t. See takusi a. 
Tauso, or tausoa, v. i., to com- 
mit adultery or fornication (of 
either sex) : tau, and so, or 
soa. [Fi. dauca.] 



Te, dera., rel. pron., conj., us 
agute mine this, ana te his 
this or that ; te uia what (is) 
good, that which is good, or he 
or she who is good, te sa that 
which is bad. or he or she who 
is bad ; in this sense d. tea, as 
tea uia, tea sa ; te nata what, 
or whatever person, any per- 
son, someone ; te, redup. tete, 
may be used substantively, as 
te ru ban, or tete ru ban, some 
went ; te dem. is found in fite 
(nafite, sefete, what this, that, 
or it? or simply, what?) also 
in matuna, banotu, binote ; 
with art. nete, s., the that, 
anything, something, and d. 
with dem. ka prefixed nakate, 
id. ; te is also found with ka, 
dem. prefixed in one d. as a 
tense particle (see kate, tense 
particle, supra) ; te, or t', is 
also used as a conj. and before 
the verbal pron. of the 1st 
person sing., a, and of the 3rd 
sing., i or e, loses its vowel, as 
ta ban that I go, or be gone, 
te ban that he has gone, or 
because he has gone. In one 
dialect for i kate, ku kate, a 
kate ban, he, you, I went, 
there is ka te ban, ku te ban, 
ki te ban, I went, you went, 
he went, in which the verbal 
pronouns are suffixed to the k. 
A. (la, dem., du, rel., S. d', Ch. 
di, rel. and conj., that, because. 

Tea. See te. 

Teba,, or ta&a, v. i., to dry up 
(of liquid or moisture), to be- 
come dry ; and mun te6a ki 
to drink, making itdry (liquid). 
E. nasepa to become dry (as 

194 [tefa i: a 

a river) ; to dry up (as a 
spring), nesup dry, dried up. 

Teel, s., shellfish, etc., got on the 
reef, lit. te el', that which is 
pleasant, sweet, or tasty : te, 

Tefa, tetefa, v. i., to draw up in 
order of battle ; and 

Tefa ki, v. t., to put in a series, 
to range (troops, in order of 
battle) ; bitefa range them- 
selves in order of battle, face 
to face ; tefa gi, d. tefa ni, 
v. t., to put things in a series, 
either one before or one 
above another ; rogo tefa sa 
hear paying no attention, dis- 
obeying, lit. hear putting 
down, d. syn. rogo tao sa (see 
tao). [Fi. tuva, v. i., tuva, 
v. t., to place in regular order, 
to range in close compact, or 
place one upon another, tuvai 
nai valu, tuvai valu to put in 
the attitude of war, put in 
battle array, tuva na lawa ni 
valu arrange or put in ranks 
the lawa ni valu.] A. safia, 
1, 2, 6, 8, to set or place in 
order in a series ; to arrange 
the line of battle, draw up in 
order of battle ; Nm. to 
arrange (troops), 2, id., to 
range themselves mutually 
face to face. 

Tef ia, or tefi a, redup. teteti, 
v. t., to cut ; tefi, to circum- 
cise. [Fi. teve, tava, Sa. tefe, 
To. tefe, Sa., To. tafa.] A. 
'as'aba to cut. 

Tefarafara, v. i., to break (of 
the sea) ; and 

Tefara, s., c. art., breakers : 
tafera, taferafera. 


Tefarere (i.e., tefarrere), v. i., to 
break rushing u|> on the shore 
(of the breakers) : tefarafara, 
tefara, and re re. 

Tei, s., c. art. intei, a reddish 
powder made from a plant, 
turmeric : bitei a. 

Tei. See rei. 

Telake na, d. telakea na, s., c. 
art. a, lord, owner, possessor : 

Telatela, v. i., or a., to be large, 
wide ; and 

Telatelana, id., c. ending -na, and 
see matulu, matultul, matoltol, 
swollen, large. [Epi toru 
large, Sa. tetele, telatela, 
latele, vatele, Ma. tetere, large, 
swollen.] H. 'adir large, great, 
'adar to be wide, A. 'adira 
to have hernia (to swell 

Tele, v. t. See tale is, to search 

Teluko. See taluko. 

Telei, or talai, s., the ancient 
axe, or adze-like axe (a shell). 
[Sa. talai to adze, Ma., Tah. 
tarai chop with an adze, Ha. 
kalai to chop, hew, pare, 
carve.] A. s'aralia to cut, 
slice, carve, dissect. 

Tenia na, or tama na, s., father : 
t', art., and a ma for afa, as 
mama for abab (q.v.) [Sa. 
tama, My. rama, id.] 

Tema6alu, s., brothers, lit. te 
(he who) ma (with) bain 
(brother) : bsdu ; and 

Temabalu ta, for temabalu ra, 
who (or those who) with their 
brother, i.e., brothers. So 
tema in the following words 
is lit. he or she who or those 

105 [tematua ta 

who, or that (person) or those 
(persons) with. 

Teuiabau ra, s., d., uncle and 
nephew : bau. 

Tema&ele ta, s., mother and 
child : bele na. 

Temagore ta, s., brother and 
sister : gore na ; d. mera gore 
na. (See mera). 

Teinaloa ta, s., d. syn. temabau 
ra : aloa na. 

Temamo ta, s., mother-in-law 
and son-in-law : mo na. 

Tematrafa, for temarafa, s., 
father and child, lit. that (i.e., 
the child) with the father. 
See afa. 

Tematema ta, s., father and 
child : tema na. 

Temataku ta, s., a man and his 
brother-in-law (his wife's gore 
na) : taku na. 

Temarataulen, s., i.e., te mara 
taulen that with (his) taulen, 
d. syn. temataku ta : taulen. 

Temarauota, s., i.e., te mara 
uota, that with (her) uota 
(husband), wife and husband : 
uota, d. me nimariki. 

Temasere, s., a beloved one, 
especially a child much cared 
for ; te that, masere loved, 
cared for. See also sere a, 
bakasere a. 

Tematete ta, s., maternal grand- 
mother, and her grandchild : 
tena na. 

Tematia ta, s., paternal grand- 
father (ifec.)and his grandchild : 
tia na. 

Tematobu ta, s., maternal grand- 
father and his grandchild : 
tobu na 

Tematua ta, s., paternal grand- 



mother and lier grandchild : 
tua na. 

T'te na, s., juice : toto. 

Ten, d. for tanonon. 

Tena na, s. See atena na ; d. 
atia, or tia na. 

Ter, v. i., to be slow, tardy. A. 
ah'll'ara, 5, to be slow, tardy. 

Tera sa, v. t., be ignorant of, 
forget, not to know (it), d. 
rera, d. tenr. A. s'alla to not 
know, be ignorant of ; forget. 

Tera, v. i., to shine (of the sun), 
tera ia, v. t., shine upon it (of 
the sun). [My. tarang, tarang 
kan, Fi. cila, Malo sarasara.] 
H. sahar (cf. zahar, etc.) to 

Tera ia, tetera ia, v. t., to go 
after, to do anything after (or 
in the track of) another, baka- 
tera ia to answer (make one's 
word to go after another's), 
ba, and sela tera ia go after, 
gua tera ia shout after, bisa 
tera ia speak after ; also to 
rehearse, recount, tera usi to 
recount following, tera uti na 
to go after following. [My. 
turut follow, go after.] A. 
'athar' track, 'athara, 4, make 
something follow another, 5, 
8, follow the track of someone, 
go after, 1, recount, rehearse. 

Tera, v. L, to be quick, swift, 
tera ki mala wheel, swoop, 
shoot, or glide swiftly like a 
a hawk, tera gulu ti swoop 
(upon one) clasping (him, as 
in war), tera tukituki run 
rapidly beating the ground 
with one's feet, tera belbel to 
be exceedingly swift or quick, 
tera mau to be quick indeed 

196 [tere 

or truly, to be instant, do 
instantly, tera bile to be very 
quick, teratera, redup. ; tera 
lo saki to turn quickly, looking 
up, tera tafeo (d.) to turn 
quickly bending the head 
down. [Ma. tere, Sa. tele- 
tele.] A. darra, 10), to run 
vehemently, or swiftly, 4, to 
turn or whirl a spindle very 
swiftly, H. darar (also) to fly 
in a circle, wheel in flight ; 
and like A. darra to spout, to 
pour out (as rain, &e.) Hence 

Ter ea, v. t., to pour into ; and 

Tera, s., c. art., a pouring out ; 
natera ni us, a rain squall, an 
outpouring of rain. 

Tera, a., having (lit. that has) 
branches, as tera rua, tolu, 
&c, having two, three, &c, 
branches (of a tree) : te, and 

Terafi, v. t., to scratch (as the 
ground) : cf. H. sarab, and see 
tari a, tara ia ; d. syn. garafi, 
or karafi. See kar ia. 

Teragi, v. t., in kabu teragi, to 
heat cooked food over again 
teragi is for reragi, as in bau- 
ragi a, bau-terag ia (see bau 
sia, baraga i, raga-elo). 

Teratera, v. i., to be delirious, 
insane ; A. hatara, 1, 4, to 
make, or to be delirious, in- 
sane ; also torotoro. 

Tere, teretere (a, ra), v. t., to 
feast, to entertain (especially 
visitors at a festival), also to 
make a feast or banquet for a 
friend who visits one. The 
radical idea lies in that of 
gathering folks together for a 
festival, or enclosing them as 

tbeatab] 197 

it were in one's house and 
hospitality. H. 'agarah an 
assembly of people for keeping 
a festival, 'asar (primary idea 
is that of surrounding, enclos- 
ing), Ni., 3), to be gathered 
together, especially for a festi- 
val, A. a'aslr breakfast and 
dinner, or supper. 

Teratar, v. i., to stagger, totter 
(as a man drunk). A. tartara 
to stagger (as a man drunk ). 

Tere, s., c. art., the mast (of a 
canoe or ship), calf (column) 
of the leg. A. sariya/,, Nm. 
Sari, the mast (of a ship), a 

Tere, s., and teretere, s., the 
comb (of a cock) ; the eaves of 
a house. [Sa. tala, Tah., Ma. 
tara, Ha. kala.] Nm. torra 
crest, comb of bird, A. torra< 
extremity, side of anything, 
forelock, pointed, from tarra 
to cut, to sharpen, to snatch, 
to shoot (as plants), to propel 
vehemently, irritate, stir up. 

Terei a, v. t., for rerei a, for 
roroia : rei a. 

Trea ki, for rea ki. 

Trei a, for toitoi a. 

Terina, s., enclosure. H. tur 
fence, enclosure. 

Teres, for reres : res. 

Tere ti, v., used as ad., as boka 
tere ti to smite or strike hastily 
(and therefore ineffectively, 
confusedly), syn. sarah' and 
sumati, and bile, or bilebile : 
tera to be quick. 

Tete, s., voc, mother. See 
under ani na. 

Tete, and tetea. See te. 

Ti, and d. tsi, neg. ad., not : d. 

ta. [Sa. le, Ma. te, Kut. si, 
My. ta, Mg. toy.] _ 

Ti, v. t., to say ; ti ki nia say to 
him, tell him, ti ki nia sa tell 
him it : dd. ni, noa, nofa, q.v. 

Ti, s., chief, as ti Tongoa chief of 
Tongoa : for tui, q.v. 

Ti a, and rl a, v. t., to push, 
thrust, propel, or drive. A. 
<laya to propel, thrust. 

T'tie na, or t'tia na, s., saliva, 
water of the mouth, nat'tia na 
i sera sa his mouth waters 
because of it, lit. the water 
(of his mouth) runs at it : 

Tia na, or tie na, s. See atia na. 

Tiamia, v. i. or a., to be first, d. 
liea or tobea (for toko bea) : 
tia to abide or be, and mia, d. 
bea, q.v. [Oba tomua, Sa. 
mua and tomua.] 

Tiele, v. i., to finish a laugh with 
shrill cries, in a whinnying 
manner (of women). H. sahal 
to utter shrill cries ; to neigh 
(of a horse), A. sahala, n. a. 
Sahil', to whinny. 

Tiena, v. i., to be with child. 
See miten. S. t'yina laden, 

Tiba, neg. ad., not. See d. tab : 
ti ad., and ba for ma, as in 
Assy, aama not. 

Tib ea, or tuba ia, v. t., to shoot 
with an arrow ; 

Tiba, or tuba, s., c. art., au 
arrow, i.e., what is cast : tuba. 
[Mg. tsipika.] E. nadafa, (2) 
to shoot with an arrow, (1) to 
strike, (3) to prick, H. nadaf 
to drive away. The radical 
idea is thrusting, pushing. 

Tiba, s., the post in a house that 




supports the ridge-pole : so 
called because i tuba ia. See 
tuba, which is the same as 

Tibi li, v. t., to burn, to sear. 
A. s'ahaba to roast, to broil. 

Tifai, s., thunder ; ti art., and 
fai. [8a. fai-tilitili, Fila te- 
fachiri, Aniwa tefachiri.l A. 
balih'(used of thunder) hoarse, 
cf. Sa. fa hoarse. 

Tibu (pronounced timbu), d., 
s., c. art. natimbu, the deep 
(sea) : bua. 

Tikal ia. See takal ia. 

Tigi na, or tiki na, s., side, 
edge ; 

Tigi elo, v., to bask in the sun, 
warm oneself in the sun. A. 
Salia to bask or warm oneself 
in the sun, s'a]|iya< side, out- 
side or edge. Hence 

Tigi (side) in malitigi, malirigi, 
&c, place at the side, that is, 
beside, near ; and 

Tigitigi na, s., d., edge (outside 
or exposed edge or side of a 
thing), and 

Tiki na, and 

Tikitiki na, id. ; and 

Tiki nra nin, d., this point (of 
time), now. 

Tika, a strong negative, it is 
not, no, by no means ; 

Tiki (or tika), neg. ad., not ; i 
tiki ban he did not go ; and 

Tika, and tiki, the same, used, 
with the verb, pron., as a 
verb, to be not, to exist not, 
dd. tsika, nika. rika, tika : 
neg. ad. ti, and ka. It is 
thus construed : i tika sa it is 
not in it or him, or he has it 
not, i tika ki nia it is not to 

or in him, or he has it not, 
thus namuruen i tika ki nia 
there is no laughing in him, 
i tika ki namuruen he has not 
laughing. See also under hi 
enia, supra. For ti see ti, 
ad., supra ; ka is to be com 
pared with the E. ko in 'eko 
not, ko being a contraction of 
kona (A. kana) to be, and 
tika with the Talmudic and 
Mandaische lika not, is not 
(Noldeke, Mand. Grammatik). 
[Fut. jikai, My. tak, Mg. tsia, 
and cliahoe, To. ikai, Sa. i'ai, 
no, not, not so.] 

Tiki-amo, d. takamo, q.v. 

Tiki, v. i., to be soft (of the 
skin), syn. busa, as nauili na i 
tiki, or i busa, his skin is soft 
(his skin is bad, or has an un- 
comfortable feeling, as on 
hearing some dreadful story, 
or witnessing some fearful 
thing). See busa. A. 'atilta, 
b), 3), to become soft and 
tender (of the skin). 

Tiki na, and triki na, s., for riki 

Tiko, s., a staff, a walking stick, 
a pole by which a canoe is 
poled forward in shallow 
water. [Sa. to'o a canoe 
pole, a stick in which is fixed 
the perch of a pigeon, to'o- 
na'i to lean on a staff, to lean 
on anything for support, too- 
too a staff, walking stick, 
toto'o to lean upon a staff, 
To. toko a post used to make 
fast canoes to, tokotoko a 
staff, My. takan, Mg. tehina, 
a staff, mitehina to walk with 
a staff, to walk leaning on a 

TIKO KlJ 199 

person.] A. toka'a£ a staff, a 
support, he who leans much 
on his side, and props himself 
up. Hence, Nm., taka, 8, 
itteci to lean upon. Hence 

Tiko ki, v. t., to pole (a canoe). 
This is done by leaning upon 
the tiko, and so throwing 
one's weight upon it. 

Tila ia, d. til e a (and ta lisi) 
v. t., to wrench, prize (with a 
lever), to struggle, wriggle, 
wrestle (as through a narrow 
place) ; tila ki, v. t., to wrench, 
sprain, twist (as one's foot by 
stepping into a hole) ; tilatila, 
v. t., wrench up with a lever 
roots and rocks in making a 
hole in which to plant a yam ; 

Tila, s., a lever, crowbar. [Mg. 
tolona, mitolona, to struggle 
together, to wrestle.] A. 
'atala to violently drag and 
wrench away, 3, to wrestle 
with, atala/, Nm. 'atela, crow- 
bar, lever, hod. 

Tila ia, tila, d. for lita ia : lita. 

Tili-mar, v. i., d. for lele maroa, 
to revolve or roll turning 
round : lele, maroa. 

Tilasi a, and redup. tilatilasi a : 
lasi a. 

Tilai, titilai. See talai, tatalai. 

Tili a, v. t., to tell, relate (a 
thing). [Sa. tala, v. and s., 
tell, relate, tale, narration, 
tala'i, talatala'i, To. tala.] 
A. tala', to follow, to relate (a 
narrative), read, recite. 

Tinom ia, d. for tulum ia. 

Tiragi (tira gi), v., to look at (as 
at a spectacle). A. Sara, c. 
ali, to look at. 


Tira sa, d. rira sa. See tera sa. 

Tiri, v. i., to fly (of birds), d. 
riri ; also to fly into a rage, to 
be transported with rage, 
flying and jumping about 
excitedly ; i tiri, syn. i miti, 
as i tiri bas ia, or i mitiias ia, 
he (transported with rage) 
Hies snatching him (the object 
of his passion, as if to tear 
out his eyes). Hence riri a 
spark, and mitiri a grass- 
hopper (from leaping and 
flying), and taroa a pigeon). 
[Sa. lele, Ma. rere.] A. tara 
to fly ; to be swift, move 

Tirigi, for ririgi, rigi. 

Tirikit, v. i., to begin to drop or 
sputter (of rain). [Fi. tiri to 
drop.] For tiri see tuturu, 
and for kit, kita small, little. 

Tiro, v. i., to sink, roll down (as 
in the sea, or down a precipice, 
or into a pit) ; hence 

Tiroa, s., c. art., a precipice, or 
deep, steep place. [Fi. tiro, 
siro, sisiro, My. turun, turun- 
kan.] H. Salal, gul, to be 
rolled down, sink (as in the 
sea), mesolah and me.sulah 
depths (of the sea, a river, 
clay). See mitaru, toroaki ; 

Tiro e, cl., v. t., to swallow, send 
down, make to sink down 
(into the stomach) ; and 

Tiro aki, v. t., make to sink 
down (as an anchor,) to anchor, 
d. toro aki, tirotiro, redup. 

Titiro, v. i., to gaze into the sea 
looking for fish or shellfish ; 
to look at one's image in 



tiro, tiro-va, to look at oneself 
in the water, peep at, Sa. 
tilotilo, ps. tilofia, to peep, spy, 
Ma. tiro, tirotiro, titiro, look, 
gaze, Ha. kilo to look hard, 
earnestly, to star-gaze, prog- 
nosticate, act as a sorcerer.] 
A. nat'ara to gaze, look for, 
consider, spy, to prognosticate, 

Tiso, v. i., to exude, d. lisoa, tise 
a exude on to (a thing) : toto. 

Titi, v., to tread, titia ki nakasu 
tread on a log (as on a log 
thrown across a stream). [My. 
titi.] A. watiya to tread. 

Titia, v. i., to slaver, dribble (as 
an infant), to have saliva 
flowing, to have the mouth 
watering, nat'tia na saliva, 
water of the mouth. [Mg. 
rora saliva.] H. rir saliva, A. 
rala to slaver, dribble (of an 
infant), riyal' saliva, cf. My. 
liyor slaver, dribble. 

Tiii sa, d., v. t., to sink, dip, 
matiu, v. i., to sink, d. ledup. 
tutu, d. lulu, v. i., to sink, d. ; 
riu sa, v. t., to point out with 
the linger, d. tuma ia, v. t., to 
point out with the finger, d. 
tiu sa, til sa, d. tu nia, or riu 
sa, or ru sa, or redup. tiu tiu 
sa, tutu sa, riuriu sa, or ruru 
sa, v. t., to smear, tinge, 
colour, or paint nafona (native 
cloth). See also lolofa, lum, 
Iuma, lulum. [Ma. totohu to 
sink, tuhu mark, sign, toi 
finger, also toe, Tah. tohu 
to point at with the finger, 
make a sign, To. tuhu, v., 
to point with the finger, s., 
the forefinger, Sa. tusi to 

200 [toitoi a 

mark (native cloth), to 
write, to point out, tusitusi 
striped, Fi. luvu to sink, Mg. 
tsoboka soaked, drenched, 
dipped, My. tud-ing to point 
at with the finger, to indicate. 
See also under lolofa, luma.] 
H. taba' to sink (eg. Saba', A. 
Saba'a to dip into, immerse, 
E. tam'a, id.), to be dipped, 
plunged, H. Saba' to dip in, 
immerse, to dye, tinge, seba' 
something dyed, a versicoloured 
garment, Ch. (see lolofa) soba', 
A. saba'a to point out or at 
with the finger, 'asbi', 'asbu', 
&c., the finger, H. 'asba' 
finger, also toe, A. saba"a to 
dye or colour (cloth), to make 
a sign, indicate. 

To, v. i., contr. for toko, or tok, 
dd. ti, te, to rest, sit down, 
dwell, remain, be. [Malo ate, 
Ml. d. at, Mg. toetra, toatra, 
toitra.] See toko. 

To, redup. toto, d. touo, d. tau, 
s., a measure, equal. [Fi. rau.] 

To-naki, v. t., to compare ; to 
place, fix; to appoint, deter- 
mine, establish. See tau. 

To (and see tofi a), v. t., to push, 
press upon. A. da"a to push, 

Toa (towa), or to', s., a (domestic) 
fowl, also a bird ( = manu). [Fi. 
toa, My. ayam, Ceram dd. tofi, 
towim, Bouru dd.tehui, teput, 
teputi, Cocos Island ufa, bird, 
Tag. Ibon.] H. 'of bird (gen. 
name), A. 'a'f gallus. Note 
toa (towa) has t' art. 

Troa i. See roa i. 

Toitoi a, v. t., also teitei a (and 




trei a), to bate. A. -ada', 2), 

n. a. 'adw', b), 'adiya, to hate. 
Touo, d. for roua. See roa. 
Tob, d., v. i., or a., to be large, 

great. [Episombi, Mg. dobe.] 

A. 'at'oma to be great. 
Tob, s., c. art. natob, spittle. 

H. tof, E. tafe' to spit. 
Tobag ia. See tabag ia. 
Tobaroba. See rabaraba. 
Toiet, s., rubbish heap. Of. H. 

tofet spittle. See tob. 
Tobu, s., a tumour, swelling. 

See tubu. 
Tobu na, s., grandfather. See 

bobu, bua. [Malo tubu, Ta. 

tupu, Epi kumbuo, Ml. P. apu, 

Fi. bu, Fut. bua, grandfather 

or grandmother, prop, ances- 
tor.] H. 'ab (rather), pi. 

'aboth, A. pi. 'abau, ab'u (and 

'abuna) ancestors. 
Tobua, s., d., a natemate, spirit, 

familiar spirit, demon. [Fut. 

tupua, Ma. tupua, cf. Sa. 

tupua.] See suie (where see 

Sa. tupua). 
Tobu, d. nobu, q.v. 
Tofena, s., native cloth, clothing. 

[To. tapa, Ha. kapa, Sa. siapo.] 

Nm. thiyab clothes, dress ; 

sole essential article of Arab 

dress, A. tha'b', pi. thiyab'. 

And hence 
Tofe, v. i., d., to put on the 

tofe, to dress. 
Tofi a, v. t., to push. A. da'aba 

to push. 
Toga, d. rog, d. taga, s., a basket. 

H. tene', id. 
Toga, s., far away, also natoga 

a distant place or country. 

H. raliok, S. rullka, E. rehuk 

far off, away. 

Togo ia, d. toko ia, v. t , to push, 
thrust, and see bakatoko ia. 
H. dallak, A. dahaka to push, 

Troga, for toga, basket. 

Trogo, d. nrogo, for rogo, to 

Toki a, tokitoki a, v. t., to 
gather up one's things, or pack 
up, preparatory to flitting. 
See raku, taku ti. [Cf. Fi. 
toki a.] 

Toko, d. tok, v. i., to rest, sit 
down, dwell, remain, be, contr. 
to, q.v., sometimes pronounced 
tuk. [My. and Ja. duduk, 
dodok, Mg. toatra (see to), Fi. 
tiko, toka.] H. takah, Pu. 
tukah (Deut. xxxiii. 3), A. 
waka'a, 8, 'ttaka'a, cf. 5, to 
sit (Luke xiv. 8), to remain. 

Tokon, s., c. art., a village, re- 
maining or dwelling place. 

Tokei, or tokai, s., c. art., a 
prop, or rafter (which reaches 
from the ground to the ridge- 
pole in an Efatese house) ; 
then natokai nafanua the 
prop, i.e., chief, of the land. 
A. 'atka'a to prop up. 

Tokora, s., a place. [Mota togara 
behaviour, togava a station.] 
See toko. 

Toki, s., an axe ; and 

Tok, s., violence, force. A. 
takka to cut, H. tok violence. 

Tokalau, s., easterly wind : tok 
remain, alau on the sea. 

Toko ia. See togo ia. 

Toko-naki, v. t., to strike on (as 
one's foot on a stone, the wind 
on a mountain). [Ma. tu- 
tuki, To. tugia.] See tuki a. 




Tokotoko na, s., a shark's fin : 
toko ia. 

Toko ni, v. t., to kindle, set fire 
to, redup. tokotoko. A. daka' 
to kindle. 

Tol, s., violence, force. See tila 
to wrench. 

Tola, v. i., to be early dawn : 
toa i tola the cock crows, lit. 
crows at early dawn ; 

Tola, s., the dim early dawn ; 
the dim distance in the sky ; 

Tolarola, id., redup. ; and, d. to- 
lau, id. Hence matol, d. to- 
morrow. H. s'allar, A. 
Sahara, to be far remote, 
saliira, to do, or to set out at 
early dawn, 8, the cock crew 
at early dawn, H. mis'liar the 

Toli a, v. t., to surpass, to go 
past, before, bitoli, v. r., d. 
bilele ; to pass or go before 
each other, d. toliu .sa. See 
liu, and to. 

Tole na, s., c. art., egg (of a 
bird), d. atol mita na eye- 
ball. [My. talor, Mg. atody, 
Oba toligi, Sulu iking, Nias 
ajuloh, Poggi agoloh.] Mahri 
chali, Amh. 'an]\uilal : the 
radical meaning is round. 

TrOm, or torn, s., turmeric, a 
reddish curry powder. [Fi. 
damudamu red, Mg. tamo tamo 
turmeric, tomamotamo yellow, 
of an orange, saffron colour.] 
A. 'adomatobe red, H. 'adam- 
dom reddish. 

Tdnako, for taunako. 

Tontono sa, v. i., to be perplexed, 
in pain or distress on account 
of (something) : tunu. 

Tomo na, s., tumu na. 

Tomotomoa, v. i., tumutumua. 

Toro, v. i., to leak (as a canoe). 
A. ta''ara to boil, emit water 
(as clouds), to leak (as a vein 
or vessel). 

Toro, v. t., to lay down, abandon, 
let down, permit, tor ea lay it 
down, &c. 

Torn sa, lit. lays down qr aban- 
dons on account of it, i.e., 
gives up his old mind or 
opinion in consequence of the 
evil it has brought upon him, 
rues ; toro bisi a, also dd. turn 
bisi, and taru bisi, lay down 
leaving (a thing), permit, &c. ; 
tor ea put into (as liquid into 
a vessel), totor ea, id., syn. 
tutua ki ; 

Toroa, v. i., to be rich, toro (lay 
down, store up, and a. ending 
a) : matoro-toro, let down, 
slackened, slack (as a rope), 
A. wadara (not used in per- 
fect), fut. yadaro, imperative 
dar, to lay down, leave, permit. 

Toro aki, for tiro aki. 

Torotoro, for teratera. 

Toro na, s., his impulse, onset, 
power, might. [Ma. tara 
courage, mettle.] This same 
word occurs as tere na (comb 
of cock, Ac), where see the 
verb. A.tarra to propel vehem- 
ently, &c, Nm. tarr free will, 
arbitrary power ; 

Torotoro na, id., redup. 

Tore, or tere (natuone), s., the 
leg below the knee. See tere 
mast (of ship), column. 

Torotoro, v. i., to be hot, to 
sweat. A. $ala' to be hot. 



[tua NA 


Torutoru, id., and 

Toru, s., sweat. 

Tos, d., v. i., to creep, d 

Trot ia. See rot ia. 

Totau, dd. tatau, titan, titu, s., 
a child, infant. [Mg. zaza.] 
E. ga's'ae, H. se'SSa'em off- 

Trotro, v., to think ; and 

Trotro na, s., thought, mind. 
See mitroa. 

Toto, dd. tiso, lisoa, v. i., to 
exude (as gum, juice, from 
plants). [Fi. titi, titi-va, My. 
titik, Mg. niitete, mitate, tete- 
vana.] A. nas's'a, n. a. nas'Is', 
to exude. Hence 

Toto, s., a plant abounding in 
a milky juice, and its juice, 

Totofa, d., v. i., to swell : 
tubu, q.v. 

Toii gi, d. toii ni, v. t., 
measure, to weigh. See tau, 
d. tau asa, to measure. 

Tu, dem., in banotu, matuna. 

Tu, verb, prom, 1 pi., inch, dual 
ta. See nigita, ninita. 

Tu, v. i., to stand, dd. tsu, ru, 
and see su ; also to abide, 
dwell, be ; tu lena stand up 
straight, used also of rising up, 
to rise up ; tu-ri a (ri t. prep.) 
also, occurs, to stand, or abide 
to (or with) a person, and tu- 
raki, to stand or abide for (a 
person or thing). [Fi. tu, 
tu-ra, turaga, TaSa. turu, Ml. 
P. tu, tutu (= My. diri), Sa. 
tu, tutu, faatu, tula 'i, tulaga, 
.Ma. tu, tutu, turanga, Ha. 
ku (1, rise up, 2, to stand), 
My. diri, Mg. joro.] H. nasa', 
so', s'et, imp. sa', cf. Hithp., 



E. nasa'a, A. nas'a'. See su, 

Note. — This word also oc- 
curs as matu, batu, fatu ; and, 
like toko, matoko, and also 
am, it is put after demonstra- 
tives, as uane tu, uane matu, 
nin batu, nistu, etc., lit. this 
or that standing or being 
(there or here). 

Tu na, s., bones (of fish), and 

Tutu, a., bony. [Fi. sui, d. dua r 
1 >one, suisuia, lean, bare of flesh, 
bony, rough, sharp.] Cf. A. 
s'a'a, 4, to become spiky, to- 
be rayed. 

Tua, v. t., to place, put down ;. 
also to give, tua i give him ; 
tua ki place, put down ; used 
also of liquids, tua ki nia las 
put or place it in the vessel 
(cf. tor ea), make it to fall 
into the vessel, redup. tutua 
ki, bitua ki nia, or bitua sa, 
to put down, also to give (a 
thing) ; with some verbs it is 
like " from " as ba tua ki nia 
go or come from, lit. go or 
come leaving, or putting it 
down, or placing it, hence 
ba bituaki to halt between 
two opinions (in which 
the reflexive force of bitua, 
v. r., comes out), ba bituaki 
lit,, being to go leaving it over 
and over again. A. was'a'a 
to place, lay, or put down. 

Tu sa (see tiu sa), d. tu nia, to 
tinge, mark, colour native 
cloth, hence (c. ending a) tuni- 
tunia striped, marked. 

Tua na, s., name of various rela- 
tives, as brother's wife, 
husband's mother, paternal. 




grandmother, and her grand- 
children, husband's sister. 
See under the following word. 
[Ml. U. tuan elder brother, 
My. mantuwah father-in-law 
or mother-in-law.] 

Tuai, or tuei, a., old, ancient, and 
ad. long ago, also a long time 
hereafter. See bakatuai to 
make long (of time), matua 
old, mature, &c. [Sa. tuai, faa- 
tuai, matua, My. tuwah, 
Ja. tuwa, bartuwah, batuwah, 
mantuwah, Bu. matua, Mg. 
antitra, anti (panahy), anto 
(andro), matoa, matotra.] A. 
'adiyy' old, ancient (has the a. 
ending), and a'd' from 'ada to 
confer a benefit on one, to 
favour, &c. (see preceding 
word), mo'id' powerful, ex- 
perienced, accustomed. See 

Tuasil, s., giver of help :' tua 
place, give, sila. 

Tua, d. tue, s., c. art., twins : 

Tua, v. i., to go, redup. tutua. 

Tua na, or tuo na, s., legs, feet. 
[An. thuo, Ta. su, legs.] H. 
s'uk to run, whence s'ok, Ch. 
s'ak, A. sak', pi. suk', the legs. 

Tui, pronounced also ti, s., as 
tui Tongoa chief of Tongoa. 
[Fi. tui.] A. waddu, for 
watadu. See tatu, supra. 

Tuuti a, v. t., to tie ; hence 

Tuut, s., a knot. [Tah. toti, 
My. tambat.] E. s'abata, 
Arm. sSbat and sewat, id. 

Tubu, or tub, d. totofa, or totoba, 
v. i., to swell. [Oba tutumbu, 
Ml. timb.] Arm. seba, H. 

sabah to swell, sabeh a swell- 
ing. See tobu, supra. This 
word also means to will, as 
Arm. seba to will, to wish, 
properly to be inclined, prone, 
so H. sabah ; hence in Efatese 
(cf. S., John iii. 27 and 8) 
tuma, d. tumbu (ndumbu), 
with the nom. suf. denotes 
will, sua sponte, as i tuma-na 
he of his own will or accord, 
as " Who told him to do 
this " 1 i tumana bat ia " He of 
his own will or accord did it." 

Tuba ia (see tiba ia, tibea, which 
is the same word), to thrust, 
impel, hence tuba ki to send, 
and natuba, s., an arrow, 
also a prick, sting, or thorn ; 
tuba gote ti (to thrust break- 
ing) to condemn, or adjudge 
to die, tuba gori (thrust over or 
in front of) to forbid, tuba gasi 
(thrust wiping) to wipe, and 
redup., tubatuba ia, to impel, 
propel, send off : from the idea 
of thrusting comes that of 
reaching to, touching, hence 
bitub, bitubetuba, v. r., to be 
touching (thrusting, lit.) each 
other, i.e., throughout, wholly, 
continually, as tale tiri bitub 
all round wholly, tafisatisa 
bitubetuba pray continually 
(one prayer touching an- 
other as in a series), and 
i mate tuba nasefa 1 he died 
on account of what? lit. 
touching what; ru tumaratuba 
ra they touch each other (as of 
any two things, also of one 
thing done in retaliation for 
another). See tiba ia. 

Tubara. See tabara. 

tobatua] 205 

Tubatua, v. i., to kneel, lit. to 
stand on the knees : tu, batua. 

Tubut, d., s., rainbow : lit. 
stand in the middle (i.e., of 
the sky) : tu, but. 

Tugo fi a, d. for toko i;i, togo ia. 

Tuk ia, or tuki a, v. t., to strike, 
beat, pound, redup. tukituki a; 
and uru tukituki run quickly, 
lit. run beating (the ground 
with the feet). [Fi. tuki-a, 
To. tugi, Ma. tuki, tukituki.] 
H. duk, dakak, A. dakka, 
dakka, &c, beat, pound, Nm. 
daqdaqa sound of horses' feet 
beating (the ground). 

Tuku, v. i., to go down, sink 
down, also v. t., tuku nalai 
lower the sail (of a canoe), 
tuku bia kiki put a child in a 
cloth basket to be carried on 
the back. [Ma. tuku, To. 
tugu, Sa. tuu, Ha. kuu, Fi. 
tuku-ca.] H. s'uab, A. sali'a, 
sah'a (cf. thah'a, tali'a) to 
sink down, H. s'uhah, s'ihah 
;t pit, s'aliat pit, cistern, the 
grave. Hence 

Tuk, s., a hole, enclosure like a 
hole or pit : and 

Tukituki, s., the seven stars 
(because like an enclosure) ; 

Tuk, s., uora tuk, place of the 
pit, i.e., Hades ; and 

Tukituki, or tukutuku, s., name 
of a place on the western side 
of Efate, where is the entrance 
to Hades : and 

Tuku, s., a fence, stake, or post 
(because sunk in the ground 
and firm). 

Tuki, in niatuki, s., q.v., and 
Mau-tukituki, or Mau-tiki- 

[tuma i a 

tiki, name of a mythical 
person, one of the first men. 
[Mg. toky, matoky. See nia- 
tuki, supra.] See under taki 
a, supra, and see mau. 

Tukunua, s., a story, tradition, 
d. syn. kakai. [Fi. tuku-na, 
v. t, and tukuni, s.] A. 
nataka to speak. 

Tu-ki-roa ki, v. t., to give in 
commission : roa as in boroa 
ki, and tua, or tu, to give. 

Tuletule, v. i., to swing ; and 

Tule aki, v. t., to swing ; and 

Tula, s., el. a swing, v. i., to 
swing. H. dalal, dalah, talal, 
A. daldala and taltala to 
s« ing. 

Tula, s., wax of the ear. [Fi., 
tule, id., daligatula deaf, Sa. 
tub deaf, My. tuli deaf.] A. 
Salah' deafness. 

Tuli for tili, to tell, relate. 

Tuluku for taluko. 

Talum ia, or 

Tuluni ia, v. t., to swallow down, 
del. tulug ia, tinom ia, tunug 
ia, talug ia. [An. atleg, My. 
talan, cf. parlan, tar Ian, Mg. 
telina.] A. lahima, n. a., 
lahm', 5, 8, Nm., 5, telehhem, 
to swallow elown. 

Note. — Sa. and To. " to 
sw^allow " is folo, A. bali'a, id. 

Tu-lake, v. t., to give in com- 
mission : tua give, and lake, q.v. 

Tuma, el. tumbu (see under 
tubu). S. Sebu will. 

Tuma ia, v. t., to point out with 
the finger, bituma v. r. ; d. 
riu sa. See tiu sa. 

Tuma ia, v. t., to knock (as a 
door), as a sign to open it 


Tumatunia ia, id., redup. [Sa. 

tuina, cf. My. antara.] For 

tuba ia. 
Turaa, or tama sok, for tuba, 

soka : ta&a. 
Tuinalu, for tamalu : ta&a. 
Turaa, (1. ruma, q.v. 
Tuma ni, v. t., d., to cook (in a 

particular way), redup. tu- 

turua ; and 
Tumu na, d. nubu na, q.v., also 

tomo na ; 
Tumutumua, v. i., or a., formed 

from tumu by a. ending a. 

See noba nia, and no&ano&a, 

and matumutumu, and manu- 

Tumana, s., a parcel : taum ia, 

tarn ia. 
Tumi a, or tomi a, v. t., to suck. 

[Motu toboa.] E. tabawa to 

Trumi a. See rumi a, i.e., ru-mi a. 
Tuni, v. t., to heat, tuni fatu to 

heat red hot the oven stones. 

[Fi. tunu, tunutunu, vaka- 

tunu-na.] And 
Tunu, v. t., to heat, to oppress or 

make to suffer (as heat does) ; 

bitunu to be hot, painful, dd. 

bitin, bitsin (see also sinu, 

sisinu, and tontono) ; tutun to 

light up (torches, the evening- 
cooking fires) ; and 
Tunu, s., heat (of fire, or of the 

sun). See slnu. 
Tuni a See tani a. 
Tunika, s., place where the 

watchers at a koro (fish trap) 

noiselessly remain : tu to 

stand, and see nikenika. 
Tunitunia (see tiu sa, tu sa, d. 

tu ni a), a , striped, marked. 
Tura sa, v. t., to lengthen (as by 

206 [tutun 

splicing) ; tutur ki, to delay 
for (as for a sick man unable 
to walk quickly), d. tutura ki, 
bakatura ki, id. A. tala 1, 2, 
4, make long, lengthen, to 

Turausi. See tera usi. 

Tur ia, d. turu sa, v. t., to sew ; 
also to nail ; to go through an 
opening (as a ship through 
the entrance of a harbour) : 
turu sa ; 

Turi, and turituri, s., needle, 
also nail ; 

Turua (a. ending a), full of 
holes (as a rock of holes 
through which rain percolates) : 

Tuturu, v. i., to drip (as eaves), 
leak (roof) ; 

Tuturu, s., a drop, a dripping, 
c. art. ; and 

Turu ki, drip or leak through. 
See also tiri-kit. [Sa. tulu'i, 
tulutulu, faatulutulu, To. tulu, 
tului, To. tulu he mata = riri 
mita (tears), Fi. tiri, turu. 
titiri, tuturu, tiri-va, turu-va.] 
A. s'alla, 3), to sew, 2), shed 
tears, s'als'ala to drip, fall in 
drops, was'ala to drip, drop, 
leak out. 

Turu bisi. See toro bisi. 

Turuk, d., v., to permit. A. 
taraka, id. 

Tusi, s., book, writing, Sa. word. 
See tiu sa, tu sa, for its origin. 

Tutu, v. i., to sink : tiu sa. 

Tutua ki, redup. of tua ki, to 

Tutna, redup. of tua, to go. 

Tutuma, redup. of tuma ni, to 

Tutun (redup. of tunu, q.v., to 
heat), to light up (torches and 


cooking fires, as in the even- 


, verb, pron., 1 pi., excl. (con- 
traction for au), d. bu (dual 
moa), we (and) they. Mahri 
hem, or habu, they (Ef. bu = 
habu = 'mi in kinami, nami). 

IT, s., in nau, d. for usu ; also in 
biteu, for bitesu. 

U, verb, pron., 3 pi., they : d. 
for ru (r elided). 

U, v., d. for ba, q.v. ; in umai to 
come here. 

ITa (wa), dd. ua (uwa), ui (wi), 
interj., ad., yes: ua, clem. 

Ua (u-a, and u-wa), s., oven, dd. 
um, ubu, of (ov). 

ITa (wa), d. ue, q.v., inter, ad. 

ITa, s., c. art. naua (nawa), 
veins, or muscles (so called 
from swelling out or up). [Fi. 
ua, Sa. ua.] See ua'a. 

Ua, v. i., d. for ba, and boua, to 
rain : bu. 

Ua ki, v. t., d. boua ki, to yield 
fruit ; and 

Ua, s., c. art. naua, or nua na, 
its fruit. [Ta. v., auwa, s., 
nowa, Oba, v., mo ai, Sa., v. 
and s., fua, My , s., buwah, Ja. 
uwoh, woh, My., v., barbuwah, 
Mg., s., voa, v., mamoa.] Arm. 
'eb, 'ub, 'iba, 'ebo, Assy, (inbu) 
imbu, fruit, and Arm. abeb to 
produce fruit. 

Ua, dem., this : with other 
demonstratives suffixed, either 
this or that, uana, uane, ua 
naga, uai, uase, uai na, uai 
naga, and with tu (to stand, 

1*07 [UAXA 

to be) uane tu, dd. uo, uose, 
uintu. Connected with this 
word are ua, uua, ui, uisa, 
uiko, uila, uana. Compare < ), 
dem., supra, which is identical 
with the u in ua. The S. also 
suffixed other demonstratives 
to hu, or 'u, thus huhana, cf. 
St., p. 23, owa (oa, wa = Ef. 
ua) this, that. Compare 
Assy, uma (which, however, 
has the appended enclitic 
ma) this or that indeed, also 

Ua'a, s., a swelling, rise, i bi 
ua'a (of, e.g., an island seen 
from a distance swelling up or 
rising out of the sea). See 
fuata, and bua ill. 

Uabe, inter, ad., d. syn. sabe, 
where now ] where then ? See 
be and ue (d. ua). 

Uago, s., d. uak, pig, swine. 
[Ta. puka, Fi. vuaka, Sa. 
pua'a, Malo boi, Epi bue, 
Bouru babue, My. babi, Mysol 
boh.] This name seems lit. 
to denote " grunter," Ta. puka 
to grunt, puka, s., a pig. 
Compare supra buka to bark, 
to cough (also d. buku). 

Uai, dem., this, that ; and 

Uaia, id., also uai na, uai naga, 
uai ntu, id. Compare English 
this here, this 'ere, for this. 

Uaka na, s., d. for aka na : aka. 

Uako, interj., a mere exclama- 
tion : ua and ko, dems. 

Uai, for ali, day. 

Ualu, for 6alu, friend ; and 

Ualuiota, s., enemy, lit. alien 

Uana, dem., that : ua dem., 
and another dem. suffixed to 




it. Compare S. huhana. See 
ua, deni. 
[Tana, inter]., an exclamation, 

see ! look out 

Denis, ua 

and na. 

Uan, inter, ad., d., where? This 
is dem. n suffixed to ua, inter, 
ad. See ue. f Santo veai and 
even, id.] 

Ua-nate natua na, s., d., calf of 
the leg, lit. fruit of the belly 
(liver) of the leg. 

Uane, dem., this : ua, ne. 

Uarik, d. for 6atlk, q.v. 

I T asa, ad., d. asa, the day after 
to-morrow. [An. vith, Epi 
veua, Ml. vis, wisa, Am. 
bugirua, Santo pogirua, Lo 
weria, Motaarisa.] The word 
uasa is ua (for which see ma) 
day, and sa (for ra, or rua, 2), 
2, or 2nd : in pogirua, pogi is 
another word for day, and, in 
arisa, ari is still another, Ef. ali. 

Uase, dem., this : ua, se. 

Uasi a, v., d. for asi a. 

Uata, s., a portion : bota, ia. 

Uataki, v., d. for bitaki ; and 

Uataki, s., dd. otaki, itaki. 

Uateaf, and d., 

Uateam, and d., 

Uateau, s., kidneys : ua fruit, 
ate liver (&c), and amo belly, 
lit. fruit of the liver (or inside) 
of the belly ; and 

Uateau-laso, s., testicles, lit. 
kidneys of the scrotum. 

Uati a, v., d. ati a. 

Uatu, v., d. for atu. 

Uaua (waua), v. and s., for 
ban a, q.v. 

Uba na, or ube na, s., his day, d. 
kuba na. 

Ubog, s., day. See bog. 

Ubu, s., dd. um, ua, of. 

Ue, inter, ach, where 1 dd. ua 
(uan, uabc), bai, mbe. [Fi. 
vei, Sa. fea.] H. 'e', and, 
with n suffixed, 'ain, 'an, A. 
'a'na, and, with fi (prep.) 
fa'na, Mod. A. fain, or fein 
(where? sans mouvement). 

Note. — In Ef. sa or se (for 
safa or sefa) also denote 
where, lit. what (place)? some- 
times fully expressed sefa 
nalia? or sefe tokora ? But ue 
is an entirely different word, 
with a different construction, 
being always used with the 
verb, pron., with which seor sa 
cannot be used. Thus i ue he, 
she or it (is) where ? This is 
because the prep, fi (bi) is used 
also as the verb " to be." On 
the other hand i baki (ba ki) 
se he goes to where (i.e., to 
what place) ? One cannot say 
i se for i ue, nor baki ue for 
baki se. 

Uei, interj., an exclamation: uai. 

Uelu, v., for &elu, and 

Uelu, s., a heathen function 
in which the men pass days in 
the bush, hidden from the 
women, under the direction 
of the natamole tabu, in order 
to ascertain from the natamate, 
in dreams, what their future 
fortune is to be. 

Uen, s., c. art., sand : aran. 

Uenr, d. for 

Uere, d. for 

Uete, d. for fata, q.v., and fatu. 

Ufea, ad., afar, far away, at a 
distance : d. emai, q.v. 

Ui, interj., and ad., yes (that's 
it) : ua, or uai, dem. 


Ui, uia, also ftia (pwia), v. i., or 
a., good, well, beautiful, etc. 
[Mota wia, Am. wi, Ml. bu, 
Santo va, Ma. pai (whakapai- 
pai to adorn), Sula pia, Cerani 
lia, My. baik.] H. yapah to 
be fair, beautiful, Pi. to adorn 
(cf. Ma. supra), yapeh fair, 
beautiful, good, excellent. 

LTiko, interj., exclamation : ui 
interj., and ko dem. 

Qila, interj., exclamation : ui 
interj., and la ad. 

Uili na, s., d. for kuli na, the skin. 

Uiroa, s., a crooked kind of 
yam : biria, tafirofiro. 

Uis, or uisa, interj., and ad. yes: 
ui, and sa dem. 

Uisia, v., for bisi a, to take with 
the hand. 

Uisi, uisiuisi (wisiwisi), d. bisi- 
uisi, d. bisi, d. iusiwusi, v., to 
make, to work, bisi ekobu 
make a house, uisiuisi ki work 
at, nauisien work, or act of 
working. [Sa. osi, Ja. yasa, 
Mg. asa.] H. 'asah, n. a. 
ma'aseh (work), to make, pro- 
duce by labour. 

Uisiki na, s., elbow, or anything, 
as a corner, like an elbow, 
uisiki aru na (or naru na) 
elbow of the arm, d. mago 
naru na heel of the arm. 
[My. siku.] A. zugg' elbow. 

Ula, s., a maggot. [Sa. ilo, My. 
ulat, Mg. olitra.] E. 'es'e 
vermis, 'as'ya vermes producere 
(Ex. xvi. 23 (4), Actsxii. 23): 
eg. A. 'uthat. 

Uli, for uili, kuli, skin. Mahri 
gotl. See kuli na. 

Uli a, or ul ia, v. t., dd. oli a, 
auli a, uilia, to take the place 

209 [uluulua 

of, to substitute for, to 
barter for, buy. See biauli, 
d. bioli, v. v., and bauli a, 
faulu ; also e. art. naulu, s., 
barter, and redup., 

Uliul, id., and especially in the 
phrase uliul nako substitute 
the appearance (or face) of 
some other person for his own 
to deceive (demons were sup- 
posed to do this). [Mg. vidy, 
mivicly to buy, Fi. voli a, id., 
volivoli to trade or barter, 
Santo uliul give for, buy ; 
Ha. ouli.] A. 'as'a to do or 
give something for another 
thing, 2, 3, id., 4, id., 5, 
accept one thing for another, 
8, substitute one for another ; 
'awis' one (person or thing) in 
place of another, in place of, 
ma'us'ai! what is given for 
another thing (i.e., one thing- 
given for another thing, Ef. 
faulu, id.) 

Uli na, s., leaf, leaves, also ulu ; 

Ulua, v. i., or a., to put forth 
leaves, to grow up (of plants 
and hair), and redup., 

Uluulua, id., also to be full of 
leaves, to be hairy, hence 
lulu na (for uluulu na) hair, 
and uluma, s., a pillow for the 
head. [Ha. ulu, uluulu, Fi. 
ulu, Ma. uru, Sa. ulu, Malo 
ulu, My. ulu ; To. ulunga 
(ulu the head), Tah. urua, 
pillow for the head.] See lu 
lulu, lua, laga, elagi, &c. A. 
'ala, n. a. 'aluw', H. 'alah, 
whence A. 'ilawal the head, 
H. 'aleh leaf, leaves, 'uleh 
sprouting forth, growing up. 


Ululuia, ululia, and lulia. See 

Um. s., oven, tld. ubu, ifec. See 
bani a (ba ni a). 

Unia, v., to clear for a planta- 
tion, cut down the jungle for 
this purpose, d. syn. beru. 
[My. unia.] And 

Urn a, s., a clearing, for cultiva- 
tion, in isuma, q.v. [My. 
uma.l A. h'ainma to cut ; 
to sweep out, to clean, h'imm' 
a garden vacant of trees and 

Umai, d. See banomai, babe. 
[Sa o mai.] 

Umkau, d. makau, or mukau, a 
cluster, gathering, hence many, 
all (cl.) : kau. 

Umba ia, v. t., to cast on it, 
umbaki, v. t., to cast a thing, 
d. b\. E. hay pa to cast. 

Una, v., to cover or bury itself 
in the sand or mud (of a snake, 
and an eel-like fish which does 

Una ki, v. t., to make to bury 
itself in the ground (a post or 
fence stake) ; 

Una, s., an eel-like fish that 
burrows or buries itself in the 
sand ; 

Una, s., a post, or fence stake ; 

Un, s., a fish scale (because it 
covers) ; 

Unu, s , ghost. See anu. [Sa. 
una fish scale or tortoise- 
shell (covering).] H. ganan 
cover over, A. ganna to cover, 
bury, egg. H. kanan, 'anan, 
A. kanna. See anu. 

Uo, dem., d. for ua. 

Uo, ad., d. for bo, now, then. 
See bo. 

210 [uose 

Uokati, v., for boka ti ; hence 

Uoka, chapped, sore (of the 
hands, as from striking or 
chopping with an axe, &c.) 

Uoki, s., an axe. A. waki' a 
sharp cutting instrument. 

Uol, s., c. art., a bed ; and 

Uolis ia, v. See bo\\s> ia, mauol, 

Uol. See bo\, bolo. 

Uolau. See ftolau, bouolau. 

Uolo, interj., exclamation. [Fi. 
uala.] See uoro. 

Uon, dem., d. for uane. 

Uon, v., for bon. 

Uonda, s., cl. uete. 

Uontu, dem., and v., uon, tu : 
d. for uanetu. 

Uora, v., and 

Uora na, redup. uorauora mi, s., 

Uoratan, s. (uora sprout, tano 
of the ground) a plant that 
springs up of its own accord 
(without being planted or 
sown) ; fig. a person without 
friends or connections to 
avenge him, i bi uoratan ba 
faku sa he is a person with- 
out friends, pluck him up (i.e., 
uproot, or kill him). See 
bora II. 

Uorausi a, d. for uru usi a. 

Uora, or era, s. See bora, ia. 

Uori a, uoriuoria, mauori. See 
bori a. 

Uoro, and auoro, interj., excla- 
mation (d. uolo) : uo, dem., 
and ro, dem., and a as in ako, 

Uosa, uosauosa, uosagoro. See 
bosa, Uosauosa, iosagoro. 

Uose, or uos, d. uohe, s., oar, 
paddle. See balu sa. [Ml. 


bos, Epi Bi. voho, Fi. voce, 
Ta. vea, Fut. t'oi, Sa. foe, My. 
dayung, Mg. fi-voy, Bisaya 
bugsai.] A. mikdaf, migdaf, 
railldaf, mikdaf, Anih. mak- 
zaf, A. "aduf, oar. 

Uose, dem., d. for uase 

Uota, s., c. art., a chief, lord, 
husband. [Tah. fatu, Ha. 
haku.] See fata. 

Uota-n-manu, and fatu-n-manu, 
s., name of a pillar-like rock 
(Monument Rock) off Efate, 
lit. pillar or stone of birds. 

Uota, uotauota : for bota, bota,- 

Uoti a, d. for uti a, oti a : moti a. 

Uotu, s., a mark ; hence 

Uotuuotu, a., having marks. A. 
nabathu mark. 

Ua (u-a), d. for ua (wa), yes, 
that's it : ua, dem. 

Ura, v., in masi ura ki to scoop 
up water, sprinkling (someone) ; 

Ura, s., c. art. niura, dew, or 
rain water on the foliage of 
plants (from its sprinkling and 
wetting people;. H. yarah to 
sprinkle, to water, hence yoreh 
rain, lit. sprinkling. 

Uri na, s., the latter or after 
part, i.q. muri na, s. 

Ura, s., lobster, prawn. [Sa., 
Ha. ula, Ma. koura, My. 
ud'ang, Ja. urang, Mg. orana 
(oranorana eating greedily).] 
H. hawar to be white, become 
pale, A. hara to be bleached, 
&c, 4, to eat greedily, hawar', 
Nm. haur, red leather 

Note. — Ef. ura seems to be 
so called because of the red 
colour which the lobster 

211 [uta 

assumes immediately on being 
put on the fire to be cooked : 
hence the proverb i ti bi ura 
iga miel marafi it is not the 
lobster to become red imme- 
diately (said of wickedness 
whose punishment does not 
follow at once, but will come, 
however slowly and un- 

Uru, v. i., to run. A. "ara (H. 
'ir) to run. 

Uru, uruuru, v. i., to growl, 
grumble, mutter, murmur. 
See oro, orooro. 

Usi a (for kusi a), v. t., follow 
in the track of, investigate, 
ask, question ; and redup., 

Ususi a, v. t., investigate, ask. 
See takusi a. [My. usir, 
mangusir, tarusir.] 

Usi, v. i., to hasten, usu-naki, 
v. t., hasten about, or as to. 
H. hus' (and 'us'), A. lias'a, to 

Usiraki, or usereki, i.e., usi-raki 
(usi to follow), v., to follow 
through, hence, as ad., through- 

_ out. 

Usii, s., c. art. nausu, d. iu, or 
u, a reed. [Ml. ui, Epi yi, Sa. 
u, Fut. gasau, To. kaho.] E. 
base, H. lies, reed, arrow. 

Us, d. for su, v. t., to take up. 

Uta, s., land, euta ashore, on 
land, by land. [Sa. uta, My. 
utan (hutan).] A. "utat' land 
planted with trees ; and 

Uta i, or uta ki, v. t., to load 
(make sink, immerse) a canoe. 
[Ma. uta, Mg. onclrana.] And 

Uta, s., c. art. nauta, a canoe 
load, cargo. [Sa. uta, Ma. 
utanga.] And 


Utu, ut T a, v. t., to till (by 
immersing) a water vessel. 
[Sa. utu, utu-fia, Ha. uku-ki.] 
A. "ata ("a'tu), 4, to immerse. 

Uti a. See oti a, moti a. 

Uti na, prep., after, following ; 
originally v., i.q. usi a. 

Uulu, v. i., also uilu (wulu, wilu), 
for 6ilu, q.v., to dance. [Ml. 
U. velu, Malo velu, Motu 

212 [uui 

mavaru, Ha. mele.] H. 

maliol, and mholah dance, 

dancing, from hul, or liil to 

go round, also to dance (in a 

Uusike, and uisiko, or uisiki, 

q.v., elbow. 
Uui (uwi, and u-i), s., c. art. 

naui (nau-i, or nau-wi), the 

yam. See afa ki. 

Walker, May and Co., Fruiters, Muckil.up Btrj 


Los Angeles 
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